Chemistry Has a Language

In: Science

Submitted By 104922
Words 559
Pages 3
Language of Chemistry
To What degree might each area of knowledge be seen as having its own language? Its own culture?
How can we tell the difference between a foreign language and a variation of our native language? 1) How chemistry has its own language a) Chemistry: 2H2 + O2 2H2O

b) English: Two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water.
This represents how chemistry has its own language because it uses different grammar rules and even different characters when it is written. a) (this could be considered an abbreviation instead of its own language because both the equation and the sentence have the exact same meaning. This still doesn’t mean that it is a language because it can directly translate into English which contradicts the Worf theory of language.) b) The following two equations are examples of complicated chemical equations. It would take a large amount of time and space to translate either of these two into English. 1) Chemistry also has its own rules (grammar) c) Both hydrogen and oxygen are “special” elements that, when written by themselves, must be bonded by another atom of the same element. This is represented by the small 2 written immediately after each element. d) The equation must always be balanced. This means that the same number of atoms on one side of the equation must match the number on the other side. This is represented by a large number immediately before the atom/molecule. In this equation both numbers are “2”

2) When chemistry doesn’t completely translate into English e)

f) English: ethanol,(drinking alcohol) E85 g) A lot of information is lost when it is translated into english. This supports the Worf theory. (contradiction would be the cloak theory) h) It turns out that the word ethanol…...

Similar Documents


...Second and Third language Since god separated human’s by causing their languages differ that led to the failure to build a building that is tall enough to reach the skies as according to The Bible, everyone have a different mother tongue, or known as the First Language. As for me, my mother tongue was Mandarin. According to my lovely mother, I was born in a Chinese family background, and I was raised speaking Mandarin as my first language. The first few proper words that I was able to utter properly were in Mandarin as well. Thus, I speak Mandarin as my mother tongue. Although my first education institution was the kindergartens, I was not taught to refine and improve my language skills thoroughly. Few years after that, I was enrolled into a Chinese Primary School, St. James Primary, where most of the students there speak Mandarin as well. Starting from Primary level, I’ve been taught to refine my language skills for few more language. From listening, speaking, to reading and also writing, I learnt new words every day in my primary school life. The next language that I learnt in my life was no other than English. English was one of the most important languages in the world as it remains the most spoken and used language regardless of aspects, let it be commercial or general use or even politics. I was taught to speak English since primary level as it was introduced into our learning syllabus. But I was not granted the chance to improve and enhance my language skills......

Words: 544 - Pages: 3


...civilization. Science has provided us remarkable insights into the world we live in. The scientific revolutions of the 20th century have led to many technologies, which promise to herald wholly new eras in many fields, As we stand today at the beginning of a new century, we have to ensure fullest use of these developments for the well being of our people. Science and technology have been an integral part of Indian civilisation and culture over the past several millennia. Few are aware that India was the fountainhead of important foundational scientific developments and approaches. These cover many great scientific discoveries and technological achievements in Mathematics, Astronomy, Architecture, Chemistry, Metallurgy, Medicine, Natural Philosophy and other areas. A great deal of this traveled outwards from India. Equally, India also assimilated scientific ideas and techniques from elsewhere, with open-mindedness and a rational attitude, characteristic of a scientific ethos. India's traditions have been founded on the principles of universal harmony, respect for all creations and an integrated holistic approach. This background is likely to provide valuable insights for future scientific advances. During the century prior to independence, there was an awakening of modem science in India through the efforts of a number of outstanding scientists. They were responsible for great scientific advances of the highest international caliber.Apart from the vast changes it has brought......

Words: 278 - Pages: 2

Ethical Language Has No Meaning

...Ethical language has no meaning. Discuss (35 Marks) The meaning and function of ethical language is the focus of meta-ethics. It can be discussed whether ethical language has any meaning at all by looking at different perspectives. An ethical naturalist would say that all ethical statements are the same as non-ethical ones; they’re factual and can, therefore, be true or false. So ‘Thomas More was executed for his beliefs in 1535’ and ‘Thomas More was a good man’ can be proved true or false by looking at the evidence. If we can find evidence, we can conclude that Thomas More was good and if not, we can conclude he was not. The same holds for any moral issue for example if one wants to know if euthanasia is right or wrong. They simply look at the evidence so they can test the accuracy of the statement, and from this they could argue that euthanasia ends suffering for an individual, therefore euthanasia is right. Ethical naturalist is an objective and cognitive theory, which means that they claim that there are moral facts and that they can be known, perhaps through reason, or through revelation and that they are true for everyone, for all time. Therefore ethical naturalists see ethical language as meaningful because they argue that ethical language has an underlined content of purpose. For example a knife is good if it cuts sharply. Therefore ethical language is showing what terms such as ‘good’ mean through the content of purpose within an ethical statement and is......

