Free Essay

Being or Becoming

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By shehandal
Words 1522
Pages 7
Being or Becoming Heraclitus (535-475 B.C.) (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., 2010) and Parmenides (515-440 B.C.) (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., 2010) took philosophy to a new level from trying to understand the changing world to trying to understand change itself. Parmenides being one of the most miss-understood philosophers theorized that “being is; and non-being, is not.” His philosophy was based on that change was simply an illusion and believed that the senses can be deceiving so in order to reconcile the perpetual change he perceived with his sense. Heraclitus focused on the circle of life such as the human body and water. (Hooker, 1996)He explains change and becoming by the theory of “it is not possible to step twice into the same river.” As an example Heraclitus uses the river to make a connection with time. Rivers flow only in one direction such as time, the flow of the river can’t be changed nor the flow of time. (Hooker, 1996) Although their theories are meant to provide concrete vicarious the encounters with the world, Heraclitus and Parmenides adhering to some abstract principles begin to govern the world. Heraclitus didn’t belong to a school of thought. He had independent thinking and actually criticized many philosophers. He developed many important philosophical ideas that are still admired today. Among his most important ideas are "Flux" and "Unity of opposites". Heraclitus is called a monist because he believes fire is the underlying principle. Heraclitus works have influenced Parmenides, Empedocles, and Plato. "You cannot step into the same river twice, for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you. (Thomas, 2007)”This statement is the essence of the concept of "flux" as it means that the river is always different every time you step into it. Heraclitus looked at everything being in the state of change and that only change is permanent. The river is a metaphor for the kind of unity that depends on the preservation of measure and balance in change. The meaning is not that every single thing must be like a river but rather that a complex whole like the world might remain the same while its constituent parts are for ever changing. The unity of the river as a whole is dependent upon the regularity of the “Flux” of its constituent waters. It is a metaphor for the balance of constituents in the world. The passages in Heraclitus book are tremendously hard to read not because of the literature but because of the context. “They do not understand that what differs agrees with itself; this is a very important passage taken from Heraclitus works and it explains the theory of unity of opposites and the logos. Heraclitus theorized that anything which differs has paired opposites such as hot and cold, summer and winter. Heraclitus seen that opposite agreed with each other and he viewed them as an unified whole. Opposites can’t exist without each other and this is where Heraclitus famous passage; “It is not possible to step into the same river twice” connects with the unity of opposites. (Thomas, 2007) Heraclitus implies that the world is constantly changing which describes the water and the world is one unified whole connecting to the river. Opposites are a reality and their interconnections are real but the correlative opposites are not identical to each other. Parmenides was known as a rationalist and was in conscious opposition with Heraclitus and the idea of for whom it is and is not, the same and not the same, and all things travel in opposite directions. Parmenides wrote the poem On Nature where in a goddess instructs him in the two ways, that of the truth and the deceptive way of belief, in which is no truth at all. (Palmer, 2008) The goddess lets him see the "heart of well rounded truth" and it is through this revelation that Parmenides acquires his philosophy. Parmenides' "Way of Truth" has been very influential among modern philosophers and has had a very big impact on the way we study philosophy today. The argument of "The Way of Truth" tells us that there are only three possibilities. Either "it is," "it is not," or "it is and it is not." This idea may be of great challenge to some but it, in a way, makes clear sense. The word "is" is simply a variable that can be replaced by anything. Parmenides says that "it is not" can’t be thought about or spoken of. He tells us that "it is and it is not" is the equivalent to confusion. (Randall, 1996) If something "is not" one must think about something that is not. If some one thinks about something that "is not," he or she is thinking of nothing. Therefore, we cannot think of "it is not." "It is and it is not" is confused, because this idea makes one think about the "it is not." Since it is not possible to think of "it is not," "it is and it is not" is confused. (Randall, 1996) The philosophy of Parmenides, although rather confusing, is never wrong. This is because everything that we perceive "is." The conclusion of Parmenides' argument states that "it is." Since it is impossible for anyone to imagine the "it is not" nothing is "it is not." A prime example of this is the human idea of what is not. People believe that make believe characters such as Santa Claus and the Tooth Fairy are the "it is not." For Parmenides, "What Is" leads us to the truth about our universe, in that it is timeless, eternal, motionless, perfectly uniform, the same all throughout. "There are signs that being un-generated, it is also imperishable." (Cohen, 2003) He believed there was never any change in the universe just as Heraclitus believed it is a constantly changing circle. Parmenides' definition for "What Is" was simple. There weren't many requirements, "Whole and of a single kind and unshaken and complete." If the state of being fits his requirements then it was "What Is." However, his requirements, as simple as they are, are so broad that they exclude most, if not all, of the entire physical world.
“This world-order, the same of all, no god nor man did create, but if ever was and is and will be: everliving fire” is part of a passage that was used by Heraclitus to explain the organization of the world. (Graham, 2005) Heraclitus theorized that the world comes to be and then perishes in a fiery holocaust only to be born again. Heraclitus seems to contradict himself by saying the world itself does not have a beginning or end and that parts of the world is being consumed by fore but remain a whole. Other philosopher before and after Heraclitus predicted the extinction of the world but Heraclitus being the philosopher of “Flux” believes that as the stuffs turn into one another the world itself remains stable.
Parmenides, as did Heraclitus before him, wrote about a state known as "What Is." However, they differed sharply in their view of that state. Parmenides insisted that "What Is" be viewed as a constant. Heraclitus' focus was on elements transferring to and from opposites. Parmenides concentrated on a sense of "being." Heraclitus believed in a flux or "Yin and Yang" in the world that promoted harmony and stability. In response to Heraclitus, Parmenides argued that "What Is" could not change out of what it is; therefore, no opposite can exist. I believe that all of Parmenides descriptions of "What Is" led his contemporaries and followers to understand that "What Is" is not physical in a way that can be described. While his claims of "What Is" might suggest otherwise, it was not Parmenides' goal to throw the traditional vision of the cosmos out the window. He was merely searching for a clearer distinction between truth and appearance. Parmenides believed that "What Is" was so pure that it would hold the basis of truth for everything that has happened in the past will happen again in the future.

