Submitted By 1LTlawson

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Words 633

Pages 3

Fundamentals of Statistics

Raymond Lawson

AIU Online Virtual Campus

Abstract

This paper will discuss the analysis of two sets of data. The mean, median, and mode will be analyzed and charted. The standard deviation will also be discussed along with the variance. A summary of the data and its results will be discussed in conclusion.

Fundamentals of Statistics Statistics are used for many different things in our lives. We have used them to in order to try and figure out who is the best at a sport or what company may give us the best return on our investment. The bottom line is statistics have become a part of our everyday life. We are going to use statistics to answer some questions we have about people and how they feel about their jobs. For this analysis we are looking at two fields of data. The first is the gender and the second is the extrinsic. We have decide to examine this data to help us understand the difference in how the two genders feel about where they work and how their feelings rate differently. Let’s first take a look at the gender of those surveyed. The mean of those surveyed by gender is mostly female. We will also look at the mean of the extrinsic job satisfaction. The scale goes from 1 being the least satisfied to 7 as the most satisfied. The mean shows that on average both genders are satisfied fairly equal to each other. Here are the charts.

This shows a mean of 1.56667 which means that there were more females surveyed then males.

Here we see the mean of the extrinsic at 5.376667.

We are also looking at the median of both gender and extrinsic. This is used to tell us where the middle is in the data that ranges on a scale from one point to another. This is not an average but just statistic of where the middle value of the data is at. For the gender there is really no middle since you are…...

...Quantitative Methods and Analysis Ip U1 Unit 1 - Fundamentals of Statistics Jeanna Starr American InterContinental University Abstract A data analysis was done on job satisfaction for the company AIU categorized by age, gender, tenure, position, and department. Overall job satisfaction as well as intrinsic (satisfaction with the actual performance of the job) and extrinsic (office location or work colleagues) job satisfaction were considered in this survey. Introduction AIU assembled a team of researchers to study job satisfaction. I was selected as part of a group to participate in a massive global undertaking. The study required me to examine data and analyze the results. The study consists of job satisfaction, which is extremely important to an organization’s overall success. This particular study will allow managers to gain understanding and knowledge about what type of human behaviors can be used to strengthen an organization’s performance. Chosen Variables I have chosen gender for my qualitative data and intrinsic for my quantitative data. The reason that I have chosen these two variables is because I thought it would be interesting to analyze if males or females were more satisfied with their job, and how the actual job performance reflected their job satisfaction rating. Difference in variable types Qualitative variables include subjects that are non-numerical, such as gender. Quantitative variables include......

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...Unit 1 - Fundamentals of Statistics ReneeCarina Benavente American InterContinental University BUSN311-12005B-11 Abstract In many organizations surveys are done to determine the job satisfaction of their employees. Job satisfaction is important for theses organizations large or small because it makes the aspects of the job easy for employees. Analyzing the data within these surveys is to find the overall job satisfaction using qualitative and quantitative variables. Introduction A word wide study of job satisfaction has been assembled by a large organization called American Intellectual Union (AIU). I have been chosen to be a part of this massive global undertaking. I will be analyzing the data from this study and results survey using AIU’s data set. Chosen Variables In examining the data set and results of AIU’s employees I chose to analyze the positions of the employees as my qualitative variables and the intrinsic job satisfaction as my quantitative variables. I chose to analyze these two specific variables because as an hourly or salary paid employee their internal job satisfaction is very important to know. It is best to understand the job satisfaction of employee position within the organization to better the work environment. Qualitative and Quantitative Variables Using qualitative and quantitative variables you have to know and understand the difference between the two variable or the results would not add up. Quantitative data is data......

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...Fundamentals Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole as opposed to microeconomics, which is the study of the economy within smaller sectors. It is a wide and varying subject. In order to grasp the subject there are some fundamentals that one needs to be familiar with. They are the gross domestic product (GDP), real gross domestic product (GDP), nominal gross domestic product (GDP), unemployment rate, inflation rate, and interest rate. These are the basics and interact with each other to determine the condition of the economy at any given moment. Domestic Products The gross domestic product is the total of everything produced within the US economy during a given period of time. It is the market value of all FINAL products. This means that only when an item is ready for consumer purchase is it tallied into the GDP. The individual pieces of the product are not counted before production. The GDP is used to get the real gross domestic product (GDP) and the nominal gross domestic product (GDP). The real GDP is what the GDP itself is actually worth as opposed to what it cost. The nominal GDP is the face value of the GDP. In other words, what it is actually going to sell for. Rates The unemployment rate is the number of people who are able, available to work, and actively seeking employment but who are not actually working. Inflation rate is the rate prices rise in a given period and interest rate is a percent of what one is charged when he or she charges an item....

