Design of a Kaplan Turbine

In: Science

Submitted By saadilyas
Words 1176
Pages 5
1. Blade Design:
The design of the blade does not just depend on the stress analysis; several other factors play significant roles as well. The leading edge is thicker than the trailing edge for a streamlined Flow. Furthermore, the blade should be as thin as possible to improve cavitation Characteristics; it is thicker near the flange becoming thinner and thinner towards the tip. In Addition, the blade has to be distorted on the basis of the tangential velocity.
Blade design is the most complex thing in Kaplan turbine. It consists of six steps. 1. Velocity triangle is evaluated at the leading and Trailing edge of the blade. 2. Angle of distortion of the chord lengths (β∞). 3. Lift Coefficients. 4. Chord length to Spacing (L/t) ratio. 5. Drag Coefficient. 6. Profile. 2.1. Velocity Triangle:
U
U
As shown in the figure different types of velocities occur as the fluid flows from the blades of this turbine. Thorough understanding of the velocity triangle (fig 1. 1) is necessary for a good design.
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1 β∞ β∞
Wu
Wu
Cu
Cu
Wm
Wm
Cm
Cm

Blade Tangential Velocity ………. (1.1)
Tangential Flow velocity ……………… (1.2)
Relative Tangential Velocity……………. (1.3)
Relative Axial Velocity…………………… (1.4)
Where,

U = blade Tangential velocity [m/s]
Wm= Axial Component relative velocity [m/s].
Cm = Axial Component flow Velocity [m/s].
Cu= Tangential Component flow velocity [m/s].
Wu= Tangential Component relative velocity [m/s]. ω = Rotational Speed [rad/s]. β∞ = Angle of Distortion [o].

When a cylindrical cut is set at the runner (fig 1.2) and the cut is developed into a drawing pane, Grating like that shown in fig occurs. Velocity triangle 1 occurs directly before the grating and the velocity triangle 2 occurs directly after the grating. The relative velocity components w1m and w2m are equal. The medial…...

Similar Documents

Wind Turbines

...Current Event 09-07-12 Wind Turbines I First Willacy County Turbine Farm Opens, More to Follow: A little over a year ago, a Chicago-based renewable energy company E.ON held a ribbon-cutting ceremony at the new site and began construction in October of 2011. The Magic Valley Wind Farm is what they decided to call it and it is located roughly 5 miles east of Raymondville. It is Willacy County's first wind farm. Within the last year, they put up 112 Danish-produced Vestas 1.8 megawatt turbines that generate more than 200 megawatts together, which is enough to power 60,000 houses. There was over 200 people hired for the construction phase of this wind farm and a staff of around 20 people on site. The project was approximately a 200 million dollar investment for E.ON and is the company’s 16th operational wind farm in North America upping the company’s generating power to 2,000 megawatts in Texas. The location of this wind farm is supposed to have minimal impact on wildlife and the environment due to environmental studies. During construction of this wind farm, more than 24 miles of public roads where constructed. Why do you think that is? I’m assuming they were constructed to cart in the enormous shafts and blades. There were more than 60,000 cubic yards of concrete poured and more than 50 miles of underground cable laid. Now if you head South of the Magic Valley project you will run into two more wind farms owned by Duke Energy that are supposed to operational at the end of......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Very Simple Kaplan Turbine Design

...Very Simple Kaplan Turbine Design Grant Ingram 30th January 2007 Nomenclature b blade height g gravitational acceleration H head k loss coeficient m mass flow rate ˙ P power output Q volumetric flow rate r radial direction R radius U blade speed V absolute velocity, subscripts denote stations and components W relative velocity, subscripts denote stations and components x axial direction α absolute flow angle β relative flow angle ω rotational speed θ tangential direction η efficiency 1, 2, 3, 4 stations through the machine 1 School of Engineering, Durham University 1 2 3 draft tube 4 inlet stator rotor r x Figure 1: General Arrangement of Kaplan 1 Introduction This short note indicates how a preliminary design of an axail flow Kaplan turbine can be carried out - see Figure 1 for a cross section of the device. Note that this analysis is approximate and is useful for a first appoximation only. In order to carry out a preliminary blade analysis consider a mean radius through the machine. In order to draw or manufacture the blades you will need to know the inlet and exit angles of the stator (α1 and α2 ) and the rotor (β1 and β2 ). This is shown in Figure 2 In this analysis the effect of blade shape or number is not considered - to a first approximation you can ignore them - simply pick a reasonable shape and a reasonable number of blades. The approach is to set the flow rate through the machine and then calculate the power output. Once this has been......

