Egoism

In: English and Literature

Submitted By barrigam
Words 2043
Pages 9
Fifty To have morals generally means as having a set of values or principles. These values, good or bad are most commonly instilled in us from infancy and usually evolve as we become older and make life choices. Perhaps we can say it’s the foundation of good values in people that bring out their decent and moral conduct. At least that’s what I believe. I would have never imagined that during my vacation, I’d end up shipwrecked out in the middle of the Caribbean Ocean and my sole existence would depend on three individuals aboard that cruise ship that were so different. I say this because prior to the shipwreck I got to socially interact with the other passengers who were on the cruise with me. It’s those three men that are now making all the decisions for one hundred and seventy four other passengers, crewmembers and myself, although very intelligent and equally portray a common sense type of character, have a set of totally different ethical beliefs. The theorist with the divine command type of personality preached daily about “doing what God wants us to do” and how it’s important for parents to raise their children with a strong religious background if we want them to find eternal life with God. Don’t get me wrong, its not that I think he’s wrong or disagree, I just believe that my vacation time involves a lot of RR and I certainly don’t want to be discussing such personal matters with complete strangers. Now, the second gentleman whom I call the “relativist” seems like he has a good head on his shoulders. He’s very personable, courteous, and seems to be a very rational human being. He’s not critical of anyone, minds his own business and has been extremely tolerable with the divine command theorist and the conversations he has basically imposed on him with his beliefs. He’s a neutral type of guy that really wishes to be left alone to enjoy his wonderful…...

Similar Documents

Ethical Egoism

...Ethical Egoism Ethical egoism is a normative theory based on the promotion of one’s own good in accordance with morality (Moseley). Shaver avers that based on the ethical egoism theory it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right and that it maximizes one's self-interest. The promotion and pursuance of one’s self-interest underscores the normative theory. It prescribes the motivation of one’s thought, behaviour, and action. To fully understand the ethical egoism theory we must first know certain principles behind it. Ethical egoism is a normative theory, which means it prescribes how we should think, behave, and act. Three different formulations of ethical egoism have been identified: individual, personal and universal. Individual ethical egoism is the prescriptive doctrine that all persons should serve self-interest. Personal ethical egoism is the belief that one should act from the motive of self-interest. Universal ethical egoism is the universal doctrine that all persons should pursue their own interests exclusively (Shaver). A theory of ethics is said to be coherent if it is founded in truth, consistent and complete. ‘In truth’ means that a statement of action is either true or false and not both. Consistency means that there should be no contradictions or incompatible statements. Completeness means that there should be no moral truth, which is not provable from the basic moral principles of the theory (Moseley). Shaver’s...

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Psychological vs Ethical Egoism

...Psychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism: A Comparison Abstract There is a certain innate desire to help others, just as others will feel that same fulfillment for returning that aid. At the same time, however, there is also an inherent yearning to seek out one’s own best interest. This brings about a discussion regarding the difference between psychological egoism and ethical egoism. To understand the similarities and differences, one must first understand the two concepts including their natures, as well as their doctrines of motivation. Psychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism: A Comparison Human beings place great value on the interests of both themselves and others. There is a certain innate desire to help others, just as others will feel that same fulfillment for returning that aid. At the same time, however, there is also an inherent yearning to seek out one’s own best interest. That being said, which is the more natural desire, and which of these will prevail when a decision must be made between self-interest, and the interest of others? This brings about a discussion regarding the difference between psychological egoism and ethical egoism. Philosophers as far back as Plato and Socrates – and likely further – have been pondering over these notions which remain just as relevant today. To understand the similarities and differences, one must first understand the two concepts including their natures, as well as their doctrines of......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Psychological Egoism

...Psychological Egoism In this paper I will argue against psychological egoism. More specifically, I will argue against hedonistic psychological egoism, a popular form of psychological egoism. Hedonistic psychological egoism is the view that the ultimate motive for human action is the desire to experience pleasure or avoid pain. I will begin by contrasting psychological egoism with ethical egoism. I will then discuss arguments that support psychological egoism, and refute those arguments using Rachels’ and Feinberg’s view’s against the theory. I will conclude by arguing that psychological egoism is implausible as it is incapable of being falsified, and fails to distinguish critical terms proposed in the theory. I will begin by defining psychological egoism. Psychological egoism is the view that people always act according to their self-interest. According to this view, our only intrinsic desires are desires for the advancement of our own self-interest. But we can still have instrumental desires for other things. Instrumental desires are desires that you have only because you believe that satisfying that desire will help you satisfy some other desire. For example, I may desire to write this paper only because I believe that by writing this paper I will get a good grade, and I desire to get a good grade; I don’t intrinsically desire to write this paper. Now that I have defined psychological egoism, I will contrast the theory with ethical egoism. Psychological egoism and......

