Ecology & the Environment

In: Science

Submitted By LexiD
Words 878
Pages 4
Abstract In the original Greek “oikos” means, “house”. So ecology is “the study of the house” the place where you live, or the environment which technically includes all those factors, both nonliving and living, that affect an organism. Ecology then is the study of the interactions of organisms in their environment includes both the living (biotic) and physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. It is also the science, which formulates and test hypotheses about environment.
Keywords: ecology, environment, organisms, science, interaction, affects, temperate deciduous forest

Ecology is the relationship, identification and analysis of problems common to all areas. Ecology studies the relationships between organisms and their environments and its responses to environmental change (Ecology.com Aug. 2011). Ecology encompasses a wide range of considerations, such as the position of organisms in the food chain and the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. There is a variety of environmental issues that impact ecosystems and the organisms that live within them.
Biomes are large, distinctive complex of plant communities created and maintained by climate, also known as ecoregions. A study published in 1999 concluded that there are 150 different "ecoregions" in North America alone (Biologypages.com August 2011). The temperate deciduous forest biome occupies most of the eastern part of the United States, including Ohio and a small strip of southern Ontario. The temperate deciduous forest is most notable because it has 4 seasons; winter, spring, summer and fall. Precipitation varies from 28 inches per year in the northwestern section of the biome to 60 inches per year in the southeastern part. In most areas the precipitation is distributed evenly throughout the year. Many well known animals live in this kind of forest; included, Eastern Gray Squirrel, bears,…...

Similar Documents

Local and Surrounding Ecologies and Environments of Virginia

...Local and Surrounding Ecologies and Environments of Virginia Introduction to Physical Science, SCI110 December 13, 2012 The Virginia Ecologies and Environments Ecology, as defined by Enger, Ross, & Tillery (2009), is “the branch of biology that studies the relationships between organisms and their environments”. Accordingly, the term environment is very broadly defined as “anything that affects an organism during its lifetime” (Enger, Ross, & Tillery, 2009). With these definitions in mind, it is easy to understand that organisms rely on their environments for sustainment and life. On the flip side, environments rely on organisms as well for survival. The factors that affect a living organism in any given environment can, in turn, be classified as either biotic or abiotic. Biotic factors are other living things that may affect a particular organism, for example predators. In contrast, abiotic factors are nonliving things that affect a particular organism, such as a drought or excessive rain. In reviewing the local ecology and environment of the Commonwealth of Virginia, we must first determine the region’s biome. A biome is the classification of a terrestrial community, primarily determined by climatic factors, such as precipitation patterns and temperature ranges (Enger, Ross, & Tillery, 2009). A biome also provides an indication of the type of plant life and animals that may be present within a particular region. The relationship is......

Words: 2035 - Pages: 9

Ecology

...SC260 Ecology Assignment 1: 1. Describe global patterns of atmospheric heating and circulation. What mechanisms produce high precipitation in the tropics? What mechanisms produce high precipitation at temperate latitudes? What mechanisms produce low precipitation in the tropics? (60 points) 2. Use what you know about atmospheric circulation and seasonal changes in the sun’s orientation to earth to explain the highly seasonal rainfall in the tropical dry forest and tropical savanna biomes. (Hint: Why does the rainy season in these biomes come during the warmer months?) (40 points) 10 February 2013 1. Describe global patterns of atmospheric heating and circulation. What mechanisms produce high precipitation in the tropics? What mechanisms produce high precipitation at temperate latitudes? What mechanisms produce low precipitation in the tropics? (60 points) Uneven heating of its surface causes much of earth’s climatic variation by the sun. Heating the earth’s surface and atmosphere drives circulation of the atmosphere and influences patterns of precipitation. The mechanisms that produce high precipitation in the tropics is the warm moist air cools as it rises, since cool air holds less water vapor than warm air, the water vapor carried by this rising air mass condenses and form clouds, which produce the heavy rain fall associated with tropical environments. The mechanisms that produce high precipitation at temperate latitudes, as air mass rises......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Describe Your Local and Surrounding Ecologies and Environments.

...•Describe your local and surrounding ecologies and environments. Ecology is the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment. (Dictionary.com 2013) An ecosystem is comprised of living organisms together with their surrounding environment. The abiotic constituents found in the local ecosystem include; water, minerals, soil and other nonliving constituents such as sunlight and climate. The living part of the ecosystem is referred to as biotic. Biotic and abiotic constituents are linked together by nutrients cycling and energy flow. (Integrated Science, 2009) Sun is the main source of energy in an ecosystem which is transferred through an ecosystem through the food chain. The main components of an ecosystem include animals, plants and microorganisms but they are also comprised of non-living materials such as water, minerals, soil and rocks. My local surrounding environment is farm land. I live in the country with fields of hay and cattle surrounding me. •List the specific factors that distinguish your local ecology and environment. The specific factors that distinguish my local ecology and the environment are climate, soil, rocks, minerals, plants and animals. Climate is a vital factor in my local ecology since it determines the kind of animals and plants to be found in the ecosystem. Different animals and plants are only found in certain places in the globe defined by the climate of the place. Soil is another factor which affects the kind of plants......

