Heat

In: Science

Submitted By iosepa54
Words 1100
Pages 5
Running head: HEAT 1

Heat
Adrienne Branch
Professor Olivia Uitto
Science 110- Introduction to Physical Science
April 27, 2012

HEAT 2
How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? The philosophers Democritus and Lucretius stated that matter is composed of particles. They also believed that these particles were in constant motion and in the state of solid, liquid, or gas (Gibbs, 2010). They called this theory the Kinetic Theory of Matter after the word kinema, which is Greek (Gibbs, 2010). In the study of heat we learn that whenever heat is added to a substance, molecules and atoms vibrate faster. Due to the quickly vibrating atoms, the area between the atoms get larger (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). The state of the matter of the particular substance is determined by the motion and space between the particles. The more an object expands, the more space it takes up (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). During this process, the mass of the particular object will not change. Solids, liquids, and gas all expand when heat is added. When an object cools, molecules vibrate at a slower pace. The atoms start moving closer together again and the matter begins to contract. During this process as well, the mass will remain the same (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.). Several good examples of the Kinetic Theory of Matter relating to heat is with sidewalks and railroad tracks which are solids. They expand on a hot day but contract as the day gets cooler. As for liquids, when water starts to freeze and turn into ice, the ice begins to expand. Lastly, try leaving a balloon in a hot vehicle. It will begin to expand but contract when it is put in a refrigerator (“Atoms and Molecules”, n.d.).
What is Heat? Margaret Rouse, editorial director for whatis.com, defines heat as “the transfer of…...

Similar Documents

Heat Exchangers

...of the secondary fluid to the heat exchanger may change with time. This means that in order to maintain a consistent secondary fluid outlet temperature, the heat supplied to the heat exchanger must also vary. This can be achieved by using a control valve on the inlet to the primary side of the heat exchanger, as shown in Figure 13.2.1. Fig. 13.2.1 Typical temperature control of a steam/water shell and tube heat exchanger A control valve is used to vary the flowrate and pressure of the steam so that the heat input to the heat exchanger can be controlled. Modulating the position of the control valve then controls the outlet temperature of the secondary fluid. A sensor on the secondary fluid outlet monitors its temperature, and provides a signal for the controller. The controller compares the actual temperature with the set temperature and, as a result, signals the actuator to adjust the position of the control valve. For a constant heating area and heat transfer coefficient, the rate at which heat is transferred from the steam to the secondary fluid for a particular heat exchanger is determined by the mean temperature difference between the two fluids. A larger difference in mean temperatures will create a large heat transfer rate and vice versa. On partially closing the control valve, the steam pressure and the temperature difference fall. Conversely, if the control valve is opened so that the steam mass flow and hence pressure in the heat exchanger rise, the mean......

Words: 4745 - Pages: 19

Heat Pump

...trODuct ION tO G rO u N D S O u rc e Heat P uMP SyS teM S chris arkins This note TEC 6, originally published in February 1999, was reviewed by Chris Arkins in January 2004. This summary page includes recent updates to the topic since publication. SUMMARY OF actIONS tOwarDS SuStaINable OutcOMeS Introduction Alternative low energy air conditioning solutions are now commonly sought in preference to typical air conditioning systems for both residential and commercial applications. The industry has seen a growing emergence of ground source heat pump (GSHP) installations throughout Australia over the last five years. A broad spectrum of facilities ranging from domestic housing, hospitals, education facilities, commercial offices and civic buildings to name a few, are now realising the environmental benefits offered by GSHP systems over more commonly used air conditioning systems. This summary note provides a brief overview of the previous note and provides an update on changes that have occurred since. basic Strategies Heat rejection is fundamental to all air conditioning systems. Typically, unsightly roof mounted air cooled condensers and cooling towers are by far the most commonly used method for rejecting heat from a building. Ground source heat pumps are somewhat different to the norm. Basically GSHP are refrigeration machines that provide heating and cooling by using ground water and the earth as a medium to reject and/or absorb heat and as such do not require......

