A Longitudinal Study of the Cause and Consequences of

In: Business and Management

Submitted By DDCruz
Words 5237
Pages 21
A Longitudinal Study of the Cause and Consequences of Changes in Diversification in the U.S.
Pharmaceutical Industry 1977-1986
Author(s): Charles W. L. Hill and Gary S. Hansen
Reviewed work(s):
Source: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Mar., 1991), pp. 187-199
Published by: Wiley-Blackwell
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2486592 .
Accessed: 16/09/2012 06:40
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp .
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.


Wiley-Blackwell and John Wiley & Sons are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Strategic Management Journal.


Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 12, 187-199 (1991)

Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Washington, Seattle,
Washington, U.S.A.

The paper hypothesizes that diversification by firms based in the pharmaceutical industry during the 1977-86 time period was primarily undertaken to reduce the risks associated with being dependent upon a technologically dynamic environment. Consistent with this non-efficiency motive for diversification, declining economic performance is predicted. A longitudinal empirical analysis provides support for these propositions.

The relationship between diversification…...

Similar Documents

Cause Study Bus

...Middlefield hospital. She has been with the company for 22 years. She really doesn’t like the shortage of the staff, which occurs on all the shifts. She would like to see a turn around so that the patients can get the care that they need. In order to improve this problem that we are having at Middlefield I would say that Middlefield should improve more and continue to work with schools or nursing, universities, community colleges, and high school this way we will be able to recruit potentials staff. If we put more effort in to these potential staffs then Middlefield would already have an indulgent and know what type of staff we would be bring onboard to the company. I would call them reliable staff. A study in Health Affairs was to improve educational strategies. The study authors found that 97 percent o hospitals were using education strategies to address the shortage of nurses at hospitals. The strategies included partnering with nursing schools, subsidizing salaries, reimbursing the nurses for advancing their education and providing flexibility to allow staff to attend classes that can further their career. (Nursing RN, 2008) If this educational strategy were taking into place at Middlefield hospital it would make the staff aware of the options available to them. Give the nursing staff more education is a great way to decrease nursing shortage and also improve on bettering the staff. This would also lead to having the staffs stay with the company longer. By improving......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Advantages and Disadvantages of Longitudinal Studies (and Smaller Questions)

...are the subjects of a study, or when there is no sampling frame available. This method involves making contact with one member of the population who will be studied and then asking them to name one or more possible contacts. Identify two types of quantitative research method. [4 marks] * Surveys * Case Studies Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of selecting a non-representative sample. [4 marks] * Advantage: Studying non-typical people can be more helpful to a study because they may help generate theoretical insights. (Glaser and Strauss) * Disadvantage: Can be time consuming to form, for example the snowball technique of sampling would take a large time to acquire a range of participants. Using information from Item A and elsewhere, examine the advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal studies. [20 marks] A longitudinal study is done at regular intervals over a long period of time. They are often large-scale quantitative surveys and tend to be used by positivists, although some studies, for example the Seven Up study which followed 14 kids from the age of 7 every 7 years as they grew up, are more qualitative and preferred by interpretivists. The example given in Item A of the North-West Longitudinal Study is an example of quantitative data being collected. Like most research methods, longitudinal studies have both their strengths and limitations. The example given in Item A, of the North West Longitudinal Study, involved......

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Causes and Consequences of Unemployment in Spain

...situation has begun to change and unemployment is rising, reaching its peak point in 1993 year, when the average unemployment rate of European countries was about 11%. Due to global financial crisis, which transformed into sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone, nowadays, the high unemployment rate in the EU has become an ordinary phenomenon, but a particularly acute problem of unemployment is in Spain, where 26.2% of the population are unemployed (Eurostat, 2013). Although, crisis played a considerable role in this situation, there are also other national features of Spain that led to high unemployment, which if left unattended, will lead to disastrous results. To begin with, it is pertinent to name the causes of the high unemployment rate in Spain. One of the main causes of high unemployment in Spain is a debt crisis. Appeared in United States due to “mortgage bubble”, the financial crisis has had a destructive effect on the banking system, reducing credit supply and increasing the cost of financing. In Spain, the economic growth during the pre-crisis period was maintained by two factors: considerable expansion of credit and large immigration flow. These economic drivers were nullified by the crisis, and starting from 2007, economic growth was slowed. From the second quarter of 2008 until the last quarter of 2009, the Spanish economy was in recession. The first quarter of 2009 was the hardest period for Spain in terms of job destruction, when unemployment increased by......

