“Discuss the Three Terms “Approach”, “Method” and “Technique” and Describe One Approach Which Provides the Basis for a Method and Subsequently Some Techniques Under That Particular Method.

In: English and Literature

Submitted By vanthana22
Words 960
Pages 4
Discuss the three terms “Approach”, “Method” and “Technique” and describe one Approach which provides the basis for a Method and subsequently some Techniques under that particular Method.

APPROACH Theories about the nature of language and language learning Theory of language Structural Functional Interactional

METHOD Objectives

Organization of Content

Syllabus Design

Roles 1. Learner 2. Teacher 3. Materials

Types of Interaction Types of activities Content Based

TECHNIQUE Implementation of the design

Classroom Practice

Activities behavior's

In English language teaching process, there are terms that teachers need to know. They are approach, method, and technique. About four decades ago (1963) Edward M.Anthony gave us a definition that has admirably withstood the test of time.
According to Edward M.Anthony an approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of the language and the nature of language teaching and learning. In other words the word ‘approach’ in ELT refers to different theories about the nature of language and how languages are learned.
Let us move on to our second definition – of method. Method is an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based on selected approach. It consists of a number of techniques, arranged in an order.
When we talk about techniques we mean specific activities which take place in a classroom. Using flash cards in the classroom is a technique. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach too. According to Longman…...

Similar Documents

Assessment Methods

...Assessment Why do we assess? Petty describes assessment ‘in the right hands, assessment can inspire, motivate and provide the feedback which is essential for targeting prompt corrective help’ Petty G, (2001) When an assessment is given it’s purpose is to assess either the students understanding of the subject matter or their application of the knowledge they have acquired. Rowntree further describes the framework of assessment under five headings or dimensions. Namely: Why assess? Deciding why assessment is to be carried out; what effects or outcomes it is expected to produce. What to assess? Deciding, realising or otherwise coming to an awareness of what one is looking for, or remarking upon, in the people one is assessing. How to assess? Selecting, from among all the means we have at our disposal for learning about people, those we regard as being most truthful and fair for various sorts of valued knowledge. How to interpret? Making sense of the outcomes of whatever observations or measurements or impressions we gather through whatever means we employ; explaining, appreciating, and attaching meaning to the raw ‘events’ of assessment. How to respond? Finding appropriate ways of expressing our response to whatever has been assessed and of communicating it to the person concerned (and other people). Rowntree D, (1991) These headings as provided by Rowntree will be used to critically analyse the assignment used for......

Words: 1828 - Pages: 8

Laboratory Activities in Method of Research

...in. In education, we could identify research with a better understanding of the individual, and better understanding and improvement of the teaching and learning process and in other circumstances in which it is most fruitfully carried on. II. Objectives: At the end of this activity, it is expected that students will be able to: 1. Define research and educational research. 2. Differentiate research from educational research. 3. Give the uses of research in education. 4. List researchable topics in education. III. Write ups/ instruction: 1. Obtain at least 5 definitions of research from different authors. Compare these definitions and synthesize your own definition of research. 2. From three different authors, copy the meaning of educational research. Synthesize your own definition by referring to the definition obtained. 3. Differentiate research from educational research. 4. Give the uses of research in education. 5. List down five topics in education which you think need research. IV. Answers: 1. Five (5) definitions of research from different authors. i. “Research is the continuous discovery and exploration of unknown. It entails an investigation of new facts leading to the discovery of new ideas, new methods or improvements. Research is always an attempt to widen one's outlook in life. It always proceeds from the known to the unknown.” - John W. Best, James V. Kahn. ii. “Research is a process of......