Works Cited
Cohen, M.S. (2003, November 17). Parmenides Stage 1. Retrieved October 8, 2010, from
Graham, D.W. (2005, July 5). Heraclitus. Retrieved October 7, 2010, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
Hooker, R. (1996). Heraclitus. Retrieved October 8, 2010, from Greek Philosophy:
Palmer, J. (2008, February 8). Parmenides. Retrieved October 7, 2010, from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
Randall, A. (1996). On Nature. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from On Nature by Parmenides of Elea:
Thomas, K. (2007). The Flux and Fire Philosophy of Heraclitus .Retrieved October 6, 2010, From Heraclitus:
Wikimedia Foundation Inc. (2010). Heraclitus. Retrieved October 6, 2010, from Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia:
Wikimedia Foundation Inc. (2010). Parmenides. Retrieved October 6, 2010, from Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia:…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Being There

...Being There Being there is about a man named Chance, who is isolated from the outside of the old man's estate, getting his knowledge from watching television and taking care of the garden. He is around 40 years old, stupid and illiterate. He doesn't have any social skills, so he just talks about the garden. When the old man dies the lawyers who handle the estate can't find any evidence that chance has lived there, he is thrown out of the house. When he is on the street he is run over by a limo, and hurt his leg. The woman in the limo, named Elisabeth Eve Rand, apologized and asked him to come home to her, she had a doctor staying at her house, because her husband was very ill. Chance accepts, and goes with her. EE's husband, Benjamin, is a wealthy businessman, and a friend of The President. EE and Benjamin are fooled to think that Chance's name is Chauncey Gardiner and he is a wealthy businessman because of his look when he is in the old man's suit. Chance and Mr. Rand then become friends, and when Mr. Rand couldn't go to a meeting, because of his illness, The President was coming to visit him and Rand wanted Chance to meet him. When chance is asked about something financial he answers by talking about a garden, and everyone thinks he is metaphorically speaking, when actually he's just answering with the few things he has learned in his life. So it goes with Chauncey talking nonsense to a lot of people including The President of the United States, a television......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Becoming a Pt

