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物流成本分析
2007年12月24日 星期一 19:43
| “冰山理论”是由日本西泽教授提出的著名的物流成本论著,是指将物流实际总成本喻为海中的一座冰山,而企业财务会计中体现的物 |
|流成本只是冰山一角。“冰山理论”的提出,一方面让人们看到了物流成本的实质,同时也对物流成本的统计和计算提出了更高的要求。物流作|
|为一个系统,由运输、储存、包装、装卸搬运、流通加工和物流信息等环节组成。物流系统的总目标是实现宏观和微观的经济效益。但是,系|
|统要素间有着非常强的“效益背反”现象。子系统的效益最佳并不代表系统的整体效益最佳。而考虑物流系统的整体最佳,就必须考虑物流成本|
|。物流成本是物流管理的重要手段,也是物流经济效益指标的量化,它能更直观地体现出物流的经济效益。 |
|显性成本 |
| |
| 按传统核算方式,物流的成本主要包括运输成本和库存成本。在这里,将运输成本和库存成本作为物流显性成本的主要组成部分。之所以|
|称其为显性,一是因为这两种成本容易为人们熟知并接受; |
|二是因为他们可以用定量的分析方法近似估算。下面就分别对运输成本和库存成本进行分析。 |
| |
| 运输成本 |
| |
| 运输成本在物流总成本中占据着相当大的比重,分析美国1984-1994(见表一)的物流成本资料可以看出,运输成本在总成本中所占的比重|
|呈上升趋势。故分析运输成本在物流成本的分析中意义重大。由西方经济学中的投入与产出之间的关系得: |
| |
| 运输生产函 Q=f(K,L) |
| |
| 运输成本函数 C=γK+ωL…...

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