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...Statistics is a powerful resource to determine important information. Statistics is used to determine whether the outcome of an experiment is the result of a relationship between specific factors or merely the result of chance. This concept is commonly used in the medical field to test drugs and vaccines and to determine causal factors of disease. Statistical also is used in the fields of psychology, environmental biology and other disciplines in which research is conducted through experimentation. Statistics are the mathematical calculations of numeric sets or populations that are manipulated to produce a probability of the occurrence of an event(Sullivan, 2003). A sample is used, and the results of the calculation are applied to an entire population. For example, it might be said that 80 percent of all adults in the United States drive a car. It would be difficult to ask each adult in the U.S. whether he or she drives a car, so a random number of people could be questioned, and the data could be statistically analyzed and generalized to apply to all adults in the U.S. This paper it shows three examples on how statistics relates to current life. Using the knowledge that I have obtained from this course, I will demonstrate techniques we have discussed in class to answer these questions. In 1798, Henry Cavendish measured the density of the earth using an instrument called a torsion balance. While the density is obviously not uniform, the value of the mean density is......

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...Series—08-02 | January 2008 Pin Ng, Ph.D. Associate Professor James Pinto, Ph.D. Professor Susan K. Williams, Ph.D. Associate Professor All professors at: Northern Arizona University The W. A. Franke College of Business PO Box 15066 Flagstaff, AZ 86011.5066 The Effect of Learning Styles on Course Performance: A Quantile Regression Analysis Introduction Students have different learning styles. “They preferentially focus on different types of information, tend to operate on perceived information in different ways, and achieve understanding at different rates” (Felder, 1993, p. 286). In this study, we investigated the relationship between student performance and learning styles for students enrolled in a basic business statistics course. This course was recently redesigned in order to facilitate learning for students of all learning styles. A learner-centered approach that incorporated multiple teaching styles such as student responsibility via mastery and co-operative learning that used teams in several course components was adopted. In addition, the focus of the redesigned course was on interpretation and implications of statistical results instead of the mechanics of computation (Lockwood, Ng, & Pinto, 2007). To assess our success in designing a course that facilitates learning for all learning styles, we evaluated the impact of students’ learning style on their performance in the course. “Students whose learning styles are compatible with the......

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...Running Head: Fundamentals of Statistics Abstract This paper provides an analysis of a small sample on the recent company job satisfaction survey. The focus of the study includes one qualitative data set (company position) and one quantitative data set (intrinsic). To support the analysis the following are also included in this paper: reason why these particular data sets were selected, calculations used, reason why some statistical measures did not apply to certain data sets, and what was learned from the analysis. Additionally, a graphical depiction to support data calculations and a conclusion is included. Introduction A job satisfaction survey is an analysis of employees who are satisfied with their job and the duties they perform. The proceedings of this paper include a qualitative and quantitative data collected during a job satisfaction survey. Quantitative data are data values that are numeric. Whereas, qualitative data are data values that can be place into distinct categories according to some of their character tics or attributes. The study serves as a foundation for future analysis in an effort to make accurate conclusions in regards to understanding global job satisfaction. A logical explanation for selecting the data sets analyzed as well as what was derived from the selected data sets will be provided. Qualitative Data: Company Position For this analysis I have chosen to use the company position data set for my qualitative assessment...

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...IN STATISTICS REGRESSION ANALYISIS Seventh Edition William Mendenhall University of Florida Terry Sincich University of South Florida Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Toronto Madrid Delhi Milan Mexico Munich City Sao Paris Paulo Montreal Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editor in Chief: Deirdre Lynch Acquisitions Editor: Marianne Stepanian Associate Content Editor: Dana Jones Bettez Senior Managing Editor: Karen Wernholm Associate Managing Editor: Tamela Ambush Senior Production Project Manager: Peggy McMahon Senior Design Supervisor: Andrea Nix Cover Design: Christina Gleason Interior Design: Tamara Newnam Marketing Manager: Alex Gay Marketing Assistant: Kathleen DeChavez Associate Media Producer: Jean Choe Senior Author Support/Technology Specialist: Joe Vetere Manufacturing Manager: Evelyn Beaton Senior Manufacturing Buyer: Carol Melville Production Coordination, Technical Illustrations, and Composition: Laserwords Maine Cover Photo Credit: Abstract green ﬂow, ©Oriontrail/Shutterstock Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and Pearson was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mendenhall, William. A second course in statistics :......