Words: 706 - Pages: 3

Turbine

...pequeño el caudal desalojado (alrededor de unos 20 m3 /s por máquina). Están ubicadas en zonas de alta montaña, donde se aprovecha el agua de torrentes que suele desembocar en lagos naturales. • Centrales de media presión. Se consideran como tales aquéllas que disponen de saltos hidráulicos comprendidos entre 200 y 20 m. aproximadamente, desaguando caudales de hasta 200 m3 /s por cada turbina. Dependen de embalses relativamente grandes, formados en valles de media montaña. Preferentemente, las turbinas utilizadas son Francis y Kaplan, pudiéndose tratarse de turbinas Pelton para saltos de mayor altura, siempre dentro de los márgenes establecidos. • Centrales de baja presión. Se incluyen aquí aquéllas en las que el salto hidráulico es inferior a 20 m., estando alimentada cada máquina por caudales pueden superar los 300 m3 /s. Para estas alturas y caudales, resulta apropiada la instalación de las turbinas Francis y, especialmente, de las turbinas Kaplan. 2) Según el servicio que presten: • Centrales de base. 11 Son las destinadas a suministrar la mayor parte de la energía eléctrica, en servicio permanente, es decir, sin interrupciones de funcionamiento de la instalación, estando en marcha durante largos períodos de tiempo. Son de gran potencia. • Centrales de punta. Están destinadas, exclusivamente, para cubrir las demandas de energía eléctrica en las horas de mayor consumo, horas punta. Su funcionamiento se puede considerar periódico, en breves espacios de......

Words: 8112 - Pages: 33

Kaplan Turbine Runner Design

...85 Hydraulic turbines—basic principles and state-of-theart computational fluid dynamics applications P Drtina* and M Sallaberger Sulzer Hydro AG, Zurich, Switzerland ¨ Abstract: The present paper discusses the basic principles of hydraulic turbines, with special emphasis on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool which is being increasingly applied to gain insight into the complex three-dimensional (3D) phenomena occurring in these types of fluid machinery. The basic fluid mechanics is briefly treated for the three main types of hydraulic turbine: Pelton, Francis and axial turbines. From the vast number of applications where CFD has proven to be an important help to the design engineer, two examples have been chosen for a detailed discussion. The first example gives a comparison of experimental data and 3D Euler and 3D Navier–Stokes results for the flow in a Francis runner. The second example highlights the state-of-the-art of predicting the performance of an entire Francis turbine by means of numerical simulation. Keywords: hydraulic turbines, flow prediction, stage simulation, hill chart, Navier–Stokes and Euler computations NOTATION C, c E g h at h d H H s k K c K u K w n Q R, r T U, u W, w Z a b e f g absolute velocity (m/s) energy per unit mass (m2/s2) gravity (m/s2) atmospheric pressure head (m) vapour pressure head (m) turbine head (m) suction head (m) turbulent kinetic energy (m2/s2) normalized velocity normalized circumferential velocity normalized......

Words: 7639 - Pages: 31

Hydro Turbine Runner Design and Manufacturing

...Mechanics and Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 2013 Hydro turbine Runner Design and Manufacturing Fatma Ayancik, Umut Aradag, Ece Ozkaya, Kutay Celebioglu, Ozgur Unver, and Selin Aradag  Abstract—This research describes a methodology for the parametric design, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aided analysis and manufacturing of a Francis type hydro turbine runner. A Francis type hydro turbine consists of five components which are volute, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The hydraulic performance of the turbine depends on the shape of the components; especially on the shape of the runner blades. The design parameters for the other components are affected by the runner parameters directly. Runner geometry is more complex than the other parts of the turbine. Therefore; to obtain accurate results and meet hydraulic expectations, CFD analyses and advanced manufacturing tools are necessary for the design and manufacturing of the hydro turbine runner. The turbine runner design methodology developed is presented using an actual potential hydraulic power plant in Turkey. Index Terms—CFD, francis turbine, runner, design and manufacturing. I. INTRODUCTION Turbines are used for hydropower generation. There are basically two types of hydraulic turbines, the first one is impulse and the second one is reaction type turbines. Impulse turbines work based on momentum principle; while in the reaction type turbines, the flow is fully pressurized and it works according......

