Challenges to Domestic and International Poverty Policy

In: Social Issues

Submitted By springboard
Words 1985
Pages 8
January 16, 2011

Challenges to Domestic and International Poverty Policy

The most recent Census Bureau statistics on poverty rates in the United States calculate that 14.3% of Americans were living in poverty in 2009, up from 13.7% in 2008. That corresponds to 43.6 million people living below the poverty threshold compared to 39.8 million the previous year, the third consecutive annual increase. (US Census Bureau) These numbers increase even further when using new standards suggested by the National Academy of Sciences in a 1995 report. These figures, released as an unofficial “Supplemental Poverty Measure” set the 2009 rate at 15.7%, or more than 47.8 million people. (Short, US Census Bureau) The global rates are even more astonishing, with Globalissues.org reporting World Bank data that has roughly 40% living on less than USD$2 per day, and a stunning 80% living on less than USD$10 per day in 2005. UNICEF estimates that 22,000 children under five years of age die of preventable diseases every single day. These are all sobering statistics, making the ravages of poverty both more concrete and more difficult to accept. An exploration of poverty, both domestic and international, involves a variety of fields and methods, from statistics to sociology, political science to psychology, and more. Such a multi-disciplinary topic allows for a wide range of different perspectives, and an array of different approaches.

As we see with the two different sets of data from the Census Bureau, and as Lister points out, the study of poverty is heavily influenced by the concepts and definitions adopted by the researcher, and the corresponding measurement standards applied. The basic Census Bureau statistics, for example, are based on the cost of an average “basket of goods”, a design that was formulated by Molly Orshansky of the Social Security Administration in 1963.…...

Similar Documents

Challenges for Canadian International Trade

...CHALLENGES FOR CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE GROWTH WITH MULTILATERALISM TRADE March 4, 2011 Abstract This essay contains the international trade between Canada to U.S. and Canada to China including the foreign exchange policy in each country and comparative advantages. It mostly focused on U.S and China between Canada’s relationships. The United States and China are the largest economic market in the world. Also these countries are Canada’s most favor relationship in the international market. In 2009, the international financial crisis became a huge issue of the world. Due to this financial crisis U.S got a lot of damage. It made also Canada’s economic downturn, because of strong reliant on U.S. Over view, Canada has to be a stronger country with more powers, in order to maintain a good relationship with many other countries to help each other and have more successful economic growth. GLOBAL ECONOMIV DOWNTURN FROM THE FINANCIAL CRISIS In 2009, there was a global economic downturn from the financial crisis. Because of this, many countries got a lot of money damages. This put the world economic in most hard situation. Most of the people in the world spent such a hard time in this area. The main sources of this happened from some countries which were largest markets in the world such as the United State and other developed countries. From this economic downturn many developed countries reduced imports from other countries. Therefore a lot of export......

Words: 2585 - Pages: 11

International Economics & Public Policy

... Report outlines the limitations to the idea that countries should be allowed to protect infant industries, like limiting it to a domestic market. Report also looks at Comparative Advantage theories explanation to countries varied fortunes, including the International trade theory and underlining the economic growth, because of the foreign trade. The last question that the report outlines is the economists believes on capitalism in regards to maximising welfare. As a result of the report it was decided to recommend the integration of producers of data categories into international chain.   Comparative Advantage theory • How does the Comparative Advantage theory explain countries’ varying fortunes? Use examples to explain your answer. International trade theory International trade plays an increasingly important role in economic development. Throughout the post-war period be volumes of world trade rapidly increased, and their environments- Annual growth (1.5 times) faster than the global the first volume of production. As a result, on the one hand, foreign trade has become a powerful factor for economic growth and on the other hand, significantly increased dependence on international trade. It is evident that international trade is growing because it benefits the participating countries. - Economic theory shows that international trade. There is a means by which developing countries Specialization can raise the productivity of existing resources and thereby...

Words: 2872 - Pages: 12

Policy Brief on Poverty

...There are many important key issues that affect international development such as ethnic conflicts, democracy, health, etc. However, this policy brief will focus on the issue of poverty in international development. It will define poverty and the causes of poverty such as unemployment, political instability and rapid urbanization. As well as, the impact these causes have on international development. Lastly, this policy brief will offer suggestions to eliminate poverty. Poverty is defined as the condition of having insufficient resources to live and is one of the largest problems in developing countries. In the poorest of developing countries, almost eighty percent of the population lives in absolute poverty; which has a variety of serious consequences on human lives (Handelman, 2011). With the rising rates of poverty, many face problems of famine and lack of lodging. Over half of the population of developing countries, live in urban slums. Urban slums are generally self-made homes of brick and tin close together where there is no access to clean drinking water, sanitation or urban services including health care. Sanitation is poor, if there is any at all, and the water is contaminated because of the sewage running through it. The immediate danger with this type of environment is the risk to the people’s health. This degree of poverty and lack of clean water leads to poor personal hygiene resulting in the proliferation of various harmful bacteria which results......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Challenges for International Human Resource Managers