Words: 1910 - Pages: 8

Egoism

...PHI-279 February 20th 2014 Mark Herr Psychological egoism is a theory based on the idea that an individuals does things not because he thinks of himself as a good Samaritan, but unbeknown to him it is done for selfish reason. I experienced such a theory during my teenage years, and I will testify on the event. I was walking to father's house late at night in my local neighborhood of which I grew up in. Randomly an act of violence was happening in yards away, I hear several popping sounds followed by screamimng and running. It takes seconds to realize those sounds are bullets being fired at someone, and this random individual is running away from this gun man. I unconsciously spring into hero mode to aide the victim aide (with no regard to my personal safety) to make sure she is not fatally wounded. After the superman effect has worn off I thought to myself “ you did good today with this selfless act”, but my psychological egoistitc thinking was waiting for the 6 o clock news reporter to give details of my heroic deed, as well as my hero banner and community parade. Unfortunately none came, instead I was detained by the police because they thought I was the perpetrator 1. Argumentative Essay Using one of the ethical theories, reviewed in class, as taken from the Sterba book, write a reflection paper of no less than five (5) pages, but no more than ten (10) pages typed and double spaced (12 size, Times New Roman font) which addresses the following main points of......

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Egoism

...Egoism is a narrow and robust perspective that is held in every human beings mind. People do things with themselves in their mind involved every day. How will this benefit me? Will this make him leave me alone? Will this hurt me in the latter? These questions phase in and out of our minds with the daily tasks we do, and believe it or not, we act upon it depending on our answer. Even if by some chance someone doesn’t think of this question and acts in kindness; they will remind you later (some other time or event) so that you can take part in a favor they ask of you. Now to take us more in depth by bringing in the most selfish thing we created. The United States of America! We don’t owe money by the minute? Do we care how healthy our people are? Do we try to dip in our own resources instead of other places? No, no, no! We owe about 2.5 million a minute and still counting. Yet we still spend what we don’t have and we spend for ourselves. We spend for our military, for our need and goods from China, Japan, United Kingdom, Brazil, etc… On top of that, you look left and right and you see fast food places all over area. We eat for our enjoyment, to make us happy. We eat because we have to yes, but there is a difference between eating and eating. We say that we care about our health and our daily food intake, yet sodas are still coming out, Twinkies being thrown in stores, and chips made by the pound. Then we have to pay thousands of dollars we don’t have to get workout equipment......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Psychological Egoism

...Faith Holloway Dr Justin Sytsma PHIL 105 May 5 2014 Critical Analysis of Psychological Egoism Psychological egoism, as defined by the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (2010), entails that each person has but one ultimate aim: her own welfare. This essay will explore the meaning of psychological egoism, how arguments can be justifiably presented and why this theory is commonly appealing to philosophers. Often supporters of psychological egoism will present arguments through theories such as Darwinism and Desire Satisfaction. This essay essentially aims to critically assess the substantiality of these arguments. In order to correctly assess the arguments in favour of psychological egoism, firstly it must be stated what is implied by these arguments. Psychological egoism has many differences to other egoist theories such as ethical egoism, which state we should be selfish. Psychological egoism however states that all human actions are uncontrollably selfish, and that this is part of our human nature. It should be noted before continuing that this essay will be assessing this more radical form of psychological egoism , which identifies that ‘selfishness is’ the only way one can possibly performs actions, disregarding any consideration of others unless this aids their selfish action in some way. Psychological egoism can seem plausible to its supporters for a variety of reasons. Some of the most common include the concept that desires are entirely our own and therefore......

Words: 2289 - Pages: 10

Psychological Egoism

...Psychological egoism is the view that people are always selfish. When was the last time you did a good deed? Did you do it for its own sake, or for your own? The egoist says that all of us are necessarily self-regarding. I shall argue that this view is incorrect. First we should ask, what kind of claim is this? Is it an a priori claim, or a generalization from experience? If it were the latter, we could never conclusively prove it: we could never show that necessarily all actions are selfish. So it must be a priori. But no a priori claim could be substantive: a priori truths are all analytic (that is, the predicate is contained in the subject). So if this claim were analytic, it would become trivial. (It is worth noting that Kripke’s claim that there are a posteriori necessary truths does not show that a priori truths are not analytic.) The situation is paralleled by pseudo-sciences such as Freudian psychoanalysis. As Karl Popper has argued, any theory can be maintained so long as it is drained of empirical content. Like psychoanalysis, psychological egoism makes no genuine claims and can never be refuted. But it purchases certainty at the price of becoming vacuous. I shall have more to say on this below. The simplest way to see the egoist’s mistake is to distinguish between the side-effects of an action and the reason for which it was done. Suppose we grant that in doing a good deed, we usually get a pleasant feeling (though I suspect this is false). ...