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5

Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry

...Chem Notes Unit 1: Quantitative Chemistry, Measurement and Data Processing Unit Conversions: dm3 (decimeter^3) = L (liters) cm3 (centimeter^3) = mL (milliliters) 0 ° C (degrees celsius) = 273.15 K (Kelvin) convert Celsius into Kelvin by adding 273.15 to the current value The difference between Accuracy and Precision: Accuracy → difference between average of measured values and true value Precision → the reproducibility of the measurements, how close they are to eachother Types of Error: Systematic Error → fundamental flaws in equipment, observer. Leads to values all higher or lower than actual value. High precision, low accuracy. Random Error → uncertainty in measurement devices. Leads to random variation in values. Always occurs and can generally not be improved. Precise measurements have low random error. Accurate measurements have low systematic error and generally low random error. Uncertainties: Graduated/Analog Device → ±1/2 of the smallest increment on the device. Digital Device → ±1 on the last digit the device records (it estimates for you.) Exact Values → No uncertainty. For all uncertainties the recorded value MUST be to the same decimal place as the uncertainty. Change your final answer's significant digits if necessary. Uncertainties should be rounded to ONE digit. Propagation of Uncertainties: Addition and Subtraction → Add uncertainties. Multiplication and Division → Calculate Relative Uncertainty by dividing...

Words: 4509 - Pages: 19

Chemistry reproducible each measurement is , how close each measurement is to the other measurements * Accuracy : how close the measured values are to the true value. Temperature Conversions (on the exam) Chemical Language * Elements (Na,Cl)- letters of the language * Chemical Formulas (NaCl)- words of the language Water Vs. Hydrogen Peroxide (on the exam) * The use of Hydrogen peroxide: nuclear, bomb, bleach hair,etc * Molecular formula : water: H2O, Hydrogen Peroxide : H2o2 * Empirical Formula: water HO, Hydrogen peroxide: HO * Structural Formula : water HOH, hydrogen peroxide: HOOH quetion: how many atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are present in a single molucule of citric acid C3H5O(CO2H)3 Carbon: 6 Hydrogen :8 Oxygen: 7 Chemical Bonding * Bonds form between atoms when they share electrons * Different types of bonds: Ionic compounds: metal+nonmetal, Covalent compunds Naming Ionic Compounds Polyatomic Ions (see the syllabus) * Ions that are comprised of more than one atom; the atoms remain bound together. Naming COvalent Compounds The Mole * Def: the number of atoms contained in exactly 12g of carbon-12 * 1 mole= 6.022x10^23- avogadro's number (N) Mass-mole-number Realtionships Nitrogen Fixation Chemistry * Nitrogen is required by all living organism-used in proteins, enzymes, DNA... * Nitrogen is the largest component of the atmosphere (78.1%) * Atmospheric nitrogen is in the form of dinitrogen......

Words: 1057 - Pages: 5

How Density Functional Theory Has Improved Chemistry

...How has density functional theory improved for chemical applications? Discussion of some of the recent developments [0] Table of Contents Introduction3 Roots of DFT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3 Modern DFT4 Modifications6 Basis Sets6 Finding the EXC energy6 Hybrid Functionals8 Double Hybrid10 Strengths of DFT10 Challenges for DFT11 Current research12 Conclusions15 Introduction It has become an accepted fact that computational chemistry has become the partner to experimental chemistry. This is because computational experiments supplement real world experimental data very well. There are many systems in which there is no possible way of getting data about them, and so we must turn to computational methods. One example of this is looking at transition states, which in the real world may only exist for fractions of a second, however with the help of computational methods; we are able to investigate them easier, cheaper and quicker. There are many methods for computational chemistry experiments, however in this paper we will be focusing on how density functional theories (DFT) has impacted the chemistry community. The review will show how DFT started as an alternative to Schrodinger wave function methods, with simulated homogeneous electron gases, and moved on to be non-local, including other short and long range potentials and also combining empirical data to improve on the functionals. How DFT has its strengths and weaknesses......