Words: 952 - Pages: 4

Ecology

...Steffi Varghese 1135190 BIOL212-13A (HAM) ECOLOGY PARASITISM AND ITS INTERACTION TO THE SPECIES POPULATION Introduction “Parasitism is a type of co-operative relationship between organisms of different species where one species, the parasite, benefits from an extended, close association with the other species, the host, which is harmed” (Smith & Smith 2012, pg no 299). A parasite usually depends on host species for food, habitat and dispersal in order to increase their fitness. Though parasites obtain benefits from the host species, it does not kill the host as predators do. But due to diminutive growth, boniness, change in behaviour and infertility can cause death for the host organisms. Generally, parasites are much smaller than their hosts, which had a specialized mode of life and reproduce more rapidly and in bigger numbers than their hosts (Smith & Smith, 2012). The main objective of this essay is to describe how the interaction of parasite-host relationship affect the population size and dynamics of both parasite and host species. Discussion Host are considered as the habitats for parasites because it lives on or in the body of the host. The parasites enter into the body of the host by various pathways such as mouth, nasal passages, skin, rectum, urogenital systems and digestive systems. Although parasites harm the host, it is in the parasites best interest not to kill the host, because it relies......

Words: 1239 - Pages: 5

Ecology

...This has led to more industrial breeding with more stress for animals and a growing demand on nature—such as increased use of crops for feed and increased water pollution due to livestock density and fertilizer use. FIGURE 5FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 Food energy, in Petajoules (PJ) WW WW W ORLD CORLD C ORLD CORLD C ORLD C ONSUMPONSUMP ONSUMPONSUMP ONSUMP TION OFTION OF TION OFTION OF TION OF LIVELIVE LIVELIVE LIVE SS SS S TT TT T OCKOCK OCKOCK OCK PRODUCT PRODUCT PRODUCT PRODUCT PRODUCT SS SS S (1961-1999) (1961-1999) (1961-1999) (1961-1999) (1961-1999) FISHERIES FOOTPRINT Pig Meat Eggs Poultry Meat Beef and Buffalo M eat Milk Industrial scale fisheries are rapidly changing the ecology of ocean ecosystems, while an increasing number of studies document the damaging effects of aquaculture and farmed fish. 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 61 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 99 Year Pig Meat Eggs Poultry Meat Beef & Buffalo Meat Milk Footprint accounts analyze 22 fish and aquaculture categories, incorporating 40 species groups. The global fisheries Footprint has risen more dramatically than other food categories, as the world craves more and bigger fish— that is, fish higher on the food chain. Overall, the world’s fisheries are losing productivity. There are fewer and smaller fish. While the catch tonnage remains constant, the......

Words: 8911 - Pages: 36

Ecology

...Anthropology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 The New Ecological Anthropology Older ecologies have been remiss in the narrowness of their spatial and temporal horizons, their functionalist assumptions, and their apolitical character. Suspending functionalist assumptions and an emphasis upon (homeo)stasis, "the new ecological anthropology" is located at the intersection of global, national, regional, and local systems, studying the outcome of the interaction of multiple levels and multiple factors. It blends theoretical and empirical research with applied, policy-directed, and critical work in what Rappaport called an "engaged" anthropology; and it is otherwise attuned to the political aspects and implications of ecological processes. Carefully laying out a critique of previous ecologies by way of announcing newer approaches, the article insists on the need to recognize the importance of culture mediations in ecological processes rather than treating culture as epiphenomenal and as a mere adaptive tool. It closes with a discussion of the methodologies appropriate to the new ecological anthropology. / "the new ecology, " political ecology, applied or engaged anthropology, linkages methodology] cological anthropology was named as such during the 1960s, but it has many ancestors, including Daryll Forde, Alfred Kroeber, and, especially, Julian Steward. Steward's cultural ecology influenced the ecological anthropology of Roy Rappaport and Andrew P. Vayda, but the......

Words: 10525 - Pages: 43

Ecology

...Ecology Booklet Project Trey FitzMorris 1/6/2014 2rd Period Interrelationships Among Organisms In An Ecosystem Ecosystem – community of living and nonliving things that interact with one another to function as a system Stable Ecosystem – an ecosystem that is able to maintain its structure and function over a long period of time Niche – an individual’s place within an ecosystem, or a species location in an ecosystem relative to other species Predation Predation – one animal killing and eating others to provide themselves with adequate nutrients Predation is an important relationship between animals. It provides the predator with a source of energy that allows it to exist in that certain ecosystem. Predation also limits the predator and prey relationship because if the prey did not exist the predator could not exist, and if the predator did not exist the population of the prey would be able to become overpopulated. Competition Competition – individuals of a species fighting each other for a limited amount of resources needed to survive Competition is an important interspecies interaction, because it limits the size of a population. Animals that do not have a predator do not have to worry about their population being limited by another species. However what the limit lacks in predation it makes up in competition. When individuals of a species do not have enough resources to go around they must compete with one another to obtain these resources...