Words: 13528 - Pages: 55

Research Methods

...measures. This entire process by which we attempt to solve problems is called research. Thus research involves a series of well-thought-out and carefully executed activities that will enable the manager to know how organizational problems can be solved, or at least considerably minimized. Research thus encompass the process of inquiry, investigation, examination, and experimentation. These processes have to be carried out systematically, diligently, critically, objectively, and logically. The expected end results would be the discovery that will help the manager to deal with the problem situation. Definition of research 1. A voyage of discovery or a journey/movement from the known to unknown; An attitude; An experience; A method of critical thinking; A careful critical inquiry in seeking facts for principles. 2. An art of scientific investigation • Scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic • Process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. 3. A systematized effort to gain new knowledge • Search for (new) knowledge/facts through objective, systematic and scientific method of finding solution to a problem. • Implicit question + Explicit answer + data to support the answer • Not synonymous with commonsense, but systematic, objective (purposeful), reproducible, relevant activity having control over some factors. We can now define......

Words: 23393 - Pages: 94

Legal Research Method

...new knowledge.”2 Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”3 Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the persuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding......

Words: 12045 - Pages: 49

Business Research Methods

...Research Methods –STA630 VU Research Methods (STA630) Contents Lesson 1: INTRODUCTION, DEFINITION & VALUE OF RESEARCH ........................ 14 What is Research?................................................................................................................... 14 What is the value of Research? ............................................................................................... 14 Research helps in developing methodologies ......................................................................... 15 We are surrounded by research............................................................................................... 16 Lesson 2: SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF RESEARCH & ITS SPECIAL FEATURES ...... 17 Important Characteristics of Scientific Method ...................................................................... 17 1. Empirical......................................................................................................................... 17 2. Verifiable ........................................................................................................................ 18 3. Cumulative ..................................................................................................................... 18 4. Deterministic.................................................................................................................. 18 5. Ethical and Ideological Neutrality ............................................................

Words: 85920 - Pages: 344

Scientific Method and the Problem-Solving Approach

...Scientific Method and the Problem-Solving Approach The term "environment" refers to the sum total of our surroundings, including biotic and abiotic factors. Environmentalism is a social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world from undesirable changes brought about by human choices. In contrast, Environmental Science refers to the pursuit of knowledge about the workings of the environment and our interactions with it. It incorporates the study of both "hard" science subjects such as biology, chemistry, and ecology and social sciences, such as economics and policy. In this paper, I will review an environmental situation and attempt to apply methods of study from both the "hard" and social sciences. Consider this. A dairy farmer in Wisconsin loves to fish in a tiny lake adjacent to his property. In recent weeks, he has had terrible luck, catching few or no fish every time he goes out. He also notices that the lake has an unusually high amount of algae in it. Clearly, the reason for a short supply of fish and an increased amount of algae in the lake is contributed to algae blooms. These blooms are caused by “loads” of nitrogen flowing into the canal. Based on this information, I predict large amounts of chemical fertilizers are being applied on nearby farms and subsequent run-off enters the lake (Withgott & Laposata, p. 9). This occurrence then produces massive algae growth which not only obstructs sunlight, but also starves the water of oxygen, resulting......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Business Research Method

...BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS CORE COURSE V SEMESTER B Com/BBA (2011 Admission) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Calicut university P.O, Malappuram Kerala, India 673 635. 313 School of Distance Education UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDY MATERIAL Core Course V Semester B Com/BBA BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS Prepared by : 1. Smt. U. Sreevidya, Assistant Professor, Govt. College Malappuram, (Module I, II, & III, ). & 2. Smt. Sunitha. K, Assistant Professor, Govt. College Malappuram, (Module IV &V). Dr. K. Venugopalan, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Govt. College, Madappally Scrutinized by: Layout: Computer Section, SDE © Reserved Business Research Methods 2 School of Distance Education CONTENTS CHAPTER -1 BUSINESS RESEARCH PAGE 5 CHAPTER -2 PLANNING OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH PROCESS 13 CHAPTER -3 RESEARCH DESIGN 20 CHAPTER -4 MEASUREMENT AND SCALING 42 CHAPTER -5 DATA PROCESSIING 59 CHAPTER -6 RESEARCH REPORT 85 Business Research Methods 3 School of Distance Education Business Research Methods 4 School of Distance Education CHAPTER -1 BUSINESS RESEARCH The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. The dictionary defines the former as a prefix meaning again, anew or over again and the latter as a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to probe. Together they form...