Words: 2847 - Pages: 12

Wind Turbines vs Animals

...landscape. When several wind turbines are grouped together they are called wind farms. These wind farms offer many benefits to the environment, economy, and people whom are receiving the wind generated electricity. But without proper research and improper planning schemes wind farms are being placed in migratory paths for birds and bats killing or injuring them, attract and kill pollinator insects, and (according to some) decrease the aesthetic beauty of the landscape. The first wind farm in the United States was in Crocheted Mountains, New Hampshire in 1980. Since then they have grown to 119 wind farms in the United States. There are two basic forms of wind turbines, vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines. The vertical axis turbine blades have several designs but the commonality between the designs is that they have open spaces some people refer to as lattice spaced openings. Horizontal axis turbine blades look like propellers on an airplane. It is estimated that roughly 573,000 birds are injured or killed annually, roughly 600,000 bats are injured or killed annually and innumerable pollinator insects are killed annually by wind farms. The problem with vertical axis turbines is that the spaces in the blades are wonderful perching and nest building sites for birds when they aren’t moving. So when the blades start to move the birds are injured and the nest and eggs are destroyed. The problem with horizontal axis turbines is that they can run at......

Words: 1313 - Pages: 6

Water Turbines

...Making Water Turbines Most Energy Efficient How does a wind turbine’s output vary with wind pressure (height of water), the flow rate, size of the motor, and type of blade? Introduction There are many types of energy used today: Fossil fuels, coal, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, hydroelectric energy, wind energy, and biofuels and biomass. Non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and coal are diminishing since it cannot be recycled, unlike wind energy (renewable). Also, use of non-renewable energy like coal causes environmental issues. It can be dangerous to retrieve and also heavily pollutes the environment from use of it. The more we use non-renewable energy, the less there is, meaning the prices go up. Oil spills from off shore drilling such as the BP oil spill the Gulf of Mexico polluted sea water. Although nuclear energy is a renewable energy, it could cause a disaster to human beings if the nuclear energy plant is damaged, such as the Japan nuclear power plant disaster. It is desirable to use and develop renewable, clean and safe energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and hydrogen energy to decrease and prevent any risk of casualties or complications. Washington State produces the energy in the nation, and producing for itself 70 percent of electricity that is consumed. On a slightly bigger scale, 75 percent of America relies on water energy to power our homes and other facilities. Globally,......

Words: 1561 - Pages: 7

Wind Turbines

...Wind Turbine San Jose State University, Charles W. Davidson College of Engineering E10 Introduction to Engineering By Justin DeCastro, Cari Geldreich, Hugo Quiroz, and Ashley Mishra March 24, 2011 Professor Athanasiou Section 6 Project Summary The project that was assigned in lab was the wind turbine lab. The objective of this lab was to develop and construct a wind turbine that would create enough energy to conduct electricity. The goal of the assignment was to construct the most creative and stable structure so that it would withstand high winds. After constructing the turbine, which was 17 inches high and weight 255 grams, the next task was to test its stiffness using various amounts of weights and to look for the displacement. The maximum amount of displacement by the turbine was 4.81 mm. After finding out how stiff the turbine was, the next task was to measure the amount of power the turbine generated. The turbine worked quite well except for the fact that the blade broke within the first few minutes. The blade speed started out with 9703 RPM and went down to as low as 6000RPM when it had 6 light bulbs on. The turbine successfully completed all the objectives with ease. The only thing that it could’ve done better in was the stiffness test because it displaced more weight than it needed to. Table of Contents Introduction pg. 4 Turbine Structure Design Structure & Blade Design pg. 5 Structure & Blade Construction pg.......