Words: 617 - Pages: 3

Ethical Egoism

...Ethical Egoism We will be discussing the strengths and weaknesses of ethical egoism, but before we begin we first must understand what ethical egoism is and what is involved. Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which claims that people can only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds that it is rational to act in one's self-interest. Ethical egoism contrasts with ethical altruism, which holds that moral agents have an obligation to help others. Egoism and altruism both contrast with ethical utilitarianism, which holds that a moral agent should treat one's self with no higher regard than one has for others as egoism does, by elevating self-interests and the self to a status not granted to others, but that one also should not as altruism does sacrifice one's own interests to help others' interests, so long as one's own interests (i.e. one's own desires or well-being) are substantially equivalent to the others' interests and well-being. Egoism, utilitarianism, and altruism are all forms of consequentialism, but egoism and altruism contrast with utilitarianism, in that egoism and altruism are both agent-focused forms of consequentialism (i.e. subject-focused or subjective), but utilitarianism is called agent-neutral (i.e. objective and impartial) as it does not treat the subject's (i.e...

Words: 433 - Pages: 2

Ethical Egoism

...References http://www.vision.org/visionmedia/science-and-environment/life-patenting/1158.aspx http://www.iep.utm.edu/egoism/ As Ethical Egoists, we believe that our actions should be motivated by and based on our own self-interest. We also believe that our actions are morally right if they are maximizing our self-interest first. This can extend beyond ourselves though, to include what we stand for or believe in, as long as we believe those things because we think it will promote our own well-being or personal advancements. In the discussion of patenting life, and whether we believe it is ethical, our position is for patenting life, and we do believe that doing so is ethical. We take this stand because we know that patenting life can serve as a means of advancement in ourselves and our world. If we make advancements in the biological aspects of our world, we are only helping to advance ourselves, which brings all of this back to self-interest. We argue for these advancements through the ability of patenting life because it will benefit us and pertains to our own self-interest. Policymakers should adopt a deontological approach because it would help them to see how patenting life is ethical under a series or rules rather than looking at the consequences, whether they be good or bad, of the action of patenting life itself. Deontology focuses on what is universally accepted or rejected as opposed to looking at the consequences or causes of the actions. It is not unlawful to...

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Phi445 W1D1 Psychological Egoism

...jobs in America and transferring them to foreign countries. The impact was negative for our economy, better for a foreign economy, and best for the leaders of said businesses (Wessel, 2011). A solution to this scenario would be to bring at least the majority of the jobs back to America and take a slight blow to the overall profit, in order to decrease the odds of our own economy collapsing. Then again, psychological egoism runs rampant amongst those in charge and damaging profit for the overall well-being of the economy is out of the question right now. Psychological egoism has a small place in my own body of ethics and values. I do tend to be selfish when dealing directly with selfish people. So regardless of the circumstances I just may do some nice things and act certain ways to ensure that my own motives are met first and foremost. I generally don’t surround myself with people like that however, and genuinely try to lean more towards helping others regardless even when there are no benefits for me ( psychological altruism). The theory of psychological egoism almost seems to be the core of the current company I’m employed with. Some examples include promoting shortcuts to finish a job quicker regardless of safety, purchasing cheaper supplies when we promote customer satisfaction, and rare raise opportunities. All to insure that the investors can receive the largest possible return monthly. Fieser, J., & Moseley, A. Introduction to Business Ethics. 2012. Retrieved......

Words: 392 - Pages: 2

Ethical Egoism

...Ethical Egoism Why do people treat themselves with luxuries they don’t need if there are starving children all around the world? We could easily save from them starvation by cutting off some of our unnecessary needs as a species. People despite that knowledge still seek for their favorite over priced gadget they don’t need, or buy so much food that the end up throwing it away by the end of the end of the week cause it has gone bad, etc. My conclusion is that we all have that feeling inside of us, but unless we’re really confronted with a problem or issue that effect particularly us, there is a small chance that we are going to act. Everyone, on the other hand has experienced helping someone else, and what that action generates inside of you. The sad thing is that it is far less pursued then fulfilling our own needs. I imagine a world where everybody is aware and conscious about what is actually going on in the world. That the world poverty is understood as it’s supposed to. If hunger is acknowledged to everybody and everybody is doing something about it. I imagine a world where every single person contributes to the ones who cant. What would that world look like? Would people in general feel better as a species? Would our moralities shift towards different problems? What would the ultimate outcome look like? Would the ones who cant provide for them selves be thankful or would they in a sense get spoiled? My question is would the outcome be positive or negative if we as a......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Egoism

...PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOSIM & ETHICAL EGOISM There are many different ways to interpret psychological egoism and ethical egoism. Both of this theories have been studied, both have people supporting them as well as rejecting them. Psychological egoism states that whatever you do is for the soul purpose of self-gain no matter what the cost. Ethical egoism in definition is you doing things with the purpose of self-gain but not going farther than the social moral standard to accomplish those goals. I will show how psychological egoism and ethical egoism are false by showing how people sometimes do things because they just feel like doing them, and not all actions have a hidden meaning behind them. Psychological egoism is the theory that claims that anything you do, no matter what it is, is motivated by self-interest. That your motivation is influenced by your desires. That all of our actions even if they may appear to be altruistic, they must have a selfish motive behind it. Even with evidence of altruistic acts from today or in the past, believers of this theory will tell you that those actions can be traced back to acts of selfishness and not for the well-being of others. Last Sunday, while listening to the priest give his explanation of the Gospel, he narrated how once Mother Theresa found this malnourished young child in the streets. She noticed that there was a bakery nearby and walked to the bakery along with the child. Once......

Words: 1438 - Pages: 6

Egoism

...Egoism /Act Utilitarianism When we think of egoism, with think of acts people do which will result in benefits that only are meant for that particular person and not the person they are doing the morally right act for. The egoist will only do a morally right act if it in some way that act helps them look better in other peoples’ eyes, or if it gains them some materialistic thing. The egoist has no regard toward another person’s personal interest or gains. When we think of Act Utilitarianism we think of doing a morally right act in belief that this act will promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. The contrast between the two is staggering. Egoism is to do a morally right act for the good of only one (yourself) and Act Utilitarianism is to do a morally right act for the benefit of all. When we try and compare the two, they are alike in that we can find many moral problems or issues with them both. With Act Utilitarianism everything becomes a moral issue, with egoism everything becomes about how you and only you will benefit. For two, they promote immoral acts. An example of this would be that it is in the best interest for you,(according to Egoism) to murder someone if by doing so it will benefit you, and it becomes ok to murder someone if by doing so, (according to Act Utilitarianism) the act would result in benefiting a number of people. Both are morally unethical because according to society, it is morally wrong to kill a person no matter what......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Exploring Psychological and Ethical Egoism

...Exploring Psychological and Ethical Egoism I disagree Kant’s philosophy when he assumed his criticism of speculative reason that whatever is universal and necessary in our knowledge must come from the mind itself, and not from the world of reality outside us. Like Utilitarianism, Kant’s moral theory is grounded in a theory of intrinsic value. But where the utilitarian take happiness, conceived of as pleasure and the absence of pain to be what has intrinsic value, Kant takes the only think to have moral worth for its own sake to be the good will. Persons, conceived of as autonomous rational moral agents, are beings that have intrinsic moral worth. This value of persons makes them deserving of moral respect. Kant’s moral theory is often referred to as the "respect for persons" theory of morality. Create a thread in this forum and provide an example that would support Kant's statement: "Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as means." One good example is when I preach to my kids about respect each other’s and not do anything bad that may end with unhappiness results, like the use of violence or hurting others around them. I remember that morning when I considered myself as a civilian with 3 kids and my wife. I could not believe that this was happening, and instantly my reactions were to go and secure my kids from school. Later, when I came to the house I......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Egoism and Utilitarianism

...To Treat or Not To Treat To treat or not to treat, that is the question? What would you do? How does the subject of cancer treatment apply to the moral theories of Egoism and Utilitarianism? Which theory best addresses this problem? I would assert Egoism best handles the dilemmas undressed by this ethical scenario. Egoism is a normative ethical theory that contends we act morally when in any given situation the right thing to do will be whatever maximally promotes long term self-interest. It does not describe how people behave; rather, it describes how people "ought" to behave. (Class notes February 23) This is a key element of all normative theories. Another key element of egoism lies in “long term”. Simply stated, an ethical egoist would typically not endorse running up credit card debt. While it might fulfill one's interests in the moment, it would undermine one's long term self-interest. James Rachels says it best; "Ethical egoism endorses selfishness, but it doesn't endorse foolishness.” Rachels also suggests each of us possess the ability to know what is in our own best interest, therefore to attempt to provide charity to another would directly disregard that ability. In essences, to give a man a fish would suggest they do not have the same ability you possess to acquire their own fish. Based on principles outlined by James Rachels and others, Thomas Hobbes may be viewed to be an ethical egoist, although he argued that if everyone follows their own long......

Words: 1145 - Pages: 5

SolveigMM Video Splitter Business 6 1 1811 15 + Serial | Mais Forte que o Mundo: A História de José Aldo (2016) | Viña san pedro