Free Essay

Bamboo Test Refference

In: Science

Submitted By walker
Words 1245
Pages 5
 Introduction
Bamboo, one of the strongest natural structural composite materials, has many distinguishing features. It has been found that its reinforcement unit, hollow, multilayered and spirally-wound bast fiber, plays an extremely important role in its mechanical behavior. In recent years, the development of biocomposites from biodegradable polymers and natural fibers have attracted great interests in the composite science, because they could allow complete degradation in soil or by composting process and do not emit any toxic or noxious components. For the past several years, public attention has gone to natural fibers as a resource due to their fast growth. Bamboo is an abundant natural resource in Asia and South America, because it takes only several months to grow up. It has been traditionally used to construct various living facilities and tools. The high strength with respect to its weight is derived from fibers longitudinally aligned in its body. Therefore, bamboo fibers are often called ‘natural glass fiber’. To practically apply the benefit of bamboo fibers, it is necessary to develop a process to fabricate bamboo composites as well as to extract qualitatively controlled fibers from bamboo trees. However, it is difficult to extract bamboo fibers having its superior mechanical properties. The bamboo fiber is often brittle compared with other natural fibers, because the fibers are covered with lignin.

 Objectives
1. The biodegradable and environmental friendly made using by micro/nano-sized bamboo fibrils (MBF) and a modified soy protein resin. 2. This research has been done on the applications of bamboo fibers in fiber reinforced polymer materials. It could improve the mechanical properties of polymer materials. 3.. The development of composites for ecological purposes (Eco-composites) using bamboo fibers and their basic mechanical properties. 4. The development of biocomposites from biodegradable polymers and natural fibers have attracted great interests in the composite science, because they could allow complete degradation in soil or by composting process and do not emit any toxic or noxious components.

 Experiment
1. The MBF paste was first dispersed into DD water to form a uniform suspension. 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of MBF were added to study the effect of MBF. MBF water suspension was mixed with the SPC dispersion in water in varying amounts. The mixture was mechanically stirred at room temperature until a uniform suspension was obtained. The dried composite sheets containing MBF were hot-pressed in Carver Hydraulic hot press and the thicknesses were in the range of 0.14 mm. Resin and composite specimens were characterized for their tensile properties, such as Young’s modulus, fracture stress, fracture strain and toughness, using an Instron universal tester (model 5566). Moisture content was measured using a Brabender moisture tester (model 1153). The SPC cross-linking using ITES was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). Leica scanning electron microscope (SEM), model 440X was used to characterize the dimensions of the MBF used. The specimens were also characterized for their thermal stability using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The dynamic mechanical properties of the specimens were characterized using dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA, model-2980) 2. Natural bamboo bast fiber is so slender that its diameter ranges between 20 µm and 45 µm and its length is 1000- 2000 µm. The axial compressive buckling test was performed to compare the structural stability of the four types of specimens. The testing speed was 2 mm min-1 and the test was performed at room temperature. the bending test, owing to the anisotropy and thick wall of the four types of specimens. 3. Fiber bundles of 125–210 mm in diameter were obtained by a sifter machine with mesh filtrating the commercial bamboo chips. MAPP (maleic anhydride modified PP. (Umex 1001: Sanyo Chemical Industries, Ltd)/PP (Novatec; Japan Polychem Co.) mixed at a ratio of 5/95 in weight) was used as a matrix of BFEC. Tensile tests were conducted using a small-capacity testing machine (ASG-H/Ez Test-500: shimadzu). the molding process, a 150 £ 150 £ 2 mm thick plate of BFEC was obtained. Tensile

specimens of the BFEC were cut off in the form of rectangular strips from the molded plate, seven samples of BFEC were tested on a universal testing machine (AUTOGRAPH: Shimadzu Co.). The fractured surfaces were also checked by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). 4. PLA (LACEA H-100J) and PBS (Enpol G5300) were purchased from Mitsui Chemical, Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) and Ire Chemical Ltd (Wonju, Korea), respectively. Average length and diameter of bamboo fiber (BF) used in this study were approximately 500 and 70 mm, respectively. L-lysine-diisocyanate (LDI) was kindly supplied by Kyowa Hakko Co., Ltd (Tokyo, Japan). Proteinase K and Lipase PS were purchased from Nacalai Tesque, INC. (Kyoto, Japan). All other chemicals were purchased from commercial sources. The polymers and BF were first mixed as dry solids. The mixture was placed into a batch mixer (Labo Prostomill, Toyo Seiki, Japan). Dog-bone-shaped samples (5×0.4×50 mm) were cut from compression-molded sheets and tensile measurements were made with a Shimadzu Autograph AG-1 (5kN) (Kyoto, Japan). The samples with dimensions 50×50×0.5 mm were used to examine water absorption. DSC measurement was performed on a Perkin-Elmer Diamond DSC. Apparent melt viscosity of composites was measured at various temperatures with a flow tester (Shimadzu CFT- 500D). The morphology of the fractured samples after tensile testing was examined using a JEOL JSM-5900LV scanning microscope.

 Result & Discussion
1. Typical SEM photomicrographs showing, it is clear that the fibrils have a very broad size (diameter) distribution, ranging from a few hundred nano-meters to the micron level. In addition, the fibrils, especially the nano-fibrils, show entanglements and branchings that form a network by splitting at different locations along the length. Bamboo fiber has a fibrillar structure as most other plant-based fibers have. The surface topographies of micro-fibrils were observed using AFM shows a typical AFM image of the surface of micro-fibrils with a scan size of 500 nm×500 nm. The interaction (interfacial adhesion) between fibers and the resin is an important factor that can influence the mechanical and physical properties of a composite. A high interaction. i.e., good adhesion between the fiber and the resin makes the stress transfer between fibers more efficiently resulting in high mechanical properties. Since both SPC and cellulose in bamboo have polar groups and hydrophilic properties, interfacial interaction, such as hydrogen bonding, can be formed between the two phases by providing a large interfacial area. Also, for the same weight of fibers, the smaller the fiber diameter, the larger surface area the fiber can provide. In the present case, both the nano-fibrils and micro-fibrils provided a large surface area. The polar groups in proteins are capable of cross-linking reaction. Thiols in cysteine in the extended soy protein chains can be re-organized and oxidized to form disulfide bonds The active groups, such as hydroxyl, amine and carboxyl, in protein can form hydrogen bonding or undergo condensation reaction to form a cross-linked structure during precuring and curing steps. As observed in the case of the Young’s modulus, the storage modulus of the specimen increased significantly with the addition of the MBF. the cross-link density was significantly higher than what was obtained with ITES 2. Chemical composition and tensile strength of wood and bamboo Cellulose ( %) Hemi-cell;lose (%) Lignin (%) Polyoses (%) Extractive (I) Tensile strength ( MPa) wood 40-50 20-35 15-35…...

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