Characteristics of Organisation 2

In: Business and Management

Submitted By scklbais
Words 1425
Pages 6

Organizations have a need for all types of skills and abilities.
The total burden of labor in an organization is divided up so that people with different levels of intelli­gence and skills can each find their own productive place.

Management issues in organizational structure
Line and staff employees
The first management consideration is to examine !low employees are distinguished from each other in terms of how they' fit in' to a typical organizational structure - the issue of line and staff employees.
Different specialist divisions and departments within an organization contain a predominance of either line or staff employees.
Line employees
Those those are directly responsible for achieving the organiza­tion's objectives.
Line employees are therefore found in departments that are responsible for producing, selling or servicing the organization's products
(E.g. in oper­ations, marketing and after-sales servicing).
Staff employees
Are responsible for supporting the line employees in their tasks.
Staffs are therefore found in departments that advise, support or provide expertise, such as personnel, research and development and finance.

A business producing cars is known for its car-making activities. Its primary objective is to produce and market cars in order to make profit.
The company needs its staff func­tions because of its line function; The personnel and finance functions would have no purpose at all unless they were in support of the company's primary (car-making) activities - performed by the line employees.
Nissan is not known primarily for the quality of its finance function (important though this is), but for the output of its line employees - its cars.

Span of control

The span of control, sometimes called the span of management, is a simple concept which describes the number of…...

Similar Documents

S Examining the Major Characteristics of Mesopotamian (1) and Greco-Roman (2) Culture.

...Start here for a refreshing PC experience. Contents Section 1: Setting up your new PC........................4-15 Section 2: Setting up your Windows Live ID.........16-23 Section 3: A quick overview of your new PC........24-28 Section 4: Information and support....................29-31 3 Setting up your new PC Use this guide to get up and running in nine simple steps. 4 Microsoft Engineers have spent time carefully tuning your Microsoft Signature PC to help achieve maximum performance, as well as, including software that makes it really fly. For you, that translates to a uniquely enjoyable experience. Your new computer is modified for even more reliability and streamlined to be as fast as it can be. And with Windows LiveTM Essentials, Internet Explorer® 9, Zune® music software, Microsoft® Security Essentials, and more, it’s loaded with features that are in perfect step with your lifestyle. With Microsoft Signature your computer’s contents and settings may differ somewhat from those of the manufacturer. Therefore, you should use this guide to set up your new PC. You’ll be off and running in just a few minutes. To get started, follow the simple steps beginning on the next page. 5 Step 1: Assign a name First things first. Power on your new computer, and you’ll be prompted to create a user name and computer name. 6 Step 2: Create a password It’s a good idea to create a password for your account. You can enter one here. Choose a password that......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6


...declining unemployment rate, which does not necessarily means opportunities for workers are increasing. It is understood that those leaving the workforce to retire are older, more highly skilled workers, while those entering the workforce are younger and unskilled. In Jamaica, job training and secondary education is generally poor, hence the younger workforce cannot expect high paying jobs. Unemployment is particularly high among women and younger workforce. Trade Unions Labour unions existed in Jamaica before political parties came into being: the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union was formed in 1938 to protect the rights of workers. The government of Jamaica supports workers rights convention supported by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and has set conditions governing industrial and human relations, established minimum wage standards, and protected low-wage workers from income tax. Additionally, these benefits are provided: social security benefits, which include a retirement pension, food stamps, employment injury, rehabilitation and training. Despite the protection offered by unions and government regulations, conditions for workers in Jamaica are not ideal. Labour actions, strikes, slowdowns and protest have frequently disturbed worked life. The education and training system is Jamaica is of such low quality that few workers have the skills to secure higher paying skilled jobs. The adult literacy rate is significantly higher in Jamaica than......

Words: 658 - Pages: 3


...materials, machinery, equipment, etc. This is the point when organising becomes necessary. As more people are appointed, there has to be further division and sub-division of work among them. When an organisation becomes large, separate departments are created to perform different functions. Each department has to be divided into a number of smaller units. Ultimately, the work of the organisation is divided into a number of positions of employees and managers. Relationships are then established among the different positions in the organisation. The outcome of the organising process is a set of formal relationships which is known as organisation structure. In this lesson, we shall study about the process of organising which leads to the setting up of an organisation structure. 13.2 OBJECTIVES After studying lesson, you will be able to : � state the meaning and the process of organising; � enumerate the steps in the organising process; � explain what is done in each step; � state the meaning of authority, responsibility and accountability; � recall the meaning of organisation structure; � describe how an organisation structure is created; � outline the principles of organisation; � describe the types of authority relationships; and � distinguish between formal and informal organisations. 13.3 MEANING AND PROCESS OF ORGANISING Organising refers to the way in which the work of a group of people is arranged and distributed among group members. The function of......