Words: 4644 - Pages: 19

How Has the Greek Language Influenced the English Language?

...Introduction The research question is “How has the Greek language influenced the English language?”. We chose language as our subject because we were interested in how people developed a way in which we can communicate orally as well as express and comprehend written thoughts. We think that this topic is worth of study because we will investigate and understand how several English words have been influenced by the Greek language. Numerous words in English have Greek roots. The relevance of the question is to find out how the Greek language influenced and affected the English language. Main Ancient Greek Dialects Different variants of the early Greek alphabet suited to local dialects. There were three major dialects in ancient Greece: Aeolic, Doric and Ionic (of which Attic was a branch). Each of these were from different tribes, the Aeolians lived in the islands of the Aegean, the Dorians, from the Greek coast of Peloponnese, including Crete, Sparta and other parts of West Coast Asia Minor. The Ionians settled in the West coast of Asia Minor including the Smyma. Ancient Greek Language The first Europeans to read and write with an Alphabet were the Ancient Greeks. The Ancient Greek language eventually led to all modern European languages.(In text ) The Greek language has a very long and rich history stretching all the way from the thirteenth century B.C. to the present. Linear B (13th century B.C.) is the earliest form of the language. The first surviving script......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4


...Insert your name Course Professor’s name Date due The Chemistry and Applications of Carbon Allotropes in Industry Introduction Carbon has the ability to create many allotropes because of its valence. This means that carbon has a high rate of combining power with other different atoms when it is in the process of forming chemical compounds or molecules. The most common allotropes are Diamond and Graphite. The different allotropes of carbon tend to shows different properties and have a different application in different fields. Diamond is a common allotrope of carbon that exhibits hardness and has a high ability to disperse light. Diamond is the hardest discovered mineral and industries find it useful in cutting and drilling of other elements. It is also used to manufacture jewelry. Graphite is another common allotrope of carbon. Graphite is formed in a single layer by graphene that consists of carbon atoms and it is arranged in a single plane. Graphite is a good electric conductor. Graphite is known as the most stable form of carbon under the rating of standard conditions. This paper will describe the chemical and physical compounds and their industrial application in different fields. Discussion Allotropy refers to a property of a particular chemical element that exists in more than one different form when it is found in nature. There are different forms of carbon that exists and this paper will discuss the common allotropes and their application in different fields.......

Words: 2013 - Pages: 9


...Some stuff to take note in chemistry IONIC Equations * You have an equation * Split only the aqueous parts * Leave solid, liquid and gas * Cancel out the products that remain the same as he reactants * These are called spectator ions * Methods for preparation of salts * Precipitation * Titration * Uses of salts * Food: Flavoruings, fillers etc * Fertilizers: Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3), Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) * Industrial: Modifying properties of cement mixtures, paint formulations, fillers in plastics, inks, medical industry * aHarvesHh ccscHarvesting sea salts, via evaporation, we know it’s a salt cos when you remove the metal and add h , you getan acid * the saltsttttttTHe salts are formed when the H of an acid is replaced by a metal * NaOH + H2So4 -->2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O * Oxides OosdoidikcxzjOxides and hydroxides are not salts * SoCcCCCCos when you replace the Metal with H, you get H2O =/= Acid * However, water can be considered an acid, sometimes * Nitrates | * All soluble | * Sulfates | * All soluble except clb (calcium lead barium) | * | * Mnemonics: Chinese language b | * Chloride | * All soluble except lms (lead, mercury, silver | * | * Learning management system, | * Carbonate | * All insouluble except spa (sodium, potassium, ammonium) | * | * Science practical assessment | * Precipitation: Prepare insoluble salt: 2......

