Premium Essay

American Troops in the Second Battle of the Marne

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Whatagirl1
Words 751
Pages 4
The Second Battle of the Marne marked the turning of the tide in World War I. It began with the last German offensive of the conflict and was quickly followed by the first allied offensive victory of 1918 (In Viereck & In Maerker-Branden, 1929). Although US troops assumed mainly a support role in this action, the battle came to be known as the beginning of the end for Germany. 85,000 US troops participated, with 12,000 casualties, gaining the praise of not only their own officers, but the French and British commanders as well. In the Second Battle of Marne with 30,000 killed and wounded, the United States started suffering casualties on the enormous scale usually associated with the battles of the Great War (Coffman, 1968). In late May, the German high command had ordered a major offensive from the Chemin des Dames northeast of Paris towards the River Marne threatening both Paris and the Paris - Verdun rail link (Dupuy, 1956). The 2nd and 3rd divisions of the AEF helped defend along the Marne on either side of the river town of Chateau Thierry. What resulted was a rounded bulge in western front thirty miles wide at the base, extending south about 25 miles to its apex right at Chateau Thierry (In Viereck & In Maerker-Branden, 1929). With American encouragement, a plan evolved to eliminate this salient with a two pronged assault from the west and south. In July, when it became clear that the Germans would renew their assault in the area, a decision was made to absorb the assault, let the enemy tire themselves, and then counterattack soon afterwards. At midnight, July 15 the artillery crashed and the last German push of the war started. As predicted, it was a drive to get across the Marne east of Chateau-Thierry...from Chateau-Thierry east were the Third American Division...where they'd been ever since their machine gunners had come charging up the riverbank six…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Battle of Gettysberg

...disputes between the two regions. The South called themselves the Confederates, while the North called themselves the Union army.2 The battle of Gettysburg was one of the most horrific battles of the Civil War. Over fifty thousand soldiers were found dead, wounded, or went missing in a period of three days, July 1-3 of 1863. That is the most number of casualties that has occurred during any battle in American history.3 The battle took place in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where President Lincoln made a speech entitle the Gettysburg Address five months later, on November 19th of 1863.4 General Robert E. Lee, of the Confederate Army, decided to invade the North in June of 1863. Thus, Lee and his seventy-five-thousand-man army began to march towards Gettysburg, coming from Fredericksburg, Virginia. In order to make his troops more manageable, General Lee divided his army of two corps into three corps. James Longstreet was to command the First Corps, Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell was put in charge of the Second Corps, and Lieutenant General A.P. Hill gained control of the Third Corps.5 Major General Joseph Hooker commanded the Union Army of Potomac. There were over ninety thousand men in his army. Later, President Abraham Lincoln would replace Hooker with Major General George G. Meade, since Hooker had proved to be a failure during the previous battles.6 In the middle of June, the Confederate Army crossed the Potomac River and entered Maryland and southern......

Words: 1691 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Deadliest Day in American History: Battle of Antietam

...Susi Graves History 1010 17, November 2012 Deadliest Day in American History: Battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam is considered the turning point of the Civil War. In August, 1862, the Union Army of Virginia lost the Battle of Second Manassas under the command of Major General John Pope to the Army of Northern Virginia commanded by General Robert E. Lee. This lose left the Union army disorganized and dispirited, forcing President Lincoln to appoint a new leader of the Union army, Major General George McClellan. No other day in the history of our nation has been as brutal, bloody, or deadly as what happened on September 17, 1862. After the Confederate army won the Battle of Second Manassas, Lee needed to plan his next move. Lee wanted to move his soldiers to an area that would help take the pressure off of the Shenandoah Valley. Lee was convinced by making this move he would get the support from Europe if he could win a battle on Northern soil. Lee thought the Union army would take some time to reorganize, so he decided to divide his army. Lee would use these divisions to capture certain areas. He would use Lieutenant General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson to achieve these wins. Lee would send Jackson to Harper’s Ferry, were the Union garrison would end up surrendering. Meanwhile, Lee sent Lt. General James Longstreet to Sharpsburg. While entering Frederick, two Union soldiers of the 27th Indiana Regiment found papers wrapped around three cigars in a field on the...