...International human resource management (IHRM) is concerned with identifying and understanding how multinational organisations (MNC’s) manage their geographically dispersed workforce in order to sustain their competitive advantage. Literature shows that globalisation has brought about new challenges and increased complexity for human resource (HR) directors in managing organisational systems in areas of recruitment and selection and training and development (Kayworth and Leidner, 2000; Selmer, 2001; O’Leary, Cummings, 2002). Geographical dispersion has created trends correlated with several challenges IHR managers face when dealing with the global environment. These include issues associated with the Internet, time zones and employee isolation. Being in contact with different geographic locations leads IHR managers to do business with employees of different nationalities and cultures. The challenge for IHR managers is to avoid culture clashes and adequately prepare unit members, specifically expatriates, on adapting in a foreign environment (Tung, 1987; Selmer, 2001; Chauh, Hoffman, Jones and Williams, 2007). This essay will discuss these challenges in relation to IHR directors designing recruitment and selection processes and training and development programs. The essay will also describe briefly the challenges IHRM come across as a result of pressure to rationalise and differentiate their operations, and explain how these challenges prove IHRM to be more complicated than......

Words: 2747 - Pages: 11

Wolseys Domestic Policies

...Wolsey was The ignored illegal practice of enclosure, which involved the fencing-off of common land for sheep rearing, was a profitable method of agriculture that Wolsey clamped down on with an iron fist during his 'rule'. In 1517, aware of the impacts of enclosure on rural depopulation and poverty Wolsey began his assault on the illegal and immoral practice, with the beginning of a national inquiry. As part of the inquiry, many were brought to court and ordered to rebuild buildings and restore land for arable purposes. Wolsey's determination to end the practice of disclosure and bring those in power to justice was truly commendable. However, in reality the long-term impact of Wolsey's attempts to end enclosure were not as commendable: enclosure certainly continued and rural poverty continued to rise. This represented a failure in domestic policy, and proved that Wolsey did not hold complete power over the nobility. Upon Wolsey's appointment as Lord Chancellor in 1515, the Cardinal became a prominent and frequent member of both the Star Chamber and Court of Chancery. Through his positions on such councils, Wolsey made progression in fair justice to a huge extent, and this was seen as a key success. Presiding over many cases brought forward him; Wolsey ensured that anyone, regardless of class, was able to bring a case before the court. Indeed, under Henry VII, the Star Chamber only held 12 cases a year, whereas under Wolsey, it held ten times that. * Although these......

Words: 1352 - Pages: 6

Poverty and Domestic Violence

...R. A E E 1 Professor Dr. L. Hamilton SOC 106 11/25/13 Section 1: Growing up in poverty Poverty is everywhere, It is in every race and every country. A child that grows up in poverty is largely at risk because he or she may speak another language, or be less healthy, or has even been abused in one way or another. When children are in the school system and they are labeled “at-risk” and that means that the student comes from a low-socioeconomic level or speaks another language. Today, there are more single parents, dual earner couples, and parents with more than one job living in both rural and urban areas in the United States than at any other time in history. Statistics show there is approximately one in five American children who live below the national poverty level (Causes of Poverty). In today’s society, many people live below the poverty line and those numbers continue to increase because of our high unemployment rates. The Census Bureau reported that 12% of Americans live in poverty. According to the Department of Health and Human Services, the poverty level in 2009 for a family of four was $22,050. With today's unfortunate down turn of events in our economy, many families struggle to earn and still do not come close to that level. Welfare reform in the United States may pressure single mothers to be gainfully employed even though child care is extremely expensive and the mother may only have an income of minimum wage. At-risk children face so many......

Words: 2921 - Pages: 12

International Policy

...INTERNATIONAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA. INTRODUCTION • According to the International Labour Office, any activity other than study or play, remunerated or unremunerated, carried out by a person under the age of 15 years is defined as child labour. • 90 % of the total child employment is concentrated in Asia & Africa, with more than 44 million child labourers in India alone. REVIEW OF LITERATURE • Economic Impact of child labour- a) Micro family level- Short run effect on house hold income, long run effect on house hold poverty through human capital. b) Macro variables- Long run growth & development, FDI & Labour market. • Forms of Child Labour- a) Hazardous and non-hazardous activities b) Agricultural and non-agricultural work c) Jobs in the modern and traditional industries d) Economic and non-economic activities e) wage earners and unpaid family workers • Effect of Child Labour- a) Loss of human capital. b) Slows down technological progress. c) Health problem. • Causes of Child Labour- a) Lack of enforcement of minimum age requirement (confusion regarding description of age limit of child) b) Poverty & schooling problem (inaccessibility of school & lack of quality education). c) Rigid cultural & social role limiting educational attainment. d) Acceptance of social class separation.(lower castes expected to perfirm manual......