Words: 1916 - Pages: 8

Ecology

...Established in 1920, Ecology publishes research and synthesis papers on all aspects of ecology, with particular emphasis on papers that develop new concepts in ecology, that test ecological theory, or that lead to an increased appreciation for the diversity of ecological phenomena. Theoretical, analytical, experimental, empirical, historical, and descriptive approaches are all appropriate, though preference is given to research and synthesis that leads to generalizations potentially applicable to other species, populations, communities, or ecosystems. Included within the journal are papers on physiological responses of individual organisms to their biotic and abiotic environments, ecological genetics and evolution, the structure and dynamics of populations, interactions among individuals of the same or different species, the behavior of individuals and groups of organisms, the organization of biological communities, landscape ecology, and ecosystems processes. Papers reporting ecological research on all kinds of organisms and ecosystems are welcome. New methodologies with a potential for broad use in ecology are also of interest. Papers that are well grounded in ecological theory and have broad implications for environmental policy or resource management may be well suited for publication in Ecological Applications, but are also welcome in Ecology if they meet the general criteria described above. Papers must be original and not be work previously published in the primary......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Ecology

...File name: 25085500 Ecology and Populations 1. Explain how human activities can cause an imbalance in biogeochemical cycling and lead to problems such as cultural eutrophication and fish kills? Well there could be many reasons on how human activities can lead to an imbalance of biochemical cycling. Like anything that the natural environment is not familiar with can throw off the balance. One of the negative eutrophication is a loss of available oxygen known as anoxia. The conditions can kill fish and other aquatic organisms such as amphibians. 2. Compare and contrast the traits and growth patterns of opportunistic versus equilibrium populations. Provide one example of each. Opportunistic species use the “r-strategy”. “r” is the species instrinsic rate of increase. They produce millions of eggs and sperm since only a small percent will then meet, join and become actual offspring. Example : most insects, corals , scallops , oysters and clams that fertilize their eggs in the water. Opportunistic species are often the first to colonize a new environment and their population growth is exponential. Equilibrium species use the “k-strategy”, “k” is the carrying capacity of the environment. They produce fewer offspring and take care of them in other ways. Example: birds, mammals, and some live bearing fish. 3. Compare and contrast indirect versus direct values of biodiversity and also provide examples: biodiversity provides indirect benefits to human beings which......

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Ecology

...of Atmospheric Heating and Circulation. What Mechanisms Produce High Precipitation in the Tropics? What Mechanisms Produce High Precipitation at Temperate Latitudes? What Mechanisms Produce Low Precipitation in the Tropics? Samantha leupold AC0443329 Assignment 1 SC260 Ecology 1. Describe global patterns of atmospheric heating and circulation. What mechanisms produce high precipitation in the tropics? What mechanisms produce high precipitation at temperate latitudes? What mechanisms produce low precipitation in the tropics? 2. Use what you know about atmospheric circulation and seasonal changes in the sun’s orientation to earth to explain the highly seasonal rainfall in the tropical dry forest and tropical savanna biomes. (Hint: Why does the rainy season in these biomes come during the warmer months?) Heating of the earth surface and atmosphere and influences patterns of precipitation the sun heats the air at the equator causing it to expand and rise. This warm moist air cools as it rises. Since cool air holds less water vapor than warm air the water carried by the rising air mass condenses and forms clouds which produce the heavy rain fall associated with the tropical environment. Eventually this equatorial air mass ceases to rise and spreads north and south. The high altitude air is dry since the moisture it once held fell as a tropical rain fall. When the air mass flows north and south it cools which increases its density. It sinks back to the......