Words: 479 - Pages: 2


... : : : FHSC1114 Physical Chemistry 2015/05 : Ms. Amelia Chiang, Ms. Azlina Banu, Ms. Farhanah, Ms.Gurpreet, Ms. Jamie, Ms. Lau Mei Chien, Ms. Lily Lee, Ms. Nabilah, Mr. Ng Sweet Kin, Ms. Phang Ying Ning, Ms. Precilla, Ms. Rachel Tham, Ms. Rajalakshmi, Mr. Sivabalan, Ms. Tan Lee Siew Tutorial 4: Chapter 4 States of Matter 1. Hydrogen gas occupies a 3.60 L container at 760 torr. Calculate the volume it occupies at 2.25 atm at a constant temperature. (1.6 L) 2. Nitrogen gas contained in a 1.85 L vessel exerts a pressure of 1.00 atm at 0 oC. Determine the required change in temperature to increase the pressure of nitrogen gas to 1.65 atm after it has been transferred to a 1.50 L vessel. (92.297) 3. An empty tank of 3 dm3 has a mass of 897.3 g. It is filled with propane gas, C3H8, at 25 o C to a pressure of 3.30 atm. Calculate the mass of the tank after it is filled. (Assuming that the expansion of the tank from an increase in temperature is negligible) (915.141 g) 4. A mixture of noble gases contains 4.46 moles of Neon and 0.74 moles of Krypton and y mole of Xenon at a pressure of 2 atm. (a) Determine y mole of Xenon if the partial pressure of Neon is 1.214 atm. (2.148 moles) (b) Determine the partial pressure of Krypton. [Sep 2014] (0.2 atm) 5. Calculate the number of moles of sulfur dioxide gas, SO2, transported in a 2 L container at s.t.p. (0.089 mole) 6. Water has a vapour pressure of 24 mm Hg at...

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

How Technology Has Changed Our Language

...How Technology Has Changed Our Language Internet Knowledge: Some words have taken on a very new meaning thanks to technology. Not very long ago, the word “tweet” referred simply to something that birds do. Now it is also used to represent the process of posting a 140 character message on the social network Twitter.  Social media’s been responsible for a lot of new words, for example tweeps, twitterverse and retweet. The word “friend” has become a verb, as in “she friended me on Facebook”. The term “check-in” no longer applies just to hotels and airports; these days it’s just as commonly used when someone reports where they are via a social network. Technology has also changed the way we write. Mobile phones have been responsible for a lot of the change, as users have moved towards texting as an everyday form of communication. For a start, WRITING IN UPPER CASE MEANS YOU’RE SHOUTING, while lower case writing is now the accepted form. Meanwhile, text language is full of abbreviations, missing vowels and acronyms. For example, the abbreviations LOL, OMG and gr8 are all widely used today but hadn’t been invented a few years ago. One of the drivers in this is that screen sizes and character limits are low, meaning that users need to abbreviate to fit their messages in. My Knowledge: ‘Emojis’ which are small digital images and ‘emoticons’ which are representation of a facial expression such as a smile or frown, formed by various combinations of keyboard characters are also...

Words: 324 - Pages: 2


...The chemistry of perming & rebonding Some of us have naturally curly hair but want it straightened; others have it naturally straight but want it curly. But whatever the style you like to wear, there's chemistry involved in it! The structure of hair Hair is made mostly of a protein called keratin, which is also present in nails. In hair, keratin molecules are arranged in straight bundles. These bundles are held together by disulphide bonds (-S-S-), which give strength to the hair. Disulphide bonds are made by the amino acid called cysteine. The cysteine of one keratin molecule forms a disulphide bond with the cysteine of the neighbouring keratin molecule. The more disulphide bonds there are in a strand of hair, the straighter it is. Ammonium thioglycolate: the perm salt Ammonium thioglycolate (HSCH2CO2NH4) is a compound that can break disulphide bonds. This is because it contains a thiol group (-SH). The thiol group replaces one of the sulphur atoms in the disulphide bond, like this: Keratin-S-S-keratin + 2HS-CH2CO2NH4 --> -HO2CH2CS-SCH2CO2H + 2NH3 + 2HS-keratin When the disulphide bond is broken, the keratin bundles come apart, and hair is weakened. Ammonium thioglycolate is therefore used widely in beauty parlours when customers want their hair re-styled. However, if you use too much of it, or if the reaction is left for too long, you could end up going bald. So do not, ever, try it at home! If you have watched the film Legally Blonde, you'll have seen Reese Witherspoon......