Words: 3545 - Pages: 15

Heat Transfer

...The most important concept to understand within the fire phenomena is heat transfer. Heat transfer is everywhere within the aspects of fire, such as fire development. Before the three types of heat transfer can be explained, a few more things need to be understood. Such as heat is the transfer of energy based on a temperature difference between two objects. Also that temperature is a measure of kinetic energy of the molecules in an object. Now the three types of heat transfer and first up is Conduction which is the transfer of energy in the form of heat by direct contact through excitement of molecules with driven by a temperature difference. Energy travels from a high to a low and the same thing happens with heat. When the high temperature molecules collide with the low temperature molecules, a transfer of energy occurs from the hot, more energetic molecules to the colder, less energetic molecules and this is recognized as conduction. Conduction is most prevalent in solids but it can also be found in liquids and gases. The rate at which heat is transmitted through a material by conduction depends on thermal conductivity which is a characteristic of a material and its mass. The easiest way to think of conduction is to hold a metal rod by one end and put the other over a fire. Eventually the hot energetic molecules from the fire will transfer to the cold, less energetic molecules of the metal rod and slowly creep up the rod to the cold end where it is being held and......

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Heat

...Heat of Fusion of Water 4-1: Heat of Fusion of Water The molar heat of fusion for a substance, ∆Hfus, is the heat required to transform one mole of the substance from the solid phase into the liquid phase. In this assignment, you will use a simple coffee cup calorimeter and a thermometer to measure the molar heat of fusion for water. 1. Start Virtual ChemLab, select Colligative Properties, and then select Heat of Fusion of Water from the list of assignments. The lab will open in the Calorimetry laboratory with a beaker of ice on the balance and a coffee cup calorimeter on the lab bench. 2. Click on the Lab Book to open it. Record the mass of the ice on the balance in the data table. If the mass is too small to read, click on the Balance area to zoom in. Note that the balance has already been tared for the mass of the empty beaker. 3. 100 mL of water is already in the coffee cup. Use the density of water at 25 C (0.998 g/mL) to determine the mass of water from the volume. Record the mass in the data table. Make certain the stirrer is On (you should be able to see the shaft rotating). In the thermometer window, click Save to begin recording data to the lab book. Allow 20-30 seconds to obtain a baseline temperature of the water. 4. Drag the beaker from the balance area until it snaps into place above the coffee cup and then pour the ice into the calorimeter. Click the thermometer and graph windows...

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Heat Conversion

...Heat Conversion Name Institution Heat Conversion Matter refers to any substance that occupies space and has weight. It comprises of atoms and molecules that are constantly in motion due to energy that they possess. Energy is present in all matter mostly in form of heat energy. Energy takes various forms and can change from one form to another form. Other than heat energy, various forms of energy include electrical, light, mechanical, chemical, sound and nuclear energy. These different forms of energy can cause a substance to heat up by simply increasing the speed of the molecules in the matter. Molecules therefore, have characteristics of warmth and coldness depending on the form of energy they possess. Since the particles are constantly moving, they possess kinetic energy, which is also one of the various forms of energy. Relationship between heat and kinetic theory of matter Kinetic theory of matter explains that, matter is in a constant random movement. Applying heat on molecules cause the particulars to move in a random motion. Heating transfers heat to nearby molecules in a substance, which becomes excited and then stimulates the surrounding molecules into motion. The process of molecules excitation continues until all molecules move in a vigorous random motion (Goswami et al., 2010). In this process of molecules excitation, the kinetic theory of matter links together with heat. Heat Heat is the transfer of energy that results from......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Specific Heat