...Becoming a Physical Therapist Oakland University Jonathan Jarvie Becoming a Physical Therapist Ever since I could remember, I always wanted to be a professional football player. Growing up from middle school to high school, I trained everyday to finally get there someday. Everything was going good, became captain on my high school’s varsity football team, began to win awards for being one of the top players in the Macomb area and later in the entire east side of Michigan. I was blessed with a scholarship to Wayne State University to play football after my senior year. Short into my freshmen year, I suffered a serious back injury involving two herniated discs and a fractured vertebra. I was told by some it’s impossible to play with and was told by some that I could come back and continue playing after rehabilitation. Months and months passed with rehab everyday and it still wasn’t getting better. I had to make one of the biggest decisions in my life which was to give up the sport I love for my future health. This is how I became interested in Physical Therapy. Throughout my high school career I had minor injuries such as a fractured ankle, tendonitis in my shoulders, broken fingers etc. For these injuries I went to the same physical therapist named Ryan. He also played football and baseball so he was very educated when it came to sports injuries. Being in physical therapy multiple times in my day, my knowledge grew from being there all the time about different......

Words: 1598 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Bringing Video Gaming and Bd-Live from Being an Entertainment Tool to a Becoming a Distance Learning Tool

...Bringing Video Gaming and BD-Live from being an Entertainment Tool to a becoming a Distance Learning Tool: A Concept Paper 1 Choo-Hong Loo School of Business and Administration ,Wawasan Open University 54, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah 10050 Penang,Malaysia., telephone +604-2180 333 and fax +604-2269 323 Accepted Sub-theme: Technology-enhanced teaching and learning Abstract: To some parents and educationist, video gaming has long been associated with wasting time. The interactivity and connectivity of the sixth and seventh generation video console has resulted in the introduction of the use of motion as input, and IR tracking and wireless controllers and 3D together with connectivity among the different console users in a network. This paper discusses the application on how the sixth and seventh generation video game console can be adapted to deliver vocational instruction through the gaming consoles. Apart from the video game console we would also be discussing on the use of the BD-Live feature on the BluRay disc. Using the case studies of Xbox 360, WII, Play Station 3 and BD-Live, we would like propose how video game and BluRay consoles can be used to deliver vocational education through the distance learning mode. The advent of the internet, motion technology and 3D technology, would mean enhanced educational content can be delivered to students in a more effective, expansive and entertaining manner. The discussion of this paper will benefit the makers...

Words: 3146 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Becoming a Mother

...BECOMING A MOTHER (ROUGH DRAFT) TAMMY ALEXANDER ASHFORD UNIVERSITY: ENGLISH 1 BECOMING A MOTHER Although parenthood is a life changing event, the changes can be very positive and maturity can come much faster than expected. Becoming a mother had so many positive affects in my live. I would say,” It totally changed my life but it was a much needed change”. Before becoming a mother my life only revolved around me. I did things such as; going to parties, hanging at clubs, I did an enormous amount of shopping for myself and just simply had a good time enjoying life. The thought of having a child never crossed my mind. I would often here my boyfriend say, “Everybody can get pregnant except Tammy”. With a blank stare on my face every time he said it, I could imagine the horrific sound of immense pain I heard from my sister during the birth of her son. Indeed, a baby can be a blessing but I would often ask myself, is this life I wanted for myself? Moreover, with much thought, proper planning and marriage I agreed to have a baby. I never imagine the awful morning sickness, the welcomed wt loss, and the loss of appetite I would experience. I thought I was supposed to gain weight and consume much more food than I normally ate. My experience was totally different; I had a shocking amount of wt loss, 40 pound wt loss to be exact. The smell of food was horrible to me. My eating habits only consist of eating ice. The cold and crisp ice seemed to be the only thing I could tolerate...