Words: 4429 - Pages: 18


...organisation -organisation is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall or set of goals. -organisation is primarily driven by set of goals and aims. -an organisation will have controlled performance with standards, its members identifying: goals, measurement and comparisons of actual versus plan, corrective action. -the most basic organisation will have function such as finance, production and sales. -organisations have a purpose whether it is a company producing and selling ice cream, a charity, a tennis club. -organisations are made up at least 2 people. They have purposes, they use resources, to achieve the purposes. They perform activities in a planned and controlled manner. -the common characteristics of organisations are as follow: -each has an identity_ such as name -each has a purpose or objective_ such as written constitution -each relies of people to achieve objectives -each has a form of structure co-ordinating the people in the achievement of their tasks. Types of organisations There are different types of organisations: 1-Sole traders 2-The partnership 3-Companies 4-Franchising The sole trader The sole trader is the most common form of business ownership and is found in a wide range of activities (e.g. window cleaning, plumbing, electrical work, busking). No complicated paperwork is required to set up a sole trader business. Decisions can be made quickly and close contact can be kept with customers and......

Words: 1740 - Pages: 7

Unit 2 Business Organisations P1 and P2 Helpsheet

...sectors. Mission Statement: • Many organisations have a mission statement. A mission statement is… • The wording may be different depending on the sector. For example in the private sector… • In the public sector… • In the not-for-profit sector… (Use examples of mission statements from the three organisations you are using) Aims and Objectives: • Aims are… (definition, time to achieve, examples are profit maximisation, break-even, survival, service provision, sales, growth, market share, relationships with other businesses) • Objectives are…(definition, time to achieve, how do they relate to aims) • Objectives have to be SMART because… This means…(explain each element) Private Sector Aims and Objectives: • The organisation that I will write about is…(identify main products/services provided) • The aims of the organisation are… • To achieve these aims, the organisation can set objectives such as… Public Sector Aims and Objectives: • The organisation that I will write about is…(identify main products/services provided) • The aims of the organisation are… • To achieve these aims, the organisation can set objectives such as… Not-for-Profit Sector Aims and Objectives: • The organisation that I will write about is…(identify main products/services provided) • The aims of the organisation are… • To achieve these aims, the organisation can set objectives such......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

P1 Unit 2 Business Describe the Recruitment Documentation Used in a Selected Organisation

...P3 + M1 Physical and Technological resources need to be managed well in Coca Cola or any other organisation. Physical resources include for example; the buildings, maintenance and the safety of the premises. Technological resources include the machinery, physical equipment, graphs, designs and drawings. Physical; Physical resources are needed in the Coca Cola business setting to assure the organisation has specific places/ buildings to work efficiently. These resources need to be maintained so that Coca Cola can perform well in each of their activities and roles, this also includes assuring safety in the work setting and making sure all the machinery and plant (where manufacturing takes place; labelling, bottling, filling machines etc.) work well and are in good condition. Coca Cola has resources such as different buildings and facilities for eg; They have office buildings to make sure they seem presentable and professional; their office properties have a modern look with a presentable entrance and reception, conference rooms, lecture rooms, also comfortable lounges for the guests and staff at Coca Cola. The Coca Cola head offices have departments like the ICT, human resources, marketing and sales, also finance because these areas will work more efficiently in an office setting which consists of the appropriate equipment, chairs, tables, computers, organised space etc. For example in the ICT departments walking in you may find more hardware than in any other......

Words: 2682 - Pages: 11

Mangement and Organisation

...Organisation Culture Research Commonwealth Bank Australia   Executive Summary Organisation culture is a unique combination of the set of values that the members of an organisation believe in. It is a very important determinant of the conditions prevailing in an organisation and the culture says a lot about the values, beliefs and structure of a company. The essence of the culture of an organisation is captured by seven primary characteristics. These are measured on a high to low scale and they are very commonly used to provide a synthesized picture of an organisation’s culture. Eventually, this serves as a basis for the feeling of the shared understanding that members have about the organisation at hand, the way in which the members are expected to behave and the way in which things are done (Lok & Crawford, 1999). Commonwealth Bank has a good employee friendly organisation culture and is more or less a blend of the seven characteristics of organisation cultures. However, it is always better to avoid the flaws in each type of culture and adapt to only the meritorious attributes of these cultures. For this purpose, it is significant to analyse one’s own corporate environment and then figure out which blend of cultures suits best to the organisation as whole. The Bank focuses greatly on the incentivising the performance of the employees, in making the organisation more people oriented, getting a perfect mix of both innovative and stable organisation, in improving the......

