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Anchorite Paper

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Book and Film Contemporary Segment: I
An Analysis of Warren’s Anchorites and Their Patrons in Medieval England
And Newby’s Historical Drama the Anchoress

Anchoritism, a tradition where individuals voluntarily relinquish their freedom for an eternity of solidarity in the confinement of a cell, is arguably one of the most shocking traditions of medieval England. It is the modern reaction of bewilderment and even horror that a person could elect such a fate that manifests the immense cultural difference from the medieval era to our own. Through her historical assessment, Ann K. Warren sheds light on the factors that have generated this perplexing phenomenon.
A predominant argument that can be drawn through the analysis of Warren’s writing is the notion of sacrifice as means to salvation. “Medieval England was an environment in which individuals chose to become religious recluses in order to assure their own salvation.” (17) The cell of enclosure was equated with a prison into which the anchorite propelled himself for fear of hell and for love of Christ. The eternal punishment of hell might be escaped by the lifetime refusal of escape from the anchorhold. Therefore, by sacrificing the freedoms of the outside world and fighting against perpetual temptations of desire, a “union with Christ could be achieved in this life.” (93) In order to fully experience the “high” of salvation, one must first know the “low” of suffering. The internalization of these “psychological rewards” here on earth made imprisonment and self-effacement palatable. (97)
The second claim that can be derived from the text is the paradox that the anchorite, while independent from society, is ironically dependent on it. Removing oneself from society is only a façade. Anchorite survival relied on material support of the local people. Accordingly, while anchorites attempted to distinguish themselves from society and “live beyond this world” by measures of “denied individuality, sexuality, rank, money, will, and speech”, they “remained part of the fabric of the community in which he or she lived.” (101)
Another chief argument that can be extracted from Warren is the suggestion that the elite (church hierarchy) are attempting to control the non-elite. (Society i.e. the anchorites) The church cautioned recluses “against the accumulation of alms for the purpose of appearing as a great benefactor” labeling the buildup of wealth as a “sin of pride.” (43) One could infer that an increase in capital held by the masses may invariably lead to the overthrowing or ascendancy of the elite. The anchorites were used as a “vehicle of expression” for the church. Ideally, the characteristics of submissiveness and “limited speech” would be venerated by the masses. (122) Aims to control society are also evidenced by the Bishop’s “power” to enable a “permanent and irrevocable vow,” (54) to be the sole determinant in evaluating the worthiness of aspiring anchorite candidates, preventing recluses from entering “who might become dependent of the diocese,” (82) and through the discriminate awarding of indulgences as determinants in the assessment of an “anchorite’s value” to the community. (63) The increased role of the church and its officials widened the disparity of control between the elite and the masses. An increased concentration of power into the hands of the elite resulted in three major outcomes.
1. Increased power placed more trust by the people (masses) in church institutions, their leaders, and prescriptions. “People in medieval England chose, desired, and even pleaded to be allowed the opportunity to serve God in loneliness.” (124) Anchorism was therefore seen as a privilege-an honor.
2. There was an increased faith in God and Man. Though trapped, “anchorites could convince themselves they were free from prison” by materializing conscious expectations resulting in a “mystical experience.” (123) The conviction of their beliefs gave them an increased “vitality” or exuberant physical strength and mental vigor that enabled them to withstand even the darkest moments of “despair.” (122)
3. Those whose views departed from the orthodoxy of the church were seen as threats to its very enterprise and thus were either forced to conform or suffer the consequences of prison time or being labeled a “heretic.” When the anchoress Matilda went against the hierarchy, she decided to retract her opinions and a mandate “pro anachorita reducta ad viam veritatis” (for an anchorite returned to the true way” was issued for her-re-enclosure. (80)