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

International Tax Policy 2012

... Nations’  Role  in  International  Tax  Policy   A Research and Policy Brief for the Use of the NGO Committee on Financing for Development Hamrawit Abebe, Ryan Dugan, Michael McShane, Julie Mellin, Tara Patel, and Linda Patentas Graduate Program in International Affairs, Milano School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy, The New School March 7, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND AND PERSPECTIVES BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS THE OECD, G77, G20, AND EU ON UPGRADING THE UN TAX COMMITTEE KEY INSTITUTIONAL PLAYERS ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST A UN TAX BODY 3 4 8 12 17 REFLECTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OECD AND UN TAX COMMITTEE GLOBAL TAX POLICIES POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 20 28 38 APPENDIX GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS REFERENCES 44 48 52 2 Executive Summary The report provides an analytical view on the role of the United Nations in tax policy, highlighting the interventions made by and challenges to key players in attempts to streamline global tax cooperation. The first section of the paper provides a background on the importance of tax related issues, emphasizing its importance within the Monterrey Consensus. Debates are introduced between two key institutional players regarding global tax cooperation, the OECD’s  Committee  on  Fiscal  Affairs  and  the  UN  Tax  Committee. Views from key players the OECD, Group of 77, Group of 20, and European Union are addressed in the areas of international tax cooperation,......

Words: 20133 - Pages: 81

Wolsey's Domestic Policies

...Wolsey's domestic policies: WOLSEY AND LAW Positives Wolsey was Lord Chancellor, and often sat in the Star Chamber to ensure he was at the heart of all things legal (that wasn't his catchphrase though) In 1516 Wolsey put forward a plan to try and make the legal system cheaper and more efficient The Star Chamber took on many more cases. In Henry VII's reign it took on roughly 12 cases per year, but under Wolsey this reached an average of 120 cases a year. An example is the case of the Earl of Northumberland, who was sent to Fleet Prison in 1515 Wolsey also sat as a judge in the Court of Chancery Land enclosure was banned, making it fairer on ordinary people Negatives The huge number of cases the Star Chamber took on led to the system becoming overworked The popularity of the Star Chamber somewhat overshadowed Wolsey's work in the Court of Chancery Wolsey may have banned enclosure to spite nobles who hated him as opposed to banning it in the name of equality and fairness WOLSEY AND FINANCE Positives Wolsey invented the parliamentary subsidy, which was flexible and based on the taxpayer's wealth - this raised £300,000 for the crown There was a tax reform, which was overseen by John Hales Wolsey got a subsidy from the Southern Convocation Wolsey carried out a military survey called the General Prescription, which allowed for loans of £260,000 to be collected Negatives People didn't like the parliamentary subsidy, believe it or not... Despite the......

Words: 603 - Pages: 3

Domestic Determinants of Foreign Policy

...The impact of domestic determinants on foreign policy has long been a widely debated topic in the field of international relations, and foreign policy analysis in particular. Some scholars argue that domestic politics and foreign policy are two independent arenas of issues. Others believe that the two respective issues do not stop at the water’s edge. Foreign policy and domestic politics are interdependent and could spill over into each other. While both schools of scholars make some convincing arguments about their respective cases, it’s probably reasonable to expect that the degree of influence between domestic and international determinants of foreign policy is contingent on different foreign policy contexts. In some cases, international factors play a more important role, whereas in other cases, domestic reasons are more important. In this presentation, I put forth a conglomeration and an intellectual web analysis in examining the domestic determinants of national foreign policy. Prior to reaching this goal a definition offered by Webber and smith in 2000 on foreign policy is stipulated. The interpretation of domestic determinants as illustrated by Sulliban is furthermore encapsulated. According to Webber and Smith, A country's foreign policy, also called the international relations policy, is a set of goals outlining how the country will interact with other countries economically, politically, socially and militarily, and to a lesser extent, how the country......

Words: 3397 - Pages: 14

International Policy

...MGMT 5136: International Business and Public Policy |Burgeoning International markets and evolving domestic public policy have had a dramatic impact on the American banking industry. In my current role| |at Bank of America I have been able to witness the affects of these two contingent factors with my industry, my firm, and directly with my job. The | |effects of international business and public policy related to banking have been widely observed of late. With the recent media focus on financial | |service firms it is widely accepted that policy changes fundamentally alters firms’ operating environment and mark transitions to a new era of | |financial reform. As an industry, banking is simultaneously embedded in and affected by these two external conditions and the effect of one on the | |industry is often contingent upon the other. | |Banking has recently seen exponential domestic and foreign growth that can be attributed to expanding international trade policies and evolving | |public policy. This liberalization of trade in financial services has been a visible result from international economic and financial integration. | |International trade has been spurred on by economic and technological developments that facilitate the flow of goods, services, capital, and even | |people. This rapid expansion is evident at the bank when you......

