Design of a Kaplan Turbine

In: Science

Submitted By saadilyas
Words 1176
Pages 5
1. Blade Design:
The design of the blade does not just depend on the stress analysis; several other factors play significant roles as well. The leading edge is thicker than the trailing edge for a streamlined Flow. Furthermore, the blade should be as thin as possible to improve cavitation Characteristics; it is thicker near the flange becoming thinner and thinner towards the tip. In Addition, the blade has to be distorted on the basis of the tangential velocity.
Blade design is the most complex thing in Kaplan turbine. It consists of six steps. 1. Velocity triangle is evaluated at the leading and Trailing edge of the blade. 2. Angle of distortion of the chord lengths (β∞). 3. Lift Coefficients. 4. Chord length to Spacing (L/t) ratio. 5. Drag Coefficient. 6. Profile. 2.1. Velocity Triangle:
As shown in the figure different types of velocities occur as the fluid flows from the blades of this turbine. Thorough understanding of the velocity triangle (fig 1. 1) is necessary for a good design.
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1 β∞ β∞

Blade Tangential Velocity ………. (1.1)
Tangential Flow velocity ……………… (1.2)
Relative Tangential Velocity……………. (1.3)
Relative Axial Velocity…………………… (1.4)

U = blade Tangential velocity [m/s]
Wm= Axial Component relative velocity [m/s].
Cm = Axial Component flow Velocity [m/s].
Cu= Tangential Component flow velocity [m/s].
Wu= Tangential Component relative velocity [m/s]. ω = Rotational Speed [rad/s]. β∞ = Angle of Distortion [o].

When a cylindrical cut is set at the runner (fig 1.2) and the cut is developed into a drawing pane, Grating like that shown in fig occurs. Velocity triangle 1 occurs directly before the grating and the velocity triangle 2 occurs directly after the grating. The relative velocity components w1m and w2m are equal. The medial…...

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