Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd)

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By ardanic
Words 1675
Pages 7
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders of childhood. In fact, having a child with ADHD is correlated with significant increases in the amount of stress that parents experience. It was hypothesized that coping strategies would be different between mothers of children with/without ADHD. The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in the two mother groups. Fifty Iranian mothers of children aged between 6 to 12 participated in this study (25 mothers of children with ADHD and 25 mothers of children without ADHD). For assessing coping strategies, ways of coping questionnaire (WOCQ) by Folkman and Lazarus (1988) was administered on subjects. T. test was used for analyzing data. Our data show only one of the coping strategies- problem solving- employed were significantly different between two groups. This strategy was more commonly used among mothers of children without ADHD. Key words: ADHD, Coping Strategies, Mothers.
INTRODUCTION Attention- Deficit/ hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 3-5% of children before age 7 and is characterized by difficulties in controlling impulsive and hyperactive behaviors and/ or paying attention (Mitchell, 2006). This constellation of symptoms not only has a negative impact on the child’s life by creating difficulties in school and peer relations, but also is associated with difficulties within the home. In fact, having a child with ADHD is correlated with significant increases in the amount of stress that parents experience. (Lynn, 2008).
Parenting is one of the most demanding responsibilities of adult life. Parenting stress is the affective response to the, at times, overwhelming, demands of parenting. It is dynamic and results when the balance between parents’ perceptions of the demands of parenting outweigh their perceptions of their resources…...

Similar Documents

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

...Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder John Mooney 412 Psychology Dr. Jim Spencer West Virginia State University 4 May 2012 Abstract Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is a developmental disorder that is believed to affect about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children (National Institute of Mental Health). Also, 30 to 50 percent of those diagnosed will continue having symptoms into adulthood and it is estimated that 4.7 percent of American adults live with AD/HD (NIMH). Although most healthcare providers accept AD/HD as a genuine disorder, there still remains controversy regarding diagnosis and treatment which is being debated in the scientific community. Although it found controversy in the lack of sufficient data on long-term use of medications, the US National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) supports the validity of the AD/HD diagnosis and the efficacy of stimulant treatment. Introduction Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is becoming the highlight of many controversial debates. Each year more children as well as adults are being diagnosed with these medical conditions. Despite the fact that many doctors question the authenticity behind its diagnoses, AD/HD can have a negative effect not only on the patients themselves, but to the families and loved ones who have to endure the behavior produced by the patients. According to the Diagnostic and statistical......

Words: 2555 - Pages: 11

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

...Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder According to Merriam Webster Dictionary (2013), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is defined as a syndrome that consists of disruptive behavior and disordered learning. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not caused by a physical or mental disorder but by symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsive behavior and inattentiveness. The debate of whether or not children are being over diagnosed has been ongoing for years. As a parent do you medicate your child and follow the physician’s advice? Only if you have studied up on the medications that are being used to treat this condition and the side effects associated with each drug. There are also many alternative solutions to try before starting your child on medication. I believe that too often parents have a normal child, perhaps a little curious or hyperactive and since this child isn’t like their other children the parents determine that something must be wrong with them. A quick trip to the doctor and discussion can quickly confirm ADHD and the child are then placed on medication. We know that an increase of commercials ad on television relating to medications to treat disorders has caused an increase in people seeking treatment for various conditions and I believe the same has happened for ADHD. Petrochko (2013), state that the rate of ADHD diagnosis has increased nearly 25% over the past decade. The biggest increase was in white, black and Hispanic groups and......

Words: 1708 - Pages: 7

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

...Feeley Comp299 Disabilities Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, better known as ADHD is a disorder that deals with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity or a combination of the three. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children with 3-5% of school aged children being affected. Young boys are much more prone to being diagnosed with ADHD than girls are. Although it is not officially clear what causes ADHD may be handed down from your parents. ADHD is sometimes confused with depression, lack of sleep, learning disabilities, tic disorders and behavior problems. In most cases there are at least one other behavioral or developmental problem that goes along with a child’s ADHD. Symptoms The symptoms of ADHD are inattentiveness, over-activity and impulsivity but there are symptoms that go with each of those are well. Inattentive symptoms include failing to give close to details or making careless mistakes in schoolwork, having difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play, not listening when being spoken to directly, not following through on instruction and failing to finish schoolwork, chores or other responsibilities. Also, avoiding tasks that require constant mental effort, becoming easily distracted, forgetting daily activities and frequently losing toys, assignments, pencils, books, or other materials needed for daily tasks and activities. Hyperactivity symptoms include......