Words: 1100 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Battle of Saratoga

...The battle of Saratoga had three important results to it. There was how it lifted the Americans spirits after all their recent loses to the British. There is also how the Americans finally won against the British and got them to surrender. And most important how the Americans finally convinced the French to ally with them, because they showed the French that they could win. As it turns out, the Battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the Americans' War of Independence. Actually, there were two battles at Saratoga, New York. The first began with Gen. John Burgoyne's offensive on September 19, the second with the climactic phase of the fighting during the Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7. After protracted negotiations, Burgoyne officially surrendered on October 17. He returned to England in disgrace, and was never given another command. When news of the American victory reached Europe, France entered the war on the side of the patriots. Money and supplies flowed to the American cause, providing Washington's Continental Army with the support necessary to continue its fight against Great Britain. Britain's loss at Saratoga proved disastrous, in that it signaled to the European powers that the rebels were capable of defeating the English on their own. More than any other single event, it would prove decisive in determining the eventual outcome of the War. The victory in The Battle of Saratoga was a very important victory in the Revolutionary War. It brought the...

Words: 655 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

American and World War 1

...Wade Axia college HIS/125 The second Battle of the Marne happed 75 miles Northeast of Paris. The area that bounded by Chateau-Thierry, Siros and Reims. It started on July 15 1918 and Emden on September 16, 1918. This was turning point that tide in World War I. There was about 30,000 people was killed or wounded. There were three different phase of the battle of Marne which were THE 5TH LUDENDORFF OFFENSIVE, THE AISNE-MARNE COUNTER OFFENSIVE, and THE OISE-AISNE OFFENSIVE. The first Phase happened on July 15 through 17 1918. The second Phase happened July 18 through 17 1918. The final phase happens Aug 17 1918. There were many different Trenches that the soldier would go through. The German did have a code that was name the Zimmerman telegram. They had some finical Stake. There was also an unrestricted submarine warfare. The first phase of the battle of Marne was on July 15, 1918 when three and ½ German armies attack in the early morning. Which was the third division of AEF that made an important tragically that that did stand on the next of the Marne River? On July 17, 1918 German unit company unit went to Southern back off the Marne between Epernay and Chateau Theory and did have advanced on the line which was 7 miles east. The second Phase was on July 18. 1918 which they use tank to go west. On July 19, 1918 The American went south starting or has a fanatical resistance. The German air had command the air. The second assault was against the salient which......

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Allied Battle Strategy

...ALLIED BATTLE STRATEGY The attack of Japan on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor resulted in the USA entry into the war in December, 1941. These were the culminating events that required the Allies forces to develop a strategy defeat of the Axis powers. The Allied forces had to work together in order to coordinate actions and win World War II. Hitler’s Germany presented the biggest threat for the Allies. The German army succeeded in its invasion into Europe and started its blitzkrieg strategy, and it seemed that Allies forces ware almost defeated by Hitler. The leaders of the USA, Britain, and Soviet Union had their own opinions on the strategy of the Allies against Axis powers. As Russia was under the threat of defeating, Josef Stalin insisted on Allies’ opening the second front in France as soon as possible. Churchill and Roosevelt claimed that they needed more time to prepare for the invasion. They were convinced that it was more effective to nibble at the edges of the German empire. Thus, they planned to bomb Germany from the air. Despite the different views, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin had a common aim to win the war, and they came to a joint resolution. During the war, the leaders met several times in order to develop a strategy of the Allies forces victory. As it was planned, in the summer of 1942, Allied forces began its attack against Axis powers. Allies planes began bombing strategic targets in Germany. In the autumn of 1942, Allies began its operation in...