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...Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Zachary Evans University of Phoenix ECO/372 Write a 700- to 1,400-word paper summarizing the results. Consider the following examples of economic activities:• Purchasing of groceries• Massive layoff of employees• Decrease in taxes Describe how each of these activities affects government, households, and businesses. Describe the flow of resources from one entity to another for each activity. Relate at least one current event to the activities. Fundamentals of Macroeconomics [The body of your paper uses a half-inch first line indent and is double-spaced. APA style provides for up to five heading levels, shown in the paragraphs that follow. Note that the word Introduction should not be used as an initial heading, as it’s assumed that your paper begins with an introduction.] [Heading 1] [The first two heading levels get their own paragraph, as shown here. Headings 3, 4, and 5 are run-in headings used at the beginning of the paragraph.] [Heading 2]1 [To add a table of contents (TOC), apply the appropriate heading style to just the heading text at the start of a paragraph and it will show up in your TOC. To do this, select the text for your heading. Then, on the Home tab, in the Styles gallery, click the style you need.] [Heading 3]. [Include a period at the end of a run-in heading. Note that you can include consecutive paragraphs with their own headings, where appropriate.] [Heading 4]. [When using headings, don’t skip levels. If you......

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...Appendix: A Crash Course in Fundamental Statistical Concepts INTRODUCTION Throughout the book we’ve attempted to provide as much statistical background as possible without letting it get too overwhelming. In this appendix we review some fundamental statistical concepts and provide pointers to chapters where the concepts are covered in greater detail. If you’ve never had an introductory statistics class or don’t remember basic concepts such as measuring central tendency and variability, then you can use this appendix for a quick review. TYPES OF DATA The first step in using statistics to make better decisions is to obtain measurements. There are two major types of measurements: quantitative and categorical. Task time, number of usability problems, and rating-scale data are quantitative. Things like gender, operating system, and usability problem type are categorical variables. Quantitative data fall on a spectrum from continuous to discrete-binary, as shown in Figure A.1. Note that the extreme discrete end of this spectrum includes binary categorical measurements such as pass/fail and yes/no. The more discrete the data, the larger the required sample size for the same level of precision as a continuous measure. Also, you’ll usually use different statistical tests for continuous versus discrete data (see Chapters 3–6). Discrete data have finite values, or buckets. You can count them. Continuous data technically have an infinite number of steps, which form a......

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...Unit 1 - Fundamentals of Statistics Awilda Luciano American InterContinental University Abstract This report will show how data is analyzed by using measures of central tendency and will include the mean, median, and mode. These are various ways to report averages. In addition will also discuss the ranges of results and how they are dispersed. This is call variance or standard deviation (Bluman, 2010). Introduction Researchers in the United States and around the world are to study job satisfaction that will provide insight into employee behavior and attitudes toward their overall job satisfaction. They will take into consideration intrinsic and extrinsic values, and benefits. This will ultimately determine in which areas are in need of more dedication to strengthen the firm’s bottom line. Chosen Variables For this study we would use the qualitative variable of position and the quantitative variable being intrinsic. It would be interesting to see if hourly employees, who are offered overtime are more or less satisfied with the work they do as opposed to employees who do not work overtime. Difference in variable types Qualitative variables are numbers used to categorize the variables. They do not provide numeric value. More so it is used to code, for example in a legend (key) on a data spreadsheet they have categorized males as 1, and females as 2. Therefore in the chart column labeled gender each “1” indicate one male and the same is true for......

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...Macroeconomics Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper Lisa Goodman ECO/372 8/20/2015 Laurie Klosk-Gazzale Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper Massive layoff of employees is huge problem skyrocketing the unemployment rate because companies are globalization which increase their profits and save the consumer money by giving jobs international instead of locally where minimum wage is higher. Calabresi (2015) “In an unhealthy economy, a single lost job becomes infectious, combining with others and spreading through family, neighborhood and community. Widespread cutbacks in spending by families mean lower demand for businesses and lower tax revenues for the government. This belt-tightening means fewer car sales and thus fewer jobs for car-part makers. It means less government spending on infrastructure and other public services, including economic development” (para, five). Decrease in taxes can be seen if we measure the nation’s wealth. We would look at the GNP (Gross national product. This look at how taxes affect output. We then would look at the aggregate demand equation. * C = consumption spending by individuals * I = investment spending (business spending on machinery, etc.), * G = government purchases * NX = net exports Cloutier (2015), “Consumer spending typically equals two-thirds of GNP. As you would expect, lowering taxes raises disposable income, allowing the consumer to spend additional sums, thereby, increasing GNP. Reducing taxes,......