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7

Basic Knowledge of Wind Turbines

...of Wind Turbines The purpose of this presentation is to inform the audience about general information on wind energy. I want to inform the audience of the basic design of a wind plant. I will also introduce them to the basics of wind turbines and what a wind turbine site consists of. The best audience for this presentation is anyone without previous knowledge of wind turbines. This presentation is designed to generally educated people on wind turbines and wind sites. It is not designed to go into real depth with wind turbines. If there was anyone interested in getting wind turbines on their land this presentation would help to let them know what to expect. They type of audience that would resist this knowledge is any group that works in fossil fuels. These communities usually worry that their jobs our in jeopardy because of green energy. This topic is important because of the increase in wind turbines throughout the United States and world. It is important for us to understand the basics of what they do and what a plant is made up. The reason this is important is because we the people vote to allow turbines in our communities. The more information we have on the technology the better decision people can make for their communities. Research shows that due to better technology and the demand for green energy Wind Turbine development is increasing across the United States. Today I’m going to give a brief back ground of the history of turbines and......

Words: 945 - Pages: 4

Neodymium and Wind Turbines

...Neodymium and Wind Turbines Even though the rare earth elements form the largest chemical group in the periodic table, they are generally unfamiliar and do not gain much attention. Nonetheless, the rare earth elements are crucial for many application in different fields. For instance, high technology and environmental application of the rare earth elements have been importantly developed in the past few decades. One of the most important application from the rare earth elements is permanent magnets, which do not lose its magnetic field or lose the magnetic field in a very low rate in a long period of time. The reasons give such a distinguished characteristic to the magnets is that rare earth magnets are ferromagnetic, and they have a crystalline structure. Among the other rare earth elements, neodymium with iron and boron create the most powerful magnet. This unusual strength happens because of the tetragonal crystalline structure of the compound. This powerful permanent magnet is widely used in many application, especially wind turbines, and it result in many significant profits. Rare earth elements are the sets of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium. They are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm),......

Words: 2868 - Pages: 12

Kaplan

...0272-4944/95/030169+ 14$12.0010 ~ ENVIRONMENTAL ~ P~Y~HOLOGY THE RESTORATIVE BENEFITS OF NATURE: TOWARD AN INTEGRATIVE FRAM~WORK STEPHEN KAPLAN Department ofPsychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, !ll148109-1109, U.$.A. Abstract Directed attention plays an important role in human information processing; its fatigue, in turn, has far­ reaching consequences. Attention Restoration Theory provides an analysis of the kinds of experiences that lead to recovery from such fatigue. Natural environments turn out to be particularly rich in the character­ istics necessary for restorative experiences. An integrative framework is proposed that places both directed attention and stress in the larger context of human-environment relationships. © 1995 Academic Press Limited Introduction Evidence pointing to the psychological benefits of nature has accumulated at a remarkable rate in a relatively short period of time. Whether a theoreti­ cal understanding of these restorative influences has kept pace with the empirical work is, however, less clear. As Hartig and Evans (1993) have pointed out, theory in' this area has been dominated by con­ flicting positions, one enlphasizing stress reduction (Ulrich, 1983) and the other concerned with recov­ ery of the capacity to focus attention (Kaplan & Talbot, 1983; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). While it might be argued that these positions are hopelessly far apart, Hartig and Evans hold out hope for a......

Words: 6063 - Pages: 25

Wind Turbines

...Wind Turbines: As the demand for energy is constantly increasing, due to an ever increasing congested population, mankind finds itself in a predicament, where do we continue to source the needed power to run our world. The old 20th century industrial age response is no longer applicable to modern day society, whereby; coal, gas and other non renewable limited resources are depleting. The 21st century has been presented with this detrimental world altering issue. Thankfully we now live in what is known as the technological era. This new century brought about with it new ideas and new developments- accordingly it is these developments in thinking and resources that will pave the way for alternate sources of power. New responses to this ever-present issue include hyrdo-electricity, a legitimate and controllable sources of power, solar power; another renewable resource whose presence is ever increasing in today’s developing world. Arguably the most efficient form of renewable and environmentally friendly energy is wind power. The ability to harness the power generated by the winds. The concept of harnessing the power of wind is no new invention, not even relatively new, in fact the idea has been around since 5000B.C whereby it was first utilized by the early Egyptians to propel their boats down the Nile river. Over the centuries, advancements to the concept continued and by 200B.C simple windmills in china were being developed to pump water for irrigation whilst the middle...