Words: 849 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Battle of Yorktown

...Semester Event The Battle of Yorktown was a major turning point in the Revolutionary War and led to the creation of the United States of America. After six grueling years of war the end of the war was near. Six months before the morale of the continental army was at the lowest point of the war. Congress was bankrupt due to rampant inflation caused by the mass production of continental dollars. The continental army was being trounced in the south by the British who had regained South Carolina and Georgia. Also many of the men in the continental army were mutinying. However in July of 1780 a French force landed in Newport, Rhode Island and this boosted American morale greatly (Fleming 11-13). Russia had suggested peace negotiations between the Americans and the British however the Americans were sure that they would not be allowed their freedom or unity as the thirteen colonies. If they had entered peace negotiations without new major victories then even if they had gained their freedom they would not have been unified and would have quickly been taken over by the British once more. Washington planned to gain a major victory by recapturing New York from the British. He had sent the Marquis de Lafayette to counter the British invasion of Virginia and had sent him a message regarding his plans towards New York, however the message was captured by the British and the plans were discovered (Fleming 14–16). General Rochambeau dissuaded Washington of attacking New York and......

Words: 3545 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Battle of the 73rd Easting

...Battle of the 73rd Easting Headed due east on the afternoon of February 26, 1991, VII Corps was advancing with a front of four armored/mechanized divisions. In the center of this front, leading the way and conducting reconnaissance for the corps, was the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (ACR). The 2nd ACR’s job was to locate the forward elements of the IRG divisions suspected to be in the area, fix them in place, then pass the heavy divisions of VIII Corps through their lines so that they could smash the elite Iraqi units with a single killing blow. It was a difficult assignment, made more so by the weather conditions. The winter of 1990/91 was one of the wettest on record in the Persian Gulf, and had been a major problem during the preceding six weeks of the Desert Storm air campaign. Now the wind was howling, causing a sandstorm that was grounding the Army’s aviation assets and limiting visibility to as little as a thousand meters. Air reconnaissance was limited mostly to signals intelligence data, which meant that finding where the IRG divisions were located, would be up to the 2nd ACR. Like the prairie horse soldiers of 150 years earlier, the troopers of the regiments would grope forward until they physically ran into the enemy, in this case the IRG Tawakalna Division. Generally known to be the best and most aggressive of the various IRG formations, Tawakalna was the unit that would bear the brunt of the coming battle with VII Corps. As 2nd ACR moved forward, the......

Words: 1786 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Battel of Marne

... Week 5 2 America and World War I-The Battle of Marne This was the first time in history that the United States fought in a European war. This battle also made the world look at the United States in a new light; we were a force to be feared. At the time that our soldiers had arrived the French and British troops were exhausted, and welcomed the help from the solders with open arms. There were several concerns about the American soldiers, and whether or not they would be able to handle the Germen troops. Many of these men were not only untrained, some were unarmed. Things were not going well at the time that the troops had arrived; some historians have said that it was like being delivered to a Slater house. The American soldiers played a big part in the reason that this battle was won. The Germans were gaining strength in numbers, and at the time of the arrival of American troops this fact changed. The American soldiers were a shimmer of hope to the British, and French soldiers. They had faith in the Power of the United States to step in an aid them. Trenches were dug along the borders, trying to keep the Germans out. Life in these trenches was horrible; the soldiers were......

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Battle of Shiloh

...Battle of Shiloh On April 6th 1862 The Battle of Shiloh also known as (The Battle of Pittsburgh Landing), broke out between the union, (against slavery) and the Confederacy, (for slavery), in Pittsburgh Tennessee. The Battle of Shiloh went for two days and was the first major battle to take place in the west of America during the civil war. It was said to be “one of the bloodiest battles of its time”, suffering a heavy loss from both sides with more than 23,000 total casualties. Causes 6 months before the Battle of Shiloh, union troops were working their way up through Tennessee and the Cumberland rivers. At this point the union controlled most of Tennessee, winning battles, (led by the general Ulysse J Grant) at forts Henry and Donelson. These victories forced the Confederates, (led by General Albert Sidney Johnson) to regroup in Corinth, Northern Mississippi. Meanwhile Union General Grant had a plot to take his 42,000 troops and team up with General Carlos Buell and his 20,000 troops to take over Corinth. A vital railway that if captured, would ensure power over the whole region. Battle On early April 16th 1862, general Grant’s union army were waiting for Buell’s army to come and join forces, when they were hit with a surprize attack. The confederate general Johnson led an attack on the union preventing them from joining forces. The confederates firstly dominated, destroying the union with the element of surprize, pushing them to Shiloh church. As Buell’s......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Battle of Blitzkreig