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Becoming a Gm

...Becoming a General Manager The bank was founded in 1960s it is located in Beirut, Lebanon in a town with 10 000 inhabitants. It offers services and products as cards, loans and accounts by targeting young families and customers between 20 and 64 years it has nearly 4000 customer and assets over 20million USD. Fifteen years back the branch experienced some financial difficulties but administrations succeeded to getting under control. The structure of the bank is a very simple one, its employees are Quebecers and all women it has 20 non-unionized employees with long term employment there Is a mutual trust and they all have a team work. In addition, this bank has new general manager Guylaine Dagenais 30 years old she has a certificate in management and many years of experience in the banking field. She has also got experience in many areas because she believes that the successful manager is the manager who passes through positions from the bottom to the top in order to obtain the necessary experience; she is resourceful, ambitious, dynamic, sociable, patient, and autocratic .She is a powerful woman who can reflect her power on others that is why she like to take her own decisions alone without getting the ok from anyone but to be fair she try to be objective. Moreover as a general manager she plays all the managerial roles very well she always look forward and thinks in term of end , she is used to think right and to care about details ,she motivate her employees and......

Words: 2606 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

On Becoming a Writer

...On Becoming a Writer 1 On Becoming a Writer English Composition April 27, 2013 On Becoming a Writer 3 The main idea of the essay is the fact that the author always had the desire to be a writer but he was faced with the difficult of writing during his time at school, his English classes were very hard and confused. The others points I found on this essay is: * The author faced and thought that only the rich people could write and that being a writer as professional did not have a good future, but even that he had begun to think about being a writer. So in his third year at college things changed for him. * When his class assigned to Mr. Fleagle, he was waiting another sad and dull year because the Mr. Fleagle was recognized as a person with no inspiration, no glare, his way of dressing or even his physical characteristics made the students in the city do not have a good conception of Mr. Fleagle. * Another important point that the author cites in his essay is he was not disappointed for a long time, because he expected an antipathetic professor. Also he cites the teacher wanted his students to like Macbeth, but the teacher didn’t know how to influence the students’ whit that passion he had for Macbeth. The author makes a citation which one the teacher always used in the classroom and is very interesting “do not you see”, the author claims it as his teacher was placed in front of students in a tone of mild surprise ignorance of them.......

Words: 750 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Becoming a Writer

...Russell bakers essay on becoming a writer stuck out to me in particular. I believe the reasoning behind this is his main emphasized point. Which was that English and literature itself was boring too him, however because he believed he had a skill for it, his desire to be unique with purpose was fulfilled. Ultimately the authors’ main intention in my own opinion was to compose an auto biography of sorts, to reminisce on his first step in becoming the person he is today. His audience is a little bit trickier to pick out, but if I had to put my finger on it, I would say without a doubt in my heart that his targeted audience was all the high school students who feel like English class is as bad as pulling teeth. He clearly intended to explain that he was no different than every other normal high school student, and then one day one assignment and one teacher, changed his entire future and outlook upon his own future. For this very reason he kept a very delightful tone throughout this writing. He almost conveyed a sense of wonder and joy at the very thought of that essay he wrote and the emotion he poured into it. Although the author had obviously plenty of emotions he was hoping to express through this essay, I feel obligated to shed light on my own. I feel pure happiness warming my heart and rushing through my chest and veins at the very basis of what happened in his story. To me, this story showed that everyone has a purpose and that with a little bit of open mindedness the......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Becoming a Parent

...Becoming a Parent Becoming a parent can be one of the biggest changes in our lives. There are many different views on what being a parent would be like. We see others as parents and adopt all sorts of thoughts, good and bad. In reality everyone is different and there isn’t much that can prepare you for what parenthood actually has to offer. Many people plan on becoming parents, usually when a relationship is strong and a couple is ready to settle down and start a family. Some become parents strictly by chance. It may be an unwanted scenario that was unplanned and what some would even call an “accident.” As for myself, I have always wanted to be a parent at some point in my life, but when it happened, it was definitely a surprise to me. I expected to be much further along in my life before parenthood was ever considered. When I heard the words, “I’m pregnant,” I didn’t know what to think. To me, it was too early and I wasn’t ready. I had to cope with the fact that my life was about to change. I tried to picture myself as a father and what I would have to do to get ready. I knew it was going to be hard but didn’t really think that it was going to be as hard as it actually was. I came up with all these ideas on what being a parent was going to be like. I was for certain I had everything planned out. The reality is, I was wrong. Everything changed, and all those thoughts and ideas that I had became useless from the moment my first child was born. In the beginning when my son...