Words: 28396 - Pages: 114

An Approach to Incremental Innovation Theories and Its Methods in Industrial Product Development

...ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED’07 28 - 31 AUGUST 2007, CITÉ DES SCIENCES ET DE L'INDUSTRIE, PARIS, FRANCE AN APPROACH TO INCREMENTAL INNOVATION THEORIES AND ITS METHODS IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Hannu Oja Tampere University of Technology ABSTRACT A quest for powerful tools to support creation of innovative solutions exists in industry. Majority of development efforts aims for incremental development of products, either by means of improved performance in use or during manufacturing process. New concepts or solutions on product’s functionality and behaviour (behaviour meaning how the functionality is delivered, response) are needed to bring benefits. Generic product development theories, models and methods are applicable for new product development, as their approach is linear and founded on functional requirements and means to execute them. However, in industry the product development activities preferably start from existing product or concept with pre-determined goals rather than from scratch. Creativity techniques and multidisciplinary workgroups have been referred in literature as means for creating innovations. However, these methods lack context of technical system and are general in nature and could be used for any problem with assistance of experienced moderator and a group of individuals. These techniques and methods are not included in this study. An approach from retrospective case study is presented. It was found that the mental process of an innovator......

Words: 4589 - Pages: 19

Business Research Method

... Business Research Methods This page intentionally left blank Business Research Methods Alan Bryman Emma Bell Third edition 1 3 Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York © Alan Bryman and Emma Bell 2011 The moral rights of the authors have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First edition 2003 Second edition 2007 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford......

Words: 460656 - Pages: 1843

Research Method

...issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or examination; especially  : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws" Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the natureand the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, such as business schools, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate totally). b. What is a research carried out for? The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms......

Words: 2238 - Pages: 9

Scientific Methods of Research

...03-Bloomberg-45467.qxd 12/26/2007 11:52 AM Page 65 CHAPTER 3 Presenting Methodology and Research Approach OVERVIEW Chapter 3 of the dissertation presents the research design and the specific procedures used in conducting your study. A research design includes various interrelated elements that reflect its sequential nature. This chapter is intended to show the reader that you have an understanding of the methodological implications of the choices you made and, in particular, that you have thought carefully about the links between your study’s purpose and research questions and the research approach and research methods that you have selected. Note that in the proposal’s chapter 3, you project what you will do based on what you know about the particular methods used in qualitative research, in general, and in your tradition or genre, in particular; hence, it is written in future tense. In the dissertation’s chapter 3, you report on what you have already done. You write after the fact; hence, you write in past tense. As such, many of the sections of chapter 3 can be written only after you have actually conducted your study (i.e., collected, analyzed, and synthesized your data). To write this chapter, you need to conduct literature reviews on the methodological issues involved in qualitative research design. You need to show the reader that you (a) have knowledge of the current issues and discourse, and (b) can relate your......

Words: 15567 - Pages: 63

Describe the Cognitive Approach in Psychology and Evaluate the Research Methods Used.

...Describe the cognitive approach in psychology and evaluate the research methods used. In the cognitive approach, lab experiments are reductionist because it’s focusing on basic processes and compares human cognition to computer functioning; ignoring the complexity of the human mind. The cognitive approach often takes this narrow focus and ignores social and emotional factors which may impact on cognition. This is evident from studies such as Ebinghaus experiment where he investigated forgetting and how memory ‘decays’. Although there are some explanations that relate to the brain and how our brain deals with information to remember it, there is another explanation that supports the reductionist side. Humans are like computers and if we don’t recall the information to remind ourselves of something, like in a computer drive we will simply get overloaded with other information that will overshadow this one and simply make us forget. This therefore shows how lab experiments can be reductionist. Furthermore, because it was a lab experiment where Ebinghaus knew what to expect from his inference we can say it was unfair and invalid because he was appreciative. The use of case studies in the cognitive approach is longitudinal which is good as it allows information to be gathered over a period of time and can therefore show changes in behaviour or thoughts over the set period. The Ebinghaus study, where he collected data over several weeks to see if he was capable of remembering......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Reseach Methods