...Battle of the Huertgen Forest During the Battle of the Huertgen Forest, Major General Norman D. Cota was tasked with being the commander of the 28th Infantry Division. As the commander of this division he now was responsible for the lives of more than 15,000 men. “The division’s performance had been considered unsatisfactory by its parent headquarters, XIX Corps, and Cota, with his reputation of strict discipline and leading from the front, had been brought in to correct the leadership challenges present within the division”. Prior to the Battle of the Huertgen Forest assignment, Cota had become somewhat of a legend for his bravery and leadership on Omaha Beach and earned the reputation as a ‘fighting general’. His reputation would take a major fall when his division was destroyed during the Battle of the Huertgen Forest. The reasons for the American loss at the Battle of the Huertgen Forest can be mostly attributed to the failure to follow the nine principles of war – specifically the principle of “mass”, which states that combat power should be concentrated at the decisive place and time to achieve military superiority. Failure at certain war fighting functions also attributed to the disaster that occurred at the Battle of the Huertgen Forest – mainly the functions of command and control, sustainment (logistics), intelligence (reconnaissance), and fires (artillery support). The Battle of the Huertgen Forest began on September 12, 1944 when the 3rd Armored Division......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Battle of Marne

...Battle of Marne 1918, World War I was the Pivotal Battle, allied troops blunted the German advance and started the counter offensive that would win the war. It also shaped the legend and character of the modern American military-especially Marines and signaled the arrival of the United States as a modern Military power. General John J. Pershing also known as “Black Jack” fought under the French command, the Americans thrown into combat United States Army Third Infantry Division fought so ferociously they earned the name “Rock of the Marne”. General Pershing rejected the French and British demands to amalgamate his troops into their depleted armies. His idea was to form an independent American army before committing any U.S troops to battle and stuck to his position in spite of enormous diplomatic pressure from Allied politicians. In the month of August General Pershing opened his first Army headquarters and the following month September 12, about 500,000 Americans attacked the St. Mihiel salient and erased the bulge that was in the French lines. The Germans already made plans to abandon this. Technology for American soldiers was advancing slowly. Technology developments in the late 18th century made artillery and machine guns. This created a deadly zone of fire in front of the defenders. They were required to dig trenches and machine gun placements, this would in return protect the men from enemy shelling allowing them to fire back at the enemy without exposing......

Words: 717 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Battle Analysis

...In this battle analysis, I will analyze the Mexican-American war, discuss when the battle occurred, where it took place, the principle adversaries, review the settings of the battle operationally, and discuss the different areas of operation, such as the weather and terrain. I will also describe and analyze the American and Mexican armies in leadership, size and composition, technology, logistical systems, command, control and communications, intelligence, tactical doctrine and morale, the battle chronologically, followed by the significance of the battle, addressing the effects of the war and how lessons learned from this war affect the way our military operates today. So first, lets start by discussing the Mexican-American war. During April 25, 1846 to February 2, 1848 the Mexican American War occurred. This conflict happened between the Centralist Republic or Mexico and the Unite States. The war consisted of four campaigns as follows, the Texas, California, Pacific Coast and Mexico campaigns. President James K. Polk, who was elected in 1844, believed the United States had a “manifest destiny” to spread across the continent to the Pacific Ocean (Frazier, 1998). At first, the United States declined to incorporate Texas into the union, because northern political interests were against the addition of a new slave state. The Mexican government encouraged border raids and warnings that if any attempt to annex Texas it would lead to a war. As time went by Polk had his eyes on......