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Becoming a Veterinarian

...Devyn R. Fowler Oct. 01, 2014 ENG 101 Becoming a Veterinarian Animals have been a major part of my life for as long as I could remember. Even as a baby, I was surrounded by all types of animals; dogs, cats, lizards, birds. Etc. The passion I have for animals inspired me to me to want to become a veterinarian. A veterinarian “is a person who is trained to give medical care and treatment to animals: an animal doctor” (Merriam-Webster). I can find no better career path for me then helping animals that are injured/in need of medical attention. If you weren’t aware, there are five main veterinarian jobs; livestock, companion, exotic, mixed, and lab animals. My interest lies only between two of the five jobs: livestock and companion. Knowing the differences and similarities between the two will help me better understand these jobs and also help me make a final decision on which specific career path to study. Livestock veterinarians specialize in exactly that, livestock animals (cows, horses, etc.). “Livestock veterinarians examine, diagnose, and treat individual livestock animals/herds” ( Another aspect would be treating animals that will be used for food. With that being said, a livestock veterinarian must “enforce food safety standards, check for transmittable diseases and quarantine animals as necessary” ( “Other duties include giving vaccinations and handing out......

Words: 1071 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Becoming a Physician

...Becoming a Physician: Good Idea or Not? By Marcus Gulley Economics 545 Aug. 1st, 2015 My niece, Jenny wants to know if becoming a doctor in the near future is something worth considering. On the surface becoming a physician was always a great and lucrative job, but is that still the case? The numbers from this particular article would say that might not be the case as physicians aren’t moving around as they once did. The people in the profession are scared to death so they are sticking with the stability in staying put other than moving around for greener pastures. Although job stability is a good thing to have, in the medical field is built for people to move around because it creates new jobs for the new doctors coming up. So there is a dilemma with becoming a doctor these days because the doctors are not moving and they are not in a rush to retire which is also blocking up and coming doctors. Considering the debt that is accrued during the time it takes to become a doctor and the amount of time it takes to become a doctor (10-14 years), not being able to find a job is very discouraging. With all that going on I’m going to show her that if she has a passion for this profession then she should definitely go for it. Demand Study results are suggesting that demand is growing a lot faster than supply. Demand for physicians continues to grow faster than supply, leading to a projected shortfall of between 46,100 and 90,400 physicians by 2025. Although......

Words: 2386 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Becoming a Cpa

...Becoming a Certified Public Accountant The passion for accounting has run in my family for three generations. Both my father and grandfather have excelled in the field, setting a great example for me to emulate. The journey to become a certified public accountant like them will be challenging. It will be a tough and demanding expedition, but achievable with the right plan and tools. To reach my goal of becoming a certified public accountant like them I will need to study hard, dedicate myself to it, and not to procrastinate. The first step to reaching my goal of becoming a certified public accountant is to study the hardest I’ve ever studied in my life. The academic requirements will demand my entire attention and intellectual capabilities in order to achieve them. I must recognize that the only way to learn and become more knowledgeable in accounting is to become one with the books; not skimming through them, frantically searching for key words in an attempt to get the answers as quickly as possible. I have to devote myself to study my coursework strategically, slowly, looking to acquire a firm understanding of the subject. Next, to reach my goal, I need to dedicate myself to the cause. Hard study by itself is not going to be enough. I have to apply myself and understand the burden implied with achieving such a challenging goal. Eliminating distractions and temptations is needed in order to completely focus on the goal. Understanding that my free time is not......

Words: 497 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Becoming an Accountant

...Becoming a Certified Public Accountant Dwaine Holmes Eng 315 Professor Giewont August 23, 2011 INTRODUCTION I am writing this paper to find out the proper steps it takes to become a certified public accountant (CPA). I have just received my associate’s degree in business administration with minor in accounting. I am looking to start my career in accounting, so I wanted to know what are the qualifications and procedures that are needed to become a successful CPA. There are different ranks in accounting, with CPA being the highest. With that being said, I needed more information on whether I needed the certification. The basic job description of an accountant is make sure financial records are correct and true. They also have to make sure taxes are paid by state and federal guidelines. PROBLEM STATEMENT Becoming an accountant is a very hard job to achieve. It takes a lot of dedication and schooling to make it happen. In order to become an accountant, you have to obtain certification in the State you are trying to work in. Each state has its own requirements that are made up by a state board of accountancy. Therefore, trying to get licensed in Virginia may be different in another state. There are four main levels of accounting, which are public, management, and government accounting. Internal auditing is the fourth. They all do the same job, but you may be limited on what you can do as an accountant. This is very important to know if you......