...Chemistry Lab Chemistry Lab Aim: To investigate the specific heat capacity of water, copper and aluminium by using a caloriometer. Results: 1. Ohms Law: I=v/r, equation 3 = E=vlt hence you get E= v2t/r when ohms law is applied to equation 3. 2. De ionized water is used as it is the purest form of water, as it doesn’t contain ions from the soil like normal water which allow the conduction of electricity as normal water allows electrons to flow, thus preventing any extraneous variables to affect the experiment. 3. The value for Tf = 100o as water has a boiling point of 100o 4. SH = 1.00cal.g-1.c-1 m= density x volume (Tf – Ti) = 100 – 19.9 = 1 x 1,000ml = 80.1 = 1,000g EH2O = SH.m.(Tf – Ti) = 1 x 1,000 x 80.1 = 80,100cal Converting to Joules (1cal = 4.184j) 1000*4.184* 80.1= 335,138.4 joules g-1 deg-1 EKettle= V2.t / R V= 240 t= 219s R= 34.7 2402 * 219/34.7 =363,527.38 joules = E of kettle 5. The amount calories required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius is specific heat. Hence 80,100 calories are required to heat up the water, this shows the association between question 4. 6. In question 4, it can be observed that the energy produced by the kettle was 363,527.38 joules, however only = 335,138.4 joules g-1 deg-1 of energy was required to raise the water 80.1 degrees Celsius.......

Words: 841 - Pages: 4

Thermal Heat

...The most important concept to understand within the fire phenomena is heat transfer. Heat transfer is everywhere within the aspects of fire, such as fire development. Before the three types of heat transfer can be explained, a few more things need to be understood. Such as heat is the transfer of energy based on a temperature difference between two objects. Also that temperature is a measure of kinetic energy of the molecules in an object. Now the three types of heat transfer and first up is Conduction which is the transfer of energy in the form of heat by direct contact through excitement of molecules with driven by a temperature difference. Energy travels from a high to a low and the same thing happens with heat. When the high temperature molecules collide with the low temperature molecules, a transfer of energy occurs from the hot, more energetic molecules to the colder, less energetic molecules and this is recognized as conduction. Conduction is most prevalent in solids but it can also be found in liquids and gases. The rate at which heat is transmitted through a material by conduction depends on thermal conductivity which is a characteristic of a material and its mass. The easiest way to think of conduction is to hold a metal rod by one end and put the other over a fire. Eventually the hot energetic molecules from the fire will transfer to the cold, less energetic molecules of the metal rod and slowly creep up the rod to the cold end where it is being held......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Heat

...HEAT 4.1 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM 1. Define: The measure of the degree of hotness of an object. (a) Temperature Measured in SI unit Kelvin, K A hot object is at a higher temperature than a cold object. Form of energy, measured in Joules, J (b) Heat Heat is transferred from hotter object (higher temperature) to colder object (lower temperature) When an object is heated, it will absorb heat energy and the temperature will increase. When an object is cooled, it will release heat energy and the temperature will decrease. (c) Thermal Two objects are in thermal contact when heat energy contact can be transferred between them. (d)Heat transfer When two objects with different degrees of hotness come into thermal contact, heat energy is transferred between the two objects. (e) Mechanism of Thermal Equilibrium Energy is transferred at a faster rate from the hotter object to the colder object. Energy is also transferred from the colder object to the hotter one, but at a slower rate. There is a net flow of energy from the hotter object to the colder object. (f) Thermal When two objects are in thermal equilibrium, there is Equilibrium no net flow of heat between them. Two objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature 60 The hotter object cools down while the colder object warms up . After some time, energy is transferred at the same rate between the two objects. There is no net heat transfer between the objects. The two objects are said to be in thermal......