Words: 5655 - Pages: 23

P1-Describe How Marketing Techniques Are Used to Market Products in 2 Organisations

...can be further coverage of the products without necessarily changing the product. This is made possible through the use of promotional techniques, putting various pricing policing. McDonalds used market penetration because when you buy a coffee from McDonalds you will be given a loyalty card where if you buy 6 of them you will be given one coffee for free enticing customers to buy more of the coffees which will result in an increase in market share because more people will be buy McDonalds coffees instead of going somewhere like Starbucks. Product development is the creation of products with new or different characteristics that offer new or additional benefits to the customer. Product development may involve modification of an existing product or its presentation, or formulation of an entirely new product that satisfies a newly defined customer want or market niche (2). McDonalds used product development with the Mcflurry by adding new flavours on to it to attract interests from customers they may not necessary like the old flavours or people that may be bored of them. Market development is a growth strategy that targets and develops new market segments for existing products. A market development strategy targets customers that are non-buying in currently targeted sections. It also targets new customers in new segments. Market development strategy entails expanding the potential market through new users or new uses. New users can be defined as: new geographic segments,......

Words: 559 - Pages: 3

Organisation Behaviour Chapter 2 , Case Incident you expect will be most profound? Managers need to recognize and capitalize on differences to get the most from their employees. Age diversity will create new challenges for managers because of a potential age difference between a younger manager and an older employee. As technology changes, the older generational workers will be seen “as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology”. The most profound challenge associated with increased age diversity will be integrating newer technology and practices in corporations to the older workforce. Technology these days is rapidly progressing and it will prove tough for managers to stay on top of their older employees to stay up to date with the most common practices and technology. 2-21 What can managers and employees of all ages do to prevent negative attitudes concerning age differences in the workplace? I think age is just a number. A way in which organizations can cope with the differences related to age discrimination in the workplace could include blending older generational employees with newer ones. If older people are hardworking and open to learn new stuff and new technology, they can perfectly learn from the younger people. But the younger people also have to be open to qualities like “experience, judgment, a strong work ethic and commitment to quality.” The older work force can help by teaching the younger work force about what it means to work hard and focusing on life skills relevant to the job......

Words: 402 - Pages: 2


...If one examines predialectic appropriation, one is faced with a choice: either accept textual neocultural theory or conclude that the goal of the reader is deconstruction, given that neomodern cultural theory is valid. Lacan promotes the use of predialectic appropriation to challenge capitalism. In a sense, the premise of neomodern cultural theory states that class has significance. “Society is impossible,” says Derrida. The characteristic theme of Porter’s[1] essay on Debordist situation is the role of the observer as writer. However, if predialectic appropriation holds, the works of Burroughs are postmodern. The main theme of the works of Burroughs is the futility, and eventually the paradigm, of capitalist sexual identity. The subject is contextualised into a neomodern cultural theory that includes culture as a totality. Thus, Lacan uses the term ‘constructivism’ to denote the role of the observer as artist. The characteristic theme of Cameron’s[2] analysis of neomodern cultural theory is not, in fact, theory, but posttheory. It could be said that the opening/closing distinction depicted in Eco’s The Name of the Rose is also evident in The Limits of Interpretation (Advances in Semiotics). The subject is interpolated into a pretextual constructivist theory that includes consciousness as a reality. Thus, Sontag’s model of predialectic appropriation holds that the significance of the observer is social comment. Lacan uses the term ‘neomodern......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Level 2 Lean Organisation Management Techniques

...lean environment. Learning objective Place in Assessment 1.1 Explain the principles of lean organisation techniques Question 1 Page 1, 2 1.2 Explain the benefits of a lean environment Question 2 Page 2 1. What are the principles of lean organisation techniques? Name and describe the 5 main principles below. [1.1] Principle 1: Specify what creates value for customers Find out what the customer wants and what counts a s value for money it then becomes easier to see the non-value activities which then can be removed. Principle 2: Identify the steps along the process chain From start to finish identify how value will be delivered to the customer, and then remove all unnecessary processes. Principle 3: Make processes flow by eliminating waste The activity or process has been identified the task in hand would be to find and remove or minimise the no-value waste. Principle 4: Respond to customer demand Find out what the customer wants so the business will produce what is needed exactly when the customer needs it. Principle 5: Strive for perfection at all times by continually improving A Lean business is always looking for ways to improve and minimise waste. It is always re evaluating to ensure this happens 2. Explain the benefits of a lean environment. [1.2] Use your own experience (either of your workplace or an organisation that you know well) to help you evidence your answer. Alternatively, you can base your answer......