Words: 1212 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Becoming a Writer

...The essay “On Becoming a Writer” is written by Russell Baker, an author born in 1925, in Virgina. The excerpt is taken from the article “Growing Up”. “Growing Up” is a Pulitzer-prize winning memoir. The article describes the thoughts and emotions surrounding the moment that he realized his interest in writing. At the beginning of the story, Russell Bakers speaks about the art of writing and how it intrigues him. He also describes what was uninteresting about the English language, as well. He told how he found grammar to be boring and writing papers were much like completing a chore. Russell stated that reading classic novels were “deadening as chloroform” (Baker, 1982). He explained in the except that he did care to write essays because they seemed tedious to complete and difficult for others to read and comprehend in the manner that the author wrote it. I agree with this feeling because the content is usually presented in a dull manner, which causes students to lose interest in the topic. If teachers allow students to be more creative with their writing, such as writing about personal interests, I think it would make the subject more appealing. Further along in the story, Baker describes his junior year of high with his English teacher, Mr. Feagles. He tells us that Mr. Feagles was “prim to a fault” (Baker, 1982) and removed from reality with his expectations for the class. One of the course assignments was an informal essay, in which Baker procrastinated on due to his......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

On Becoming a Writer

...On Becoming a Writer Introduction How in writing I have found that many people feel the same way when it comes to writing essays for school. On the essay “On becoming a writer” by Baker (McGraw-Hill, n.d,) I discovered that even people that like writing find it difficult to write when the write environment is not in place. Mr. Baker from Virginia goes into describing how dull and boring it was to write in high school English class; trying to follow the classic writing rules to pass a class. His teacher sounds like the guy off of the dry eyes commercial with the slow, boring, make you go to sleep voice. Mr. Fleagle always ended his sermons with “Don’t you see?” (McGraw-Hill, n.d, p. 66). Points The most important point made is do what you love even if it seems to be a daunting task at times. Mr. Baker discovered after his school teacher read out loud his paper on “The art of eating spaghetti” (McGraw-Hill, n.d, p. 66) that he really enjoyed writing and that he liked how others felt about his writing. Mr. Baker liked watching people smile and laugh with the paper he wrote and it inspired him to write more. “I did my best to avoid showing pleasure, but what I was feeling was pure ecstasy at this startling demonstration that my words had the power to make people laugh” (McGraw-Hill, n.d, p. 68). Another important point that I got from Mr. Baker is to go with your first instinct when it comes to writing; your writing may catch the interest or spark the interest in others......

Words: 642 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Becoming the Boss

... Becoming the B The earliest test of leadership comes with that first assignment to manage others. Most new managers initially fail this test because of a set of common misconceptions about what it means to be in charge. by Linda A. Hill E Paul Blow the process of becoming a leader is an arduous, albeit rewarding, journey of continuous learning and self-development. The initial test along the path is so fundamental that we often overlook it: becoming a boss for the first time. That’s a shame, because the trials involved in this rite of passage have serious consequences for both the individual and the organization. Executives are shaped irrevocably by their first management positions. Decades later, they recall those first months as transformational experiences that forged their leadership philosophies and styles in ways that may continue to haunt and hobble them throughout their careers. Organizations suffer considerable human and financial costs when a person who has been promoted because of strong individual performance and qualifications fails to adjust successfully to management responsibilities. VEN FOR THE MOST GIFTED INDIVIDUALS, O S S | January 2007 | Harvard Business Review 49 THE TESTS OF A LEADER | Becoming the Boss The failures aren’t surprising, given the difficulty of the transition. Ask any new manager about the early days of being a boss – indeed, ask any senior executive to recall how he or she felt as a new......

Words: 5923 - Pages: 24

Graceland Serie TV Streaming Download | Watch movie | Car Battery R2 Terminal Bearing Wiper Arm Removal Remover Puller Tool 6-28mm