Words: 3262 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Black Troops Assist Civil War

...Black Troops Assist Civil War Now that the Emancipation Proclamation has been passed, African Americans were now able to assist in the Civil War. By the time they came to enlist, they were immediately turned down. The reason was federal law had banned Negros from bearing arms for the U.S. Army. This disappointed many blacks. They decided to make a petition, so the government would change the law of enlistment to join the army. Lincoln had a hard time of enlisting them, because if he did, the Border States would withdraw to the Confederates. In 1862, white volunteers in the Union were decreasing and free slaves were rising. Since the union army is in peril, the government passed the Second Confiscation and Militia Act, which let slaves join the army or navy. (Thomas 7) Fredrick Douglas was pleased with the progress. He said, “Standing outside the pale of American humanity, denied citizenship, unable to call the land of my birth my country … and longing for the end of the bondage of my people, I was ready for any political upheaval which should bring about a change in the existing condition of things.” (Quarles 24) Fredrick’s words moved blacks to join the army even more. Black troops were counted as 10% of the Union army. Even though they became troops in the war, they were still treated prejudicially. They never were able to fight like white soldiers. They were always held back. White generals thought blacks were not capable of warfare. To prove that they were capable of......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Battle of the Alamo

...The Battle of the Alamo Abstract This paper is a battle analysis of the Battle of the Alamo, which took place in 1836. It reviews the location and its significance within the war for independence that was taking placing during that time. The actions by the Texas revolutionary forces and Mexicans leading up to and during the battle are listed within the writing. It reveals the issue between the force stationed at the Alamo and their superior, General Sam Houston. The defenders at the Alamo didn’t receive support that was needed in order to provide intelligence of the Mexican force that was on its way. On the other hand, they didn’t listen to the order to vacate the fort. These are a couple of the major problems that took place before and during the battle. Although the battle was essential to inspiring the rest of the Texan forces, it leads me to believe that this important conflict could have turned out differently. The Battle of the Alamo The Battle of the Alamo is the most famous battle of the Texas revolution that took place in the early 1800s. “For many Americans and most Texans, the battle has become a symbol of patriotic sacrifice” (Hardin, 2010). Even though the Texans lost the battle, it contributed to the successful war for independence against Mexico. There were, at least, two decisions that may have altered the consequence of the Battle of the Alamo if more cautiously considered. The defenders at the Alamo didn’t receive support that was needed in order to...

Words: 1778 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Battle of Hue

...Battle of Huế From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search | This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2010) | Battle of Huế | Part of the Tet Offensive, Vietnam War | US Marines fighting in Hue | Date | January 30 – March 3, 1968 | Location | 16°28′30.9″N 107°34′33.6″E / 16.47525°N 107.576°E / 16.47525; 107.576Coordinates: 16°28′30.9″N 107°34′33.6″E / 16.47525°N 107.576°E / 16.47525; 107.576 Huế, South Vietnam | Result | Tactical South Vietnamese and US victory[1] | | Belligerents |  South Vietnam  United States | North Vietnam Viet Cong | Commanders and leaders | Ngô Quang Trưởng Foster LaHue | Trần Văn Quang | Strength | 11 ARVN battalions 2 U.S Army battalions 3 U.S Marines battalions | 10 PAVN and NLF battalions | Casualties and losses | ARVN: 452 killed 2,123 wounded U.S.: 216 killed 1,584 wounded[2] Total: 663 killed 3,707 wounded | PAVN figures: About 2,400 killed and 3,000 wounded (from 30-1 until 28-3)[3] MACV estimate: 8,113 killed[4] 98 captured[5] | 844 civilian deaths and 1,900 injuries due to accident of battle, 4,856 civilians and captured personnel executed by communists or missing according to the South Vietnamese government[6] | [show]v · d · e Military engagements of the Vietnam War | | | Laos - Sunrise – 1st Ap Bac – Go......

Words: 4508 - Pages: 19

vice 2015 film | Viele tibetische Silber Mode europäischen Charms Schmuck Handwerk Anhänger DIY | Continua...