...AND MANAGEMENT COURSE: LDP 603: RESEARCH METHODS Authored by: Dr. Christopher Mwangi Gakuu Senior Lecturer, Department of ExtraMural studies, University of Nairobi & Dr. Harriet Jepchumba Kidombo Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Studies University of Nairobi Page 1 of 240 GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE MODULE The Research Methods course is one of the first semester core courses for those learners pursuing the Master in Project Planning and Management course. You are aware that any good decision is based on facts. Facts are based on data. The data must be systematically collected, processed, analysed and presented for use. The best-known way of collecting empirical data is through scientific research methods. This is what this course module is all about. The main aims of this course unit is to: 1. Providing you with the basic information needed to understand the research process. 2. Enable you to use the knowledge to design their own research agenda on an area of personal interest or that of an organization. MODULE STRUCTURE The module is covered in Lectures. Each Lecture focuses on area in research. You will note that in each unit, there is an introduction, unit objectives, contents presented in subtopics, activities, summary and suggestions for further readings. This structure aims at making it easy for you to read the material more easily and logically. In each Lecture you will find some activities or exercises that you......

Words: 62976 - Pages: 252

Research Method

...CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH  Instructional Goals  1. To generate interest in research for the students by driving home the point that  successful managerial problem solving is nothing other than understanding and  analyzing the situation at hand, which is what research is all about.  2. To help students differentiate between research‐based problem solving and “going by  gut‐feeling”, the latter of which might sometimes help to solve problems in the short  term, but might lead to systemic long‐term adverse consequences.  3. To create an appreciation in students that research is useful for solving problems in  ALL areas of business.  4. To help students develop an appreciation of the role of the manager in facilitating the  researcher or the consultant’s work.  5. To stress the importance of skill development in research, as opposed to mere  gathering of knowledge about research.  6. To emphasize that research and knowledge about research enhance managerial  effectiveness.  7. To sensitize students to ethical conduct in business research.    Discussion Questions   1. Why should a manager know about research when the job entails managing people,  products, events, environments and the like?  The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments, will  invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long  lasting, effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research  even if co......

Words: 36635 - Pages: 147

Research Method

...Research Method Hypothesis and Theory Hypotheses can be developed and tested to recognize the relationships between categories. Silverman (1991:1) defined hypothesis as a ‘testable proposition’. The appearance of an apparent relationship or connection between categories will need to be tested in order to find out whether there is an actual relationship (Saunders, 1997:344). The importance of hypothesis is that it will bring a specific direction and focus to a research study. The theory on the other hand, is usually drawn from the hypothesis. Theories are usually generated from attempts at explaining observations and thus prediction or expectations can be made (Gill, 1991:25). Deduction and Induction There are two methods of establishing what is true or false and of drawing conclusion. These two methods are deduction and induction. Induction is made by empirical evidence based, while deduction is logic based. Through induction, a general conclusion can be made from empirical observation. It goes by the process of assumption to conclusion (Ghauri, 1995:8). From deduction, conclusions are draw through logical reasoning and it is not necessary to be reality. When an observation is made to generate a theory with consistent facts, it is called induction, on the contrary deduction involves the gathering of facts to confirm or disprove hypothesized relationships among variables that have been deduced from proposition or earlier theories (Ghauri, 1995:9). Research method and......

Words: 2557 - Pages: 11

Menjnk holnap moziba (2007) Nézettség: 27 Hossz: 85 min IMDB: 6.8 Beküldve: 2018/12/03 Menjnk holnap moziba 2007 | Biography | 1 Dead Party (2013)