Words: 3461 - Pages: 14

Heat Project

...To find the tube-side heat transfer coefficients; Nu=hDοk=CRen Pr0.33 Re=DοVmaxρμ (Retrieved from: http://web2.clarkson.edu/projects/subramanian/ch302/notes/shelltube.pdf ) Assumption; Do=do=0.02m Di=di=34×0.02=0.015m (34"outer diameter is one of the common size used) l=Sn-Do or cl=Pt-Do Pitch (Sn@Pt) = 0.025m Clearance=0.025-0.02 =0.005m Sn=Sp In order to find Vmax, find the cross-flow area first; cross-flow area=shell IDDs ×baffle spacingB×clearance(cl)pitch (Sn) (Retrieved from;http://www.chemstations.com/content/documents/Technical_Articles/shell.pdf ) cross-flow area=(0.894m)(0.356m)0.0050.025 =0.0637m2 Vmax=Vscross-flow area (Retrieved from; http://web2.clarkson.edu/projects/subramanian/ch302/notes/shelltube.pdf ) To find Vs; Vs=msρ=27.80 (kgs)750.00 (kgm2)=0.0371 m3s Vmax=0.0371 (m3s)0.0637 (m2)=0.5819ms Ret=DoVmaxρμ =(0.02m)(0.5819 ms)(995.00kgm3)0.0008 kgm.s=14474.7625 Pr=Cpμk =(4.2×103 Jkg.K)(0.0008kgm.s)0.59 wm.K=5.6949 To find C:- SnDo=0.0250.02=1.25 From table (rectangular pitch-in-line tube); C=0.386 n=0.592 (Retrieved from; http://web2.clarkson.edu/projects/subramanian/ch302/notes/shelltube.pdf) Substitute all the value into; Nu=hDοk=CRen Pr0.33 h(0.02 m)0.59 wm.K=(0.386)(14474.7625)0.592(5.6949)0.33 ht=5872.21 wm2.K To find shell-heat transfer coefficient; Res=ρsUsDeμs=GsDeμs=msAs×Deμs ho=0.36ksDeRes0.55Prs0.33 for 2×103<Res=GsDeμ<1×106 (Retrieved......

Words: 604 - Pages: 3

Heat Kernel

...www.elsevier.com/locate/ynimg NeuroImage 25 (2005) 1256 – 1265 Cortical thickness analysis in autism with heat kernel smoothing Moo K. Chung,a,b,c,* Steven M. Robbins,f Kim M. Dalton,c Richard J. Davidson,c,d Andrew L. Alexander,c,e and Alan C. Evansf a Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1210 West Dayton Street, WI 53706, USA Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1210 West Dayton Street, WI 53706, USA c W.M. Keck Laboratory for Functional Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA d Department of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA e Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA f Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Canada b Received 5 October 2004; revised 22 November 2004; accepted 3 December 2004 Available online 10 March 2005 We present a novel data smoothing and analysis framework for cortical thickness data defined on the brain cortical manifold. Gaussian kernel smoothing, which weights neighboring observations according to their 3D Euclidean distance, has been widely used in 3D brain images to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. When the observations lie on a convoluted brain surface, however, it is more natural to assign the weights based on the geodesic distance along the surface. We therefore develop a framework for geodesic distance-based kernel smoothing......

Words: 6727 - Pages: 27

Heat and Temperature

...Running head: Study Of Heat Heat and Temperature Marcus A. Bullock SCI 110 Intro to Physical Science The Study Of Heat and Temperature Heat is a function of the velocity of all the molecules of a substance. Kinetic theory and heat transfer are both in motion, in Kinetic theory all states of matter are in vigorous motion and heat transfer is associated with the motion of atoms or molecules. The kinetic theory of matter says that all matter is made of particles that are in constant motion. Matter is made of constantly moving particles, which tells us how the matter in solids, liquids, and gases behaves. The reason heat relates to the kinetic theory is because, gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, that their impact on a surface causes the gas pressure to rise. Heat study is explained through the movement of warmer and cooler objects, the changing of temperature. It is not a theory of sorts like kinetic theory of matter is. Scientist state that heat is defined as “something” that moves between objects when two objects of different temperatures are brought together. The more heat that is produced the higher the kinetic energy level of an object or substance it has. Temperature on the other hand, can be defined as the degree of hotness or coldness of an object. Temperature is the measure of the average heat or thermal energy of particles in a substance. The relationship between heat and temperature is......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Heat and Temperature

...Introduction to Heat and Temperature Gonzalo Leon Strayer University 2012/01/27 Introduction to Heat and Temperature Relation between the Study of Heat and Kinetic Theory Kinetic theory can be describes as