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6

The Global Integration of Diversity Management: a Longitudinal Case Study

...Int. J. of Human Resource Management 18:11 November 2007 1895– 1916 The global integration of diversity management: a longitudinal case study Aulikki Sippola and Adam Smale Abstract Whilst the extant diversity management literature has provided a comprehensive array of theoretical frameworks and empirical studies on how organizations can and have approached the management of a diverse workforce, the same cannot be said about the literature on diversity in an international setting. Indeed, from a diversity management perspective we know surprisingly little about how multinational firms are responding to the increasing globalization of their workforce. This study seeks to contribute to this underresearched area through an in-depth longitudinal case study of TRANSCO, a well-known European MNC, which has been attempting to integrate diversity management globally throughout its worldwide operations. Adopting a Finnish host-country perspective, the study investigates what TRANSCO has been integrating, how it has tried to facilitate this and the challenges that have arisen throughout the process. The results indicate that TRANSCO has committed a considerable amount of resources to the global diversity management integration process, reflected in the myriad of integration mechanisms utilized. In terms of their integration strategy, it was evident that TRANSCO was able to achieve global consistency at the level of diversity philosophy, but was forced to rely on a more......

Words: 11681 - Pages: 47

The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart’s Growth

...Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 21, Number 3—Summer 2007—Pages 177–198 The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart’s Growth Emek Basker W al-Mart plays a large and ever-growing role in the U.S. economy. As of January 31, 2007, Wal-Mart operated more than 3,400 U.S. Wal-Mart stores along with more than 550 Sam’s Club locations. Wal-Mart is the largest private employer in the United States, with 1.3 million employees, and the largest retailer in the United States. In 2004, Wal-Mart handled 6.5 percent of U.S. retail sales (8.8 percent if automobile sales are excluded); this number has since increased. Wal-Mart is the top U.S. seller of apparel, groceries, and music, among other products, and is the top retailer in most states. Wal-Mart’s 2005 revenues exceeded those of the next five U.S. retailers combined; these are Home Depot, Kroger, Sears Holding Company (which includes Sears and Kmart), Costco, and Target (Schultz, 2006). Wal-Mart currently accounts for 28 percent of Playtex’s sales, 25 percent of Clorox’s, 21 percent of Revlon’s, 13 percent of KimberlyClark’s, and 17 percent of Kellogg’s (Weinswig and Tang, 2006). Wal-Mart also accounts for over 15 percent of U.S. imports of consumer goods from China. More than 120 million U.S. consumers shop at Wal-Mart every week, and 84 percent of Americans shopped at Wal-Mart at least once during 2005 (Pew Research Center, 2005).1 Wal-Mart is also the largest retailer in the world. From a global perspective, Wal-Mart’s......

Words: 11149 - Pages: 45

What Makes Consumers Buy from Internet a Longitudinal Study of Online Shopping

...IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS—PART A: SYSTEMS AND HUMANS, VOL. 30, NO. 4, JULY 2000 421 What Makes Consumers Buy from Internet? A Longitudinal Study of Online Shopping Moez Limayem, Mohamed Khalifa, and Anissa Frini Abstract—The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting online shopping. A model explaining the impact of different factors on online shopping intentions and behavior is developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The model is then tested empirically in a longitudinal study with two surveys. Data collected from 705 consumers indicate that subjective norms, attitude, and beliefs concerning the consequences of online shopping have significant effects on consumers’ intentions to buy online. Behavioral control and intentions significantly influenced online shopping behavior. The results also provide strong support for the positive effects of personal innovativeness on attitude and intentions to shop online. The implications of the findings for theory and practice are discussed. Index Terms—e-commerce, online shopping, TPB. I. INTRODUCTION HE use of the Internet as a shopping and purchasing medium has seen unprecedented growth. Most experts expect the global electronic market to dramatically impact commerce in the twenty first century. Jaffray [1] estimates the total volume of cybersales to reach $201 billion in 2001 and Forrester Research [2] predicts electronic commerce activities to reach $327 billion in......