Words: 2730 - Pages: 11


...How does personality influence employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment? Introduction Organisations over the years are facing one of the toughest challenges of having a committed workforce in order to feature in the worldwide economic competition. Besides that, the leading challenge in management is how to assign suitable working position for employees. An employee who is satisfied with their job would perform and commit to their job and organization. Schultz and Schultz (2001) define personality traits are unique; this is because it can be internal or external aspects of a person’s character that will influence behavior. Personality traits are an important construct that has been used to predict job commitment (Judge,Heller & Mount, 2002). Besides that, personality five-factor model is also correlated with overall level of job satisfaction experienced by employees (Judge et al, 2002). Early researches tend to focus on job satisfaction as the key attitude related to employee behaviour such as job commitment and turnover (Locke, 1976).The relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been investigated extensively (Okpara, 1996) found that overall job satisfaction is significantly positively correlated with organizational commitment. However, it does not mean job satisfaction and organizational commitment is same. The objective of this assignment is to discuss and explore how personality traits can influence Job Satisfaction and......

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5


...Characteristics of Service Quality to Delight Customers A customer of The Container Store completed her purchase and headed for her car, children in tow. She placed her package on the ground as she put the children in the car and then drove off forgetting the package. Realizing her mistake just a few minutes late, she returned to the parking lot, but the package was gone. She re-entered the store hoping that someone had turned in her package, but no one had. Salesperson James Castleberry remembered the customer and asked her what she had bought. He then proceeded to gather up the products, handed them to the customer without charge, and said “Your day will get better”. And it did, starting that moment. Special Expeditions market offer is wondrous nature in its most authentic and - weather permitting – most glorious state. It provides total experience rather than only entertainment. Travellers interact with nature so closely that their experience often changes their lives. Special Expeditions ship The Sea Lion, was suffering a problem with the steering controls. The Engineers worked through the night but the ship would be late getting to Vancouver to pick up the passengers. The company owner, Mr. Sven-Olof Lindblad, called an old friend, the renowned wildlife artist Robert Bateman, who has a home overlooking the water at Fulford Harbour. Passengers were ferried from Vancouver to Fulford Harbour, fed dinner, and entertained at the Mr. Bateman home. The Sea......

Words: 1803 - Pages: 8


...“Arabs are an ethnic group and Muslims are a religious group.” Other differences’ between the two are that they hail from different geographical and ancestral backgrounds, and they arrived to the United States at different times.” One policy change that has occurred in the past few years (post 9/11) is that there is a close surveillance of Muslims charity organizations. Another change is that it has been a decrease in the number of visas being given to people coming from Muslims countries (Voices of America, 2006). Orientalism is defining by our text as the simplistic view of the people and history of the Orient with no recognition of change over time or the diversity within its many cultures (Schaefer, 2006). A couple of characteristics of orientalism are that it is an outdated way of looking at Muslim and Arab people without taking into account changes over the years and how they live currently. Also it is a blanket concept that does not look at all of the different cultures within these groups (Schaefer, 2006, p. 286). Orientalism is an ignorant concept and ignorance often leads to meaningless violence hence this uneducated state of mind can directly relate to hate crimes. The best way to promote tolerance and reduce prejudice is by educating people to whom and what Arabs and Muslims really are. Usually, prejudice is caused by a fear of something. If that fear is taken away, by learning about Arabs and Muslims, then there will be no need for prejudice. Another......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Learning Organisation

...Question 2 Introduction The concept learning organisation has gained much prominence in the last few decades. It seems organizations are recognizing the importance of organisational learning as a whole rather than few individuals within the organisation that have expertise. Organisational learning not only improves the knowledge of employees, but skills and behaviours as well. Although it takes time; effort by management; and financial means the benefits and opportunities created by a learning organisation far outweighs its limitations. In order to assess the progress of Standard Bank in becoming learning organisation, the following will be covered in my essay. Firstly I will define the concept learning organisation; secondly I will address the characteristics of a learning organisation; thirdly I will identify the progress of Standard Bank in becoming a learning organisation with regards to the characteristics; furthermore I will identify barriers to organisational learning at Standard Bank; and lastly I will provide recommendations of Standard Bank’s efforts in becoming a learning organisation. 2.1 Learning organisation defined According to Senge (1990:3) learning organisations are “organisations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.” According...

Words: 3515 - Pages: 15

michael porter | PoinBreak 3D HOU BluRay 3D 1080p | Economic growth in China - 917 Words