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...Introductory STATISTICS 9TH EDITION This page intentionally left blank Introductory STATISTICS 9TH EDITION Neil A. Weiss, Ph.D. School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences Arizona State University Biographies by Carol A. Weiss Addison-Wesley Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo On the cover: Hummingbirds are known for their speed, agility, and beauty. They range in size from the smallest birds on earth to several quite large species—in length from 2 to 8.5 inches and in weight from 0.06 to 0.7 ounce. Hummingbirds ﬂap their wings from 12 to 90 times per second (depending on the species) and are the only birds able to ﬂy backwards. Normal ﬂight speed for hummingbirds is 25 to 30 mph, but they can dive at speeds of around 60 mph. Cover photograph: Hummingbird, Editor in Chief: Deirdre Lynch Acquisitions Editor: Marianne Stepanian Senior Content Editor: Joanne Dill Associate Content Editors: Leah Goldberg, Dana Jones Bettez Senior Managing Editor: Karen Wernholm Associate Managing Editor: Tamela Ambush Senior Production Project Manager: Sheila Spinney Senior Designer: Barbara T. Atkinson Digital Assets Manager: Marianne Groth Senior Media Producer: Christine Stavrou Software Development: Edward Chappell, Marty Wright C iDesign/Shutterstock Marketing Manager: Alex Gay Marketing......

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...Deer Valley Lodge, a ski resort in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah, has plans to eventually add five new chairlifts. Suppose that one lift costs $2 million, and preparing the slope and installing the lift costs another $1.3 million. The lift will allow 300 additional skiers on the slopes, but there are only 40 days a year when the extra capacity will be needed. (Assume that Deer park will sell all 300 lift tickets on those 40 days.) Running the new lift will cost $500 a day for the entire 200 days the lodge is open. Assume that the lift tickets at Deer Valley cost $55 a day and the added cash expenses for each skier-day are $5. The new lift has an economic life of 20 years. 1. Assume that the before-tax required rate of return for Deer Valley is 14%. Compute the before-tax NPV of the new lift and advise the managers of Deer Valley about whether adding the lift will be a profitable investment. 2. Assume that the after-tax required rate of return for Deer Valley is 8%, the income tax rate is 40%, and the MACRS recovery period is 10 years. Compute the after-tax NPV of the new lift and advise the managers of Deer Valley about whether adding the lift will be a profitable investment. 3. What subjective factors would affect the investment decision? 1) The Before-Tax NPV is $806,340.94 per lift (excel sheet attached). Since the NPV>0, then adding the lift will be a profitable investment. 2) The After-Tax NPV is $1,284,169.50 per lift (excel sheet attached).......

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...group The study was double-blind: the physicians did not know which pill they were taking, nor did those who evaluated the results What is the response variable? The response variable is whether the subject had a heart attack, with categories ‘yes’ or ‘no’. What are the groups to compare? The groups to compare are: Group 1: Physicians who took a placebo Group 2: Physicians who took aspirin Estimate the difference between the two population parameters of interest p1: the proportion of the population who would have a heart attack if they participated in this experiment and took the placebo p2: the proportion of the population who would have a heart attack if they participated in this experiment and took the aspirin Sample statistics: To make an inference about the difference of population proportions, (p1 – p2), we need to learn about the variability of the sampling distribution of: Standard error for comparing two proportions: The difference, , is obtained from sample data It will vary from sample to sample This variation is the standard error of the sampling distribution of : Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Population Proportions The z-score depends on the confidence level This method requires: Categorical response variable for two groups Independent random samples for the two groups Large enough sample sizes so that there are at least 10 “successes” and at least 10 “failures” in each group Confidence Interval......

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...Unit 1 - Fundamentals of Statistics Patricia Schneider American InterContinental University Abstract This paper is about the difference between qualitative data and quantitative data. If also will show how a qualitative data chart looks like and how the information is retrieved, it shows what type of information is put in a quantitative chart and how it is also retrieved. What standard deviation and variance is? Why charts and graphs are important tool for communicating facts and figures? Introduction The data that I chose for the qualitative data was the gender, and the quantitative data that I chose was the intrinsic. In this essay you will learn what the differences between qualitative data and quantitative data is? Why graphs and charts are so important in businesses and why they are used in communicating the facts? Chosen Variables The data that I have chosen is the gender and the intrinsic. The gender is qualitative data and the intrinsic is the quantitative data. Difference in variable types The difference between qualitative and quantitative variables is the qualitative has no value or is just a label where the quantitative has a value. The qualitative is a label there is no value of information to be measured. Qualitative is a non numerical measurement on a set of people or objects (Segal, 2011). Quantitative is numerical measurement for a set of people or objects (Segal, 2011). Descriptive statistics: Qualitative variable | | Qualitative by......

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