Words: 10659 - Pages: 43

Causes and Consequences of Emancipation Russia

...What were the most important causes and most important consequences of the emancipation of the Serfs? Serfdom, a system of virtual slavery tying the Russian peasants to their landlords, was abolished in 1861 under the imperial demand of Tsar Nicholas II. This change was put in place for many reasons, including military defeat in Crimea, the economy and political system, which all contributed to the backwardness of Russia as a nation, as they prohibited the introduction of other major reforms. In my view, the most important cause of emancipation was the state of the economy, because the nature of serfdom prevented the country from catching up with the west, and the most important consequence was that the military was able to dramatically improve. One major reason that serfdom was abolished was because of the poor economic situation and general backwardness of the nation. Due to the nature of serfdom the economy was prevented from evolving; the serfs weren’t paid, so there could be no market, there could be no interest, and enterprise was prevented. This left Russia far behind the west, and with a struggling and starving workforce; they starved since the increasing famines and noble taxations left them with no food reserves. To combat this, they wanted to modernise agriculture, industry and railways to increase Russia’s economic strength. However, with serfdom in place, this was impossible to implement because serfs didn’t have money to invest in increasing agricultural......

Words: 1743 - Pages: 7

Discuss the Causes and Consequences of Separatist Conflicts

...Separatism is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group, in which occurs in many society’s today and often results in issues and conflicts, in which are difficult to overcome. The reasons for separatism are often not simple and may not even benefit the separatists in the long term. The causes for separatism conflicts usually involves a nationalistic reason, when one community no longer wants to be controlled and governed by a different body but instead wants to govern itself. An example of this is the Basque area as well as Catalonia. As they had their own history and culture, the autonomy was split from Spain and they are now able to decide their own affairs. Catalonia has now been able to maintain their Catalan language which has been taught in all schools in the region since 1983 and has become the official language in education. This shows that separatism can be caused by differences in social aspects and that communities like to be recognised as their own state. The idea of separatism in many cases can also arise when there is a perception that exploitation of local resources by national government produces little economic gain for the region. This was the case in Scotland recently and was one of the main arguments for Scotland leaving the UK. Before its union with England, Scotland was a separate kingdom, with its own national church, separate education and legal systems and its own......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

A Logistic Regression About Longitudinal Low Birth Weight Study

...A Logistic Regression About Longitudinal Low Birth Weight Study 1. Introduction to the data NAME: Longitudinal Low Birth Weight Study (CLSLOWBWT.DAT) SIZE: 488 observations, 8 variables. SOURCE: Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000) Applied Logistic Regression: Second Edition. These data are copyrighted by John Wiley & Sons Inc. and must be acknowledged and used accordingly. 2.Variable Definitions Study on the Longitudinal Low Birth Weight, impact factor: Smoking Status During Pregnancy, Race, Age of Mother, and Weight of Mother at Last Menstrual Period. Variable Definitions Definition Smoking Status During Pregnancy 0=no,1=yes Race 1=white,2=black,3=others Age of Mother years Weight of Mother at Last Menstrual Period Pounds Response variables: Weight of Mother at Last Menstrual Period (we let Pounds (=2500 normal) =0), LOW, 1=yes, 0=no Explanatory variables: Smoking Status During Pregnancy, SMOKE, 1:Yes 0:No Race, RACE, 1: White 2: Black 3: Others Age of Mother, AGE Weight of Mother at Last Menstrual Period, WT 3.Model Consider a model with all the main effects. To simply the expression, we use {R1, R2} to denote the indicator variables for the first two (of three) races and use S, AG and WT to denote the explanatory variables of smoke, age and weight. Then we can build the logistic model as follows. The parameter indicates the log of the odds ratio between indicator or......