Words: 360 - Pages: 2

Ecology

...Part 1: The Producers Go to http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/interactives/ecology/food_web.php Challenge Try to get two plants to happily co–exist. In any given ecosystem, most organisms will carve out a niche for themselves where they can obtain all of the necessities to survive. Often, different species within the ecosystem will compete for the resources that a niche provides. However, certain species live well together—symbiotically, parasitically, or by staying out of each other's way. For example, lichen and moss, often the primary colonizers of a new ecosystem, tend to live fairly harmoniously in each other's vicinity. Let's see what happens in this model. Step 1 Imagine the ecosystem is newly forming—the previous ecosystem has been destroyed by fire or flood—and the first colonizers of the successive ecosystem are, of course, producers. Given the two fictitious species of plants in the simulator, predict what will happen in this young system and record your prediction in the Data Table. Then run the simulator to 100 time steps and record the population numbers for both plants. Answer the following: 1. What assumptions does this model make about co-dominance as well as the general terrain of the ecosystem? 2. Do you find one producer to be dominant? Why might one producer be dominant over another? Step 2 Now you'll introduce an herbivore into the environment. In theory, an herbivore native to the ecosystem should feed primarily on the dominant......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Ecology

...In this essay I will give a brief overview of the natural ecosystem of Cedar Hill State park. I will examine the major structural and functional dynamics of that ecosystem and how it has evolved over time, how humans may have affected biogeochemical cycles in that ecosystem, how knowledge about that ecosystem’s structure and function can help or has helped to develop plans for its management and restoration. Cedar Hill State Park is a 1,826 acre nature preserve located on the Joe Pool Reservoir. Cedar Hill State Park has a climax ecosystem meaning that the environment consists of a variety of plants and animals which through the process of succession the development of vegetation has reached a steady rate. The park is dominated by upland forests that include cedar elm, honey locust, mesquite and juniper trees. This park host a variety of common animals that include bobcat, coyote, fox, and raccoon, as well as aquatic species ranging from large- mouth bass, white bass, and crappie. Over the years this ecosystems functional dynamics have changed because of the development of homes and retail shopping centers that have diminished the cedar forest that covered the land. The Golden-cheeked Warbler suffered due to habitat destruction and was on the verge of extinction but because of the unique habitat found at Cedar Hill State Park the Golden-Cheeked Warbler was spotted in 2004. The tall grass prairie was a migratory habitat for the Eskimo Curlew now thought to be extinct. These......

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Ecology

...rates preceded by an earlier reduction in death rates. Demographic transition is the transition between high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates (Neal, 2004). Ecosystem can be described as a geographical area where a number of plants and animals interact together. Simply stated, it is a biological community and its physical environment. A number of factors affect the ecosystem but the most adverse factor is population (Begon, Harper & Townsend, 1996). The population can affect the ecosystem through its size, cycles, limiting factors and resistance. For example, the bigger a population, the more strain it is likely to put on the ecosystem. If population grows too fast for the ecosystem to handle, it collapses. Services that the ecosystem offers are fundamental life support services that human life depends on and they can be direct or indirect. Direct ecosystems services include pollination, wood and erosion prevention while indirect services are nutrient cycles, climate moderation and detoxifying natural substances. Ecology is the study of the relationship between living organisms and its natural environment. At the rate at which population is growing, the ecosystem will not be able to sustain it. As the population grows so does, the need for resources to sustain human life grows. Human beings need food, shelter, fuel among other needs to be able to live a fulfilling life on earth ( Begon, Harper & Townsend, 1996). The earth is currently facing the......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Ecology

...The Fluidity of Ecology. Gender Norms & Racial Bias in the Study of the Modern "Ecology" Ecology is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology, geography and Earth science. Ecology includes the study of interactions organisms have with each other, other organisms, and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution, amount, and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Ecosystems are composed of dynamically interacting parts including organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and various niche construction activities, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits, and the variety of organisms is called biodiversity. Biodiversity, which refers to the varieties of species, genes, and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, natural history, or environmental science. It is closely related to evolutionary biology, genetics, and ethology. An important focus for ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological......

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Cannabis/Marijuana for Our Environment, Health and Ecology

...Cannabis/Marijuana for Our Environment, Health and Ecology A Research Paper in English Submitted to: Mrs. Ma. Leonor M. Vertucio Submitted by: Mayuga, John Angel Ocino, Angel Joseph I. Introduction Our topic is about Cannabis, also known as  marijuana  (sometimes spelled "marihuana") among many other names,  refers to any number of  preparations  of the Cannabis  plant  intended for use as a  psychoactive drug  or for medicinal  purposes.  According to the United Nations, cannabis "is the most widely used illicit substance in the world.“ The typical herbal form of cannabis consists of the flowers and subtending leaves and stalks of  mature  pistil late  female plants. The  resinous  form of the drug is known as  hashish  (or merely as 'hash') The major  psychoactive  chemical compound  in cannabis is  Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (commonly abbreviated as THC). Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, including at least 66 other  cannabinoids  (cannabidiol  (CBD),  cannabinol  (CBN) and  tetrahydro cannabis varin  (THCV), etc. which can result in different effects from those of  THC  alone. In modern times, the drug has been used for  recreational,  religious or spiritual, and  medicinal  purposes. We choose this topic to know and to inform our listeners that marijuana is a harmful ......

Words: 2791 - Pages: 12

Vedi Prodotto | تحميل | Augsburger Puppenkiste (33)