Words: 7009 - Pages: 29


...Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR Chapter Scopes FHSC1124 Organic Chemistry Alkanes • IUPAC Nomenclature / naming of aliphatic alkanes and cycloalkanes • Physical properties • Combustion reactions • Free-radical substitution reactions & mechanism • Crude oil and “cracking” Chapter 2 Introduction to Alkanes IUPAC Nomenclature • Simplest member of hydrocarbon family • General formula of alkanes = CnH2n+2 • Alkanes = Paraffins (hydrocarbons with general formula CnH2n+2) • Aliphatic compounds: open chain / acyclic compounds • The names of alkanes end with suffix -ane. • Saturated hydrocarbon: only have C−C & C−H single bonds & contain the maximum possible number of H per C. 3 IUPAC Rules 1. Select the longest continuous C chain as parent chain (use root word for the no. of C) 2. Name each of the branch/substituents as an alkyl / aryl group 3. Number the C chain beginning from the end nearest to the branch ⇒ branch/substituents appear at the lowest no. possible FHSC1124 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY • IUPAC  International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry • The IUPAC nomenclature system is a set of logical rules devised and used by organic chemists to name the organic compounds. Prefix − Parent − Suffix What are the How many What family? substituents? carbons? IUPAC Rules 4. Name each substituent according to its chemical identity & the no. of the C atom to which it is attached ⇒ For identical substituent, use the......

Words: 1212 - Pages: 5


...Chemistry Mid-term Exam Version 2/23/15 Name: Student number: Directions: It is important that you provide answers in your own words. Please focus only on information from the text/eBook to create your own solutions.  Please do not use direct information from an outside source (especially copying and pasting from an “answer” website). Use of direct information from an outside source is against school policy.  All answers will be checked for plagiarism. Instances of plagiarism can result in probation or possible dismissal from the school. Please be sure to follow all guidelines (number of sentences/showing all calculations) and to provide the correct metric units of measure. All questions are 5 points (1 point for sentence number /units). 1. Experimental Design: From the work you have done this semester, choose a topic and design an experiment you would be able to perform. In your design (1) state your hypothesis, (2) identify your dependent and (3) independent variables, (4) your control conditions and (5) describe your experimental procedure. 2. Perform this operation and report the answer to the correct number of significant figures: What is the mass of a cube of aluminum that is 4.0 cm on each edge? The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm3. Show all calculations leading to an answer. 3.  Explain why a model of the atom is crucial to understanding chemistry and in explaining the behavior of matter.  Use 3 - 4 sentences in your explanation. ...

Words: 584 - Pages: 3


...FHSC1114 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Revision for Topics 1 – 3 Topic 1 Principle of Chemistry 1. 2. The number of electron for an ion, X–, is 18. Calculate the number of proton and identify the ion. (Ans: 17 p+; Cl–) [Sep 2012] 20 X2+ and Y– ions have the same number of electrons as 10 Z isotope. Identify X2+ and Y– ions. (Ans: X2+= Mg2+ ; Y– = F–) [Dec 2015] 3. Bromine has two naturally occurring isotopes 79Br and 81Br with their masses are 78.92 a.m.u. and 80.92 a.m.u, respectively. Given that the average atomic mass for bromine is 79.90, find the relative percentage abundances of these isotopes. (Ans: 79Br: 51 %, 81Br: 49 %) [Apr 2014] 4. An element has two isotopes, P and Q. The ratio of percentage abundance of P to Q is 0.32. The isotopic mass of P and Q are 36.9695 and 34.9689, respectively. (a) Find the percentage abundance of isotope P and Q. (Ans: P: 24.24%, Q: 75.76%) (b) Determine the average atomic mass of the element. (Ans: 35.45 a.m.u.) [Sep 2012] 5. The number of atoms present in a sample of formic acid, HCOOH was found to be 1.736 × 1025. Determine the mass of formic acid in this sample. (Ans: 265.38 g) [Apr 2014] 6. Salicylic acid is a pain reliever which consists of 6.558 g of carbon atoms, 0.471 g of hydrogen and 3.744 g of oxygen atoms. Determine the empirical formula of salicylic acid. (Ans: C7H6O3) [Apr 2015] Topic 2 Chemical Bonding 1. Draw the Lewis structure for nitrogen triiodide, NI3.......

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

BDRipVF Hôtel Transylvanie | Jean Smart | 战神之怒iphone/ipad版