Words: 2050 - Pages: 9

Assess the Causes and Consequences for Changes in the Uk Population

...Assess the causes and consequences for changes in the UK population This essay will assess the causes and consequences for changes in the UK population, one cause of this is the decline in the death rate which will be looked at in this essay. Another cause of changes in the population, that will be assessed in this essay, is migration and the patterns of it that have a large impact on the characteristics of a country's population. Many sociologists have studied these topics and some that will be looked at in this essay are Thomas McKeown (1972), N.L Tranter (1996) and many more. The first topic to be assessed in this essay is the death rate in the UK, the death rate is currently declining in the UK and there are several reasons for this decline. According to N.L Tranter (1996), over three quarters of the decline in the death rate from 1850 to 1970 was due to a fall in the number of deaths from infectious diseases. Since deaths from infectious disease were commonest amongst the younger generations, it is not surprising that most of the decline in the death rate came from infants, children and young adults. This decrease in the death rate is part of what has led to a growing population in the UK. However, this is not the only reason for a decline in the death rate leading to an increase in the population in the UK. Thomas McKeown (1972) also points out that improved nutrition is also part of what has led to a decreasing death rate, he believes it is accountable for up......

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

October Revolution - Cause and Consequence

...the beliefs of Karl Marx. The events of the October Revolution helped lay the groundwork for Stalinism and the Cold War. The Stage Is Set The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 was initiated by millions of people who would change the history of the world as we know it. When Czar Nicholas II dragged 11 million peasants into World War I, the Russian people became discouraged with their injuries and the loss of life they sustained. The country of Russia was in ruins, ripe for revolution. Provisional Government Established During a mass demonstration of women workers in February of 1917, the czar's officials called out the army to squelch the protesters. The women convinced the soldiers to put their guns away and help them in their cause. Czar Nicholas II was dethroned in Russia during this, the "February Revolution." The Provisional Government was formed to replace the void left by the deposed czar. This provisional government was made up of bankers, lawyers, industrialists, and capitalists. The provisional government was very weak and failed to live up to its promise of ending Russia's involvement in the war. They kept Russia in the war and just made things worse for themselves and for Russia. The Rise of the Bolshevik Party The Provisional Government was opposed right away by the soviets, or councils of workers and peasants, who wanted the right to make their own decisions. When V. I. Lenin arrived from exile in the spring of 1917, he joined the Bolshevik Party in......

Words: 1320 - Pages: 6

The American, French, and Haitian Revolutions: Causes and Consequences

... Stephen Moore AC1101673 HS250 World Civilizations II Lesson 3: Assignment 3 15 August 2015 The American, French, and Haitian Revolutions: Causes and Consequences The world in the 18th century was in turmoil. Not so much politically as it was philosophically. For centuries the power of government had rested in inheritance and tradition. The king was king by birth and divine right. People were content to accept their lot. You took what life gave you and did the best you could with what you had, but all that was about to change. Starting around the turn of the 17th century, works by philosophers such as John Locke, Voltaire, David Hume, Emmanual Kant and others began making their way into the libraries of the common people. The ideas about government and its existence were starting to be questioned. The government, the philosophers preached, existed to serve the people, not the other way around. If and when a government fails to be of benefit to its people, then said subjects have the right to abolish the current government. It was this idea, along with the teachings of all men are created equal that would eventually lead to the revolutions that would dominate the end of the 18th century and on into the 19th century. Called the "shot heard around the world" by Ralph Waldo Emerson in his poem “Concord Hymn”, a bullet fired in Concord, Massachusetts in 1775 is credited by many as the official start of the American revolutionary war. In reality,......