Words: 2134 - Pages: 9

Turbine Engines

...Turbine Engines The history of turbine engines date back to nearly a century ago when Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent in 1930; six years later Hans von Ohain registered his independent work (Bellis, 2012). Frank Whittle, as an English aviation engineer and pilot, gained private financial support to start designing and manufacturing his first turbojet in January 1930 (Bellis, 2012). His first engine was a single-stage centrifugal compressor attached to a single-stage turbine was tested in 1937 (Bellis, 2012). The jet engine has become very complex engine based on simple concepts; in simplest terms, the jet engine produces thrust for flight by compressing, combustion, and accelerating air out the exhaust faster than when it came in the inlet. Throughout my career, I have maintained, troubleshot, and repaired several different types of turbine engines, all of which are similar because of this theory of operation. When looking at a jet engine, everyone usually sees the fan blades, but before this component, there is the inlet, or intake, which is the structure in front of the fan. For aircraft that cannot fly supersonically, the inlet is a basic housing that directs air straight into the fan; for much faster aircraft, the inlet is longer and contains a slight curve as it leads to the fan. This is because when the aircraft is flying at supersonic speeds, the air entering the jet engine must be slowed to subsonic speeds (“the jet engine,” n.d.). It is...

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5

Runner Kaplan

...TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENES Environmental Engineering Final thesis Timo Flaspöhler Design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine for small hydroelectric power plants Supervisor Commissioned by Tampere 2007 Jaakko Mattila Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Mechanical engineering department TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENES Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler Final thesis Supervisor November 2007 Keywords Design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine for small hydroelectric power plants 78 pages, 42 pages Appendix Jaakko Mattila Electricity tariff, small hydroelectric power plant, Kaplan turbine, runner, adaptation mechanism, stress analysis, technical drawings ABSTRACT The final thesis deals with the design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine. It might be that due to the increasing of the electricity tariff in the last years small hydroelectric power plants become cost effective. Since the runner of a small hydroelectric power plant is quite small, it has to be reexamined if the hub of the runner provides enough room for a proper adaptation mechanism. For this purpose the main characteristics of the runner are determined. Then, important data such as the suction head, the occurring forces or the critical speed are established. After those data are known, a detailed stress analysis of the developed adaptation mechanism follows. The stress analysis shows that the mechanism to adjust the blades is able to withstand the occurring forces.......

Words: 21412 - Pages: 86

Design of Kaplan

...Mechanical Engineering Technologies • Applications of Mechanical Engineering Technologies • Energy Systems • Industrial Automation • Management Benefits of E-learning • Upgrade your skills and refresh your knowledge without having to take valuable time away from work • Receive information and materials in small, easy to digest sections • Learn while you travel - all you need is an Internet connection • Have constant support from your course instructor and coordinator for the duration of the course • Interact and network with participants from around the globe and gain valuable insight into international practice • Receive an IDC Diploma of Mechanical Engineering Technology Who Should Attend • Plant operations and maintenance personnel • Design engineers • Process technicians, technologists and engineers • Process control engineers and supervisors • Mechanical technicians, technologists and engineers • Mechanical equipment sales engineers • Pump and mechanical equipment operators • Contract and asset managers IDC TECHNOLOGIES' ACCREDITATION STATUS IDC Technologies is an internationally endorsed The Training Accreditation Council in Australia, Professional Training Organisation. which is the national leader in the strategic It is very important to us at IDC Technologies to ensure management of the recognition and quality that our clients can confidently attend our workshops assurance of training. knowing that the professional development they are Engineers......

Words: 13537 - Pages: 55

Search Forums | 08. CUMBIA ZARUMEÑA | 437 : النبلاء