Words: 1337 - Pages: 6

Wolsey Domestic Policy

...that Wolsey’s domestic policies were disappointing as he did not go through with his word and did not have enough power to apply his authority over the nobles and other religious figures which were all below and also some above him. These people needed controlling. Source T agrees with the statement and says that, not only were his policies disappointing, but so was Wolsey himself. Source V has more of an negative view of Wolsey’s policies and they were disappointing but this was not Wolsey’s fault as his had a lot of work to do and Henry had no other trusted advisors. Source V says that ‘there is a danger of judging by anachronistic standards’ which means that whilst we may see that the policies were ineffective as we are used to having ‘changes and improvements’ made, during Wolsey’s time it was more about seeking ‘stability and security’. This shows that during his time in office these policies were effective and we in the modern society are judging him too harshly, he was able to seek out stability financially by introducing a very modern taxation system in that if you earn more you paid more in tax, which was another dislike of the nobles. Also his justice policies especially brought about a more stable justice system, not only for the rich but for the poor too. However Source T disproves this theory as this was written at the time and shows that the whole country hated his policies. Source V aims to present an even argument for and against Wolsey’s policies, whereas......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Domestic vs International Business

...Question 3 “Ultimately, the study of international business is no different from the study of domestic business. Thus, there is no point in having a separate course on international business.” Evaluate that statement. Introduction The study of international business is more mind boggling than the study of domestic business. After mulling over the question for some time, I figured out that there is definitely some contrast between a domestic and international business. The difference between the businesses is that, International business is the exchange of goods and services across national borders whilst, Domestic business conducts commercial activities within the borders of the home country. Thus, after learning about the definition of both of them I can say that I do not agree with the statement. Therefore, in these following paragraphs, I will be discussing the differences between studying International business and Domestic business with the aid of two examples. Body When one travels from their home country to another foreign land, he/she do lots of planning. Example, he/she looks for the places to go, what is the currency difference, what is their cultural norms, what is their national language, do the locals converse in English, what is the country’s rules and regulations, and others. In the same way, when we are doing business with a foreign country we need to consider matters like the above. Hence, International business possess a much higher and complex......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

International Policy

...and efficient international policies would be the key component to for U.S to communicate with other countries. So, how about the international policies in that period? How was it related to the domestic policies? The international policies the United States adopted were tied to its domestic policies in many aspects, such as the impression of women as well as the racial economy related to corporate culture. When it came to the impression of women in the international policy, the word, “diplomatic wives”, occurred to the mind. From the perspective of domestic part, women obtained their desired right to the elective franchise in 1920. It indicated the improvement of women’s status and their involvement in politics aspect. From the perspective of international policies, as in the article of Diplomatic Wives stated, “hundreds of married women accompanied their Foreign Service husbands to diplomatic and consular posts” (Wood 3). Those diplomatic not only preformed their traditional responsibilities as wives but also maintain American representation in diplomatic missions. For example, they would live well and dress appropriate without enough expense fee just in order to show goodwill of America. All of the involvement of women in diplomatic derived from the improvement of women status in the United States. Therefor, domestic and international policy were connected in the part of women’s effect. Another connection between domestic policy and international policy was racial......

Words: 438 - Pages: 2

Domestic vs International Business

...MG1054 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Alexandra Donea Student number: 1019599 Assignment 1 International Business vs Domestic Business “International business is the study of transactions taking place across borders for the purpose of satisfying the needs of individuals and organizations. These economic transactions consist of trade, as in case of exporting and importing, and foreign direct investment, as the case of companies funding operations in other countries. It refers to all those business activities which involves cross border transaction of goods, services, resources between two or more nations. Transaction of economic resources include capital, skills, people, etc. for international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, construction, etc..” ( Rugman, Collinson, 2006, p.5) “Over half of all world trade and approximately 80 per cent of all foreign direct investment is made by the 500 largest firms in the world. These companies, called multinational enterprises (MNEs), are firms that are headquartered in one country but have operations in one or more other countries. Well known multinational corporations include fast food companies (McDonald’s, Pizza Hut), electronics companies ( Sony, Samsung) and vehicle manufactures ( General Motors)”. (Rugman, Colinson, 2006, p. 38). Areas of study within this topic include differences in legal and political systems, economic policy, accounting standards, labour......

Words: 1216 - Pages: 5

Neon Joe Werewolf Hunter | Pełniejsza chata / Fuller House | Game Of Thrones - Season 1