Words: 2559 - Pages: 11

Assess the Causes and Consequences of Coastal Flooding

...Using a case- study, assess the causes and consequences of coastal flooding. 15 marks Coastal floods occur primarily due to physical causes. A depression can produce low pressure conditions which pull water particles up, giving to a rise in sea level. Similarly strong winds can occur due to change in meteorological conditions which can also rise the sea level. At this point the sea level is much higher than a normal spring tide, and this is called a storm surge. However many human causes, particularly the lack of preparation and costal defences, can lead to lead to any storm surge having a much larger impact on local communities near the coastline. The North Sea storm surge occurred in 1953 and had a huge impact on many communities in places including Britain and the Netherlands. In the Netherlands 1,835 people were killed and 47,000 buildings damaged. While in Britain 307 people died but over 30,000 people had to be evacuated from their homes. This initial storm surge was inevitable. A deep Atlantic depression moved across Scotland, meaning the central pressure had dropped to 970 mb by the coast of Denmark. This reduction is pressure is responsible for the rise in the surface of the sea level by 0.5m. Strong winds also drove the waves ahead of the storm. This was combined with high spring tides when the Sun and Earth and Moon are all in line. So the result was 6m waves approaching both Britain and the Netherlands. Additionally Canvey (one of the areas most affected in......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Risk for Adult Psychosis: Longitudinal Prospective Study

...Papers Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study Louise Arseneault, Mary Cannon, Richie Poulton, Robin Murray, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt Editorial by Rey and Tennant Papers pp 1195, 1199 SGDP Research Centre, King’s College, London SE5 8AF Louise Arseneault lecturer Avshalom Caspi professor Terrie E Moffitt professor Division of Psychological Medicine, King’s College Mary Cannon Wellcome Trust advanced fellow Robin Murray professor Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Richie Poulton director, Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study The strongest evidence that cannabis use may be a risk factor for later psychosis comes from a Swedish cohort study which found that heavy cannabis use at age 18 increased the risk of later schizophrenia sixfold.1 2 This study could not establish whether adolescent cannabis use was a consequence of pre-existing psychotic symptoms rather than a cause. We present the first prospective longitudinal study of adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for adult schizophreniform disorder, taking into account childhood psychotic symptoms3 antedating cannabis use. Methods and results The Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study (a study of a general population birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-3)4 has a 96% follow...

Words: 2296 - Pages: 10

Causes and Consequences of Family Violence

...Causes and consequences of family violence BSHS/407 October 19 2015 Dr. Elizabeth Nyang Causes and consequences of family violence In this paper, I will be discussing what family violence means and consists of, what indicators a counselor should be aware of when assessing a client such as a child and her family. I will also be discussing the long-term effects that violence has on a family, the triggers that are that are associated family violence and the implications associated with abuse and neglect. Family violence can occur in any family and any home regardless of race, sexuality, religion or community statues. There are many different ways that violence can be n a home such as physical abuse “Hitting, slapping, shoving, grabbing, pinching, biting, hair pulling, etc. are types of physical abuse. This type of abuse also includes denying a partner medical care or forcing alcohol and drug use upon him or her” (The United Sates Department of justice, 2015). Sexual abuse “Coercing or attempting to coerce any sexual contact or behavior without consent. Sexual abuse includes, but is certainly not limited to, marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body, forcing sex after physical violence has occurred, or treating one in a sexually demeaning manner” (The United Sates Department of justice, 2015). Emotional abuse “Undermining an individual's sense of self-worth and self-esteem is abusive. This may include, but is not limited to constant criticism, diminishing......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Yowamushi Pedal | HD Frontier | مشاهدة فيلم Battle of the Warriors 2006 مترجم 2006 1080p Bluray IMDB 6.7 مشاهدة فيلم Battle of the Warriors 2006 مترجم اكشن مشاهدة فيلم الاكشن والدراما والحروب Battle of the Warriors 2006 مترجم بجودة 1080p BluRay مشاهدة مباشرة اون لاين القصة :...