The Anchoress, a 1993 film directed by Chris Newby, tells the story of one anchoress, Christine Carpenter who serves as the picture’s visionary protagonist. Several themes can be drawn from Newby’s historical drama. The first theme to be discussed is the conflict between the Pagans and the Christians. Christine’s mother, Pauline Carpenter serves as our primary pagan figure. From the beginning, she does not agree with the Christian church having absolute oversight over her daughter. She deliberately and unapologetically reprimands the Priest’s authority, giving Christine bread during the fast, spitting out crude comments at every opportunity, and even going as far as publically urinating to illustrate her profound lack of respect for him. William Carpenter, Pauline’s devoutly religious husband thinks he sees Pauline having sexual relations with a goat. Already possessing suspicions of his wife, he interprets this event as an act of witchery. The Priest exploits this incident rallying the Christian masses against Pauline who accuse her of consorting with the devil, ultimately resulting in her ill-fated death. This climax illuminates the theme of Christian dominance over the Pagans and moreover, an overarching condemnation of secularized religion. However, the idea of pre-Christian or pagan enthusiasts going against the church hierarchy is extremely far-fetched. There is no working evidence within Warren’s writing that makes light of this assumption. Another theme explored by the film is the idea that the church is evil or corrupt. The priest, as a symbol of the church acts as a malevolent hypocrite. He is chiefly responsible for convincing Christine to be a recluse. He argues that since the material world is intrinsically evil, the only means of attaining fulfillment and salvation is to escape from its worldly vices. He chastises Christine for her normative interactions with the community and her contentious “visions.” While at first the Priest appears to be acting as a mentor to Christine in her spiritual journey, it becomes evident that the child of Daisy Dyer is the illegitimate offspring of the priest, begging one to question his motives of persuasion and reprimand towards Christine. The Priest is exposed to be a dishonest, malicious, jealous man who lusts after young, vulnerable women for his own self-seeking gain. His interest to control women with amoral tendencies can be seen as metaphor to the church’s unprincipled purist of control over society. The institution of anchoritism is simply a way to silence the voices of the masses.
A final theme that can be observed in The Anchoress is the alienation of women during the middle Ages. Both Christine and her mother Pauline are separated from mainstream society. In her isolated state, Christine feels lonely and deserted. Conflicted with feelings of relief from the inescapable marriage to the Reeve and despair, Christine is awakened to a new spiritual freedom, discovering “herself” for what appears to be the first time. Against the commands of the Priest, Christine goes on a feminist journey, giving into her temptations and unearthing a new, fearless and changed woman, much like her mother. Pauline’s unconventional spirituality does not conform to the demands of the medieval period. Women were not applauded for their individualistic, self-sufficient nature. The roots of feminism and individuality were considered to be vices of the devil and were not deemed as desirable attributes. In the end, both Christine and Pauline’s refusal to conform to the normative demands of society leaves them utterly alone.
Many historical features (chiefly material culture) are skillfully integrated into this entertainment. The portrayal of English countryside as a rural, agricultural setting holding traditional ideals was very accurate. Warren reiterates that this pastoral community gave “English women fewer choices.” (21) Newby exhibits this theme through Christine. Limited to the sole option of the Reeve, the steward of the Manor as her future spouse, Christine is left with no alternative but anchoritism. The film was also truthful in its depiction of the reclusorium as a, dark, dreary, lonely place. The black and white film intensified the eeriness of the cell. There was a small window on the outside of the reclusorium with “curtains made of two kinds of cloth and a white cross” which Christine used to guard her eyes against outside evils. (31) This portrayal directly ascribes to Warren’s description of the reclusorium.
The film both contradicts and aligns itself with assertions of documented history. Both Warren and Newby recognize the powerful role of the Bishop within the church. Warren states that there was in “increasing involvement between bishop and recluse.” (57) The film agrees with this assertion showing the Bishop as the absolute benefactor of Christine’s enclosure and naming as an anchoress. Warren confirms that only the Bishop was sanctioned to permit the “permanent and irrevocable” vow of the anchorite. (54)
The main contradiction between the film and the reading is their conflicting accounts of the characteristics of anchorites. To Warren, “Speech took the anchorite away from the process of internationalization” (108) and was thus considered a “true danger” to the recluse. Christine Carpenter, in Newby’s film is not reserved in verbalizing her opinions to the townspeople including her prescriptions for love, reasons for infertility, and most notably, her visionary experiences of the Virgin Mary in red which challenges the orthodoxy of the church. While Warren speaks of Matilda and Ana going against the church, she emphasizes their certain renouncement. The character of Christine not only makes blasphemous assertions which are never renounced, but additionally escapes for her cell and attacks the Bishop! Christine’s irrepressible desire to escape the reclusorium is not characterized by the recluses described by Warren who “chose, desire, and even pleaded to be allowed the opportunity to serve God in loneliness” and “could carry on past moments of despair.” (123)…...

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