Words: 927 - Pages: 4

An Analyze of How Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – Adhd Is Communicated and Perceived Within American Culture

...explores the communication surrounding the Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from public concept, popular media, and personal stories, in order to understand how the disorder is perceived within American culture. The discussion approaches public misgivings and beliefs about ADHD, metaphors surrounding the disorder, and narratives from patients themselves. These topics will assist to analyze the implications of messages surrounding ADHD. Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders, present in 6% to 9% of all children (Cassels, 2013). For several decades, ADHD was mostly considered a childhood disorder. Symptoms of ADHD in children, however, continue into adulthood in approximately half of all cases, and current estimates of adults with ADHD indicate an incidence rate of 4% to 5% among adults (Kessler et al., 2006). Studies show that the number of children being diagnosed with ADHD is increasing, but it is unclear why. Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age (Park, 2013). Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that......

Words: 3452 - Pages: 14

Attention Deficit Disorder (Add)

...Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is the most common mental disorders of childhood and affects 3 to 6 percent of the child population (about 3.5 million kids) in the United States. Approximately 15 million people in the United States have Attention Deficit Disorder, but there are many aspects of this disorder that many people are not even aware of. Attention Deficit Disorder is a neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system, as well as the motivational system. ADD affects two important parts of the brain that are connected with the ability to pay attention and the ability to regulate motor activity. ADD is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. There is a deficiency in the brains' ability to produce and use certain chemicals called transmitter substances (neurotransmitters). It is said to be hereditary, in fact more than one third of the parents of an ADD child had ADD when they were children and as many as 75% of children diagnosed with ADD have a least one relative who has it (be it a parent, sibling, or uncle). The behavioral aspects of ADD are very similar and intertwine between three main categories, in which many symptoms and characteristics fall into. These categories are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattention means failure to pay attention and the characteristics involved with this category are all symptoms of an inattentive person. Hyperactivity means the state or condition of being excessively or pathologically active. All...

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

The Debate of Medicating Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

...professionals have attempted to address several issues regarding antipsychotic drugs used to treat school-aged children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The distribution of these ADHD medications have steadily increased over the years, which has, on one hand, presented a possible solution to the escalating diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and on the latter, brought into question the ethics and effectiveness of these medications. Health officials, parents, and the children themselves struggle to come to an agreement when deciding whether or not medication is the best solution. The Debate Over Medicating Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder In the spring of 2004, Jacqueline A. Sparks, an associate professor of family therapy at the University of Rhode Island, and Barry L. Duncan, a cofounder of the Institute for the Study of Therapeutic Change, investigated the ethics and effectiveness behind the distribution of ADHD medications as a modern treatment method for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Even though, “appropriate identification and treatment of symptoms for psychiatric illnesses (such as ADHD) during childhood and adolescence is critical” (ScienceDaily). Sparks and Duncan note that, “ADHD is arguably the most controversial topic in recent mental health history. The ADHD diagnosis is not defined by a biological marker (Leo & Cohen, 33), but is rather subjective and not easily......

Words: 2880 - Pages: 12

Can Essential Fatty Acid Supplementation Play a Role in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

...Can essential fatty acid supplementation play a role in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? For submission 22nd April 2006 Dissertation, 3rd Year ION Contents Abstract 3 1.0 Introduction 4 1.1 Prevalence 4 1.2 Diagnosis 4 DSM-IV Checklist for Diagnosing ADHD 6 Figure 1. DSM-IV Checklist for Diagnosing ADHD 6 1.3 Associated Conditions 7 1.4 Prognosis 7 1.5 Aetiology 7 1.5.1 Genetics 8 1.5.2 Environmental Influences 8 1.5.3 Essential Fatty Acids 8 1.5.4 Food Sensitivities 9 1.5.5 Heavy Metal Toxicity 9 1.5.6 Nutrient deficiencies 9 1.5.7 Pregnancy/birth trauma 10 1.5.8 Hypoglycaemia 10 1.5.9 Digestive 10 1.5.10 Thyroid 11 1.6 Clinical Management 11 1.7 Understanding the Role of Essential Fatty Acids 12 1.7.1 What are Essential Fatty Acids? 12 Figure 2. Major Food Sources of Essential Fatty Acids 12 Figure 3. Omega-3 and Omega-6 metabolic pathways 13 1.7.2 Essential Fatty Acids and Brain Function 13 1.7.3 Physical Signs of Fatty Acid Deficiency 14 2.0 Literature Review 15 2.1 DHA Supplementation 15 2.2 Combined DHA, EPA, GLA Supplementation 18 2.3 Combined EPA, DHA, ALA Supplementation 19 2.4 ALA Supplementation 22 2.5 Summary of studies reviewed 23 Figure 4. Summary of Studies Reviewed 23 3.0 Discussion 24 3.1 Future Research 27 4.0 Conclusion 28 5.0 Nutritional Strategy 29 5.1 Benchmarking 29 5.2 Dietary Strategy 29 5.3 Lifestyle Strategy 29 5.4 General Supplement......

Words: 9455 - Pages: 38

Attention Deficit Disorder

...comparison with other children. Most of their ‘problems’ arise from the fact that they process emotional and intellectual information somewhat differently from ‘normal’ children (Wrights Law). Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit symptoms as early as the age of six or seven but sometimes even sooner. Children with ADD suffer in many ways if their condition is not diagnosed and is left untreated. They tend to be more inattentive, careless, unorganized and also impulsive. ADD has symptoms that affect concentration and a child’s ability to focus (Native Remedies). ADD can also cause mood swings and other social problems. Children with ADD should receive treatment in the form of counseling and the appropriate medication so the child can have a more ‘normal’ and happy childhood. Usually, ADD symptoms will appear over the course of many months rather than all at once. If the appearance of these symptoms is not managed correctly, it can lead to low self-esteem and other behavioral problems in the years to come. Deciding on what ADD/ADHD medication is best fit for the child can be difficult, but doing your homework helps.  The first thing to understand is exactly what the medications for ADD and ADHD can and cannot do. ADD medication may help improve the child’s ability to concentrate, control impulses, plan ahead, and follow through with tasks. However, ADD medication is not a magic pill that......

Words: 2399 - Pages: 10

Neuroanatomical Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Influence of Stimulant Medication Administration

...Differences in ADHD 1 Neuroanatomical Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Influence of Stimulant Medication Administration Zach Grice-Patil University of Minnesota Neuroanatomical Differences in ADHD Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common psychological disorder with a pathophysiology that is not well understood. The choice treatment is with strong psychoactive stimulants (methylphenidate), which has helped to establish much of the known pathophysiology of the disorder. Medication administration to young children is becoming exceedingly common and it is suspected here that methylphenidate has effects on neurodevelopmental processes. Much of the imaging data which suggest neuroanatomical differences observed in ADHD are confounded by the inability to control for lifetime-medication use in the sample. Animal data have demonstrated that acute methylphenidate administration can cause significant changes in juveniles. A 2 multi-level analysis of the current literature assessing the structural differences in ADHD with respect to methylphenidate administration is the focus for this review. Methods include: MR structural, MR diffusion, MR spectroscopy, Positron Emission Tomography, and Histology. Based upon this review, the current administration of methylphenidate to young ADHD patients should be reevaluated to account for the uncertainty in medication-induced neurodevelopment. Neuroanatomical Differences in ADHD......

Words: 6112 - Pages: 25

Attention Deficit Hypercti Disorder

...ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVE DISORDER 1 A.D.H.D. Catherine M. Jones Carmen Griffis HCA/240 July 5, 2015 ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVE DISORDER 2 Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a biological disorder that makes it hard for many children as well as adults to sit still for short as well; as long periods of time. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors to ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder has three subtypes. One subtype is Predominately Hyperactive-Impulse whereas most (six or more) of the symptoms are in the hyperactive impulsivity categories. Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present although; inattention may still be present to some degree. Predominately Inattentive is the second subtype. The majority of the symptoms are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree. Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. This child may...

Words: 1346 - Pages: 6

Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

...Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present with a number of behavioral, social, and academic challenges. However, the importance of understanding the strengths and abilities of these children should not be overlooked, particularly in the school environment. First, it is important to understand common areas of strength in children with ADHD. In what areas are these children successful, and how are parents and educators able to support their growth and development in both areas of strength and need? Identifying areas of potential strength across children with ADHD will serve to provide a broad understanding of the unique capabilities of this population. Recent research examining strengths in children with ADHD has begun to identify a number of areas in which these children are no different from those without ADHD. Children with ADHD have been found to demonstrate cognitive strengths in the areas of logical thinking and reasoning, emotional intelligence, and creativity. There is a need to continue this avenue of research so as to better understand areas of ability and how they can be used to support success. Second, it is important to understand what protective factors may be most influential for children with ADHD. Protective factors are those that serve to shield children with ADHD against further negative outcomes, such as the development of comorbid conditions, depression, and oppositional defiant disorder. These protective factors, both......

Words: 654 - Pages: 3

Attention Deficit Disorder

...ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER Attention Deficit Disorder: Alternatives to Stimulant Medication Eng 215 Abstract Today, millions of children are taking stimulant medications for ADHD. Most of these children are being medicated without even receiving a proper diagnosis. While on these medications, children experience harmful side effects. Some children have died from complications related to the medication. The list of symptoms for ADHD reads like a list of bad behavior not a medical condition that warrants medication. Parents are outsourcing their parental responsibilities to pharmaceutical companies. Alternative treatments are available and have been proven effective. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatments According to the 1994, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., (DSM-IV) Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by the presence of a set of chronic and impairing behavior patterns that display abnormal levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or their combination. (as cited at http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/cdcplan.html) ADHD is mostly diagnosed in children and adolescents. (DEA, 1995) ADHD is not a disease but yet most children diagnosed as having ADHD are treated with medication. The standard ADHD diagnosis is divided into three types: Inattentive type, hyperactive type, and......

Words: 2568 - Pages: 11

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

...Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Many people remembered that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was once called hyperkinesis. This disorder is one of the most common mental disorders among children. Seen through a child’s eyes with ADHD is much more than distracting ,with sounds, images and thoughts that are constantly turning, than that of a child’s without this disorder. Every person has experienced some of these symptoms once in their life, just not on a daily basis. This does not only affect the person with the disorder but the people around them whether it is their mom and dad, teacher, friends, or siblings. “Additionally, there are now brain studies that show that when someone with ADHD is told to “just try harder” and does, the result can be anxiety and a brain that actually starts to shut down it’s primary executive functions (Booth).” For a while now scientists have come up with many different theories about ADHD. Some theories have ended up short and some have opened up new and exciting doors of investigation. One theory was that anyone with ADHD has had some minor head injuries or undetectable damage to the brain. For a long time this disorder was called “minimal brain damage” or “minimal brain dysfunction.” But as researchers found out that only certain types of head injuries can explain some cases of attention disorder. In knowing that the theory was excluded. Because children with ADHD often struggle in their schoolwork,......

Words: 1758 - Pages: 8

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

...Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Ronda Real RES/110 Introduction to Research and Information Utilization March 31, 2010 Don Hull Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Ever been in a restaurant, in a classroom, or in church and seen a child who cannot sit still, concentrate, or talks constantly and wonder what is wrong with the child? The child may have Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Within this paper the following questions will be answered, the definition of ADHD, the cause of ADHD, the symptoms of ADHD and if the symptoms differ in boys and girls, the different treatments for ADHD. Definition of ADHD If one has seen the children who cannot sit still, concentrate, or talks constantly and wonders if the child has ADHD then one needs to know the definition of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. According to Mayo Clinic (2009), the definition of "attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood. Problems associated with ADHD include inattention and hyperactive, impulsive behavior. Children with ADHD may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school" (Definition, para. 1). Within this clinics definition of ADHD there is an estimated three percent to five percent of children who are affected in the United States...

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

...1. Disorder Attention – deficit hyperactivity disorder Demonica Felton PSY 350: Physiological Psychology Instructor: Julie Bruno May 28, 2012 2. Disorder Attention – deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that is developed during childhood. ADHD is referred to as a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. Individuals who suffer from ADHD have a difficult time controlling their physical activity and can also affect their relationship with family and friends. A child often times have attention problems but doesn’t necessarily mean it’s a sign of ADHD. Major research has been conducted to treat individuals who suffer from the disorder. Predominantly hyperactive – impulsive, predominantly inattentive, and combined form of the disorder is the three known types of ADHD. Many characteristics are recognized in children with ADHD. All parents and teachers should educate themselves about the symptoms and behaviors problems associated with the disorders. Parents have a very difficult time making an informed decision whether or not to give their child medication, because of the concerns involving some side effects (Dillon, 2012). Medical attention is needed if signs of ADHD is noticed because if left untreated can cause serious problems. It’s important to remember that characteristics of ADHD are severe behaviors, and often noticed before the age of seven. Every parent must always notify the school if a child is diagnose with......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Chap 370 | Boruto - Naruto Következő Nemzedéke (Boruto: Naruto Next Generations) | Bole Cudiyan Bole Kanganaa || Tangiaapada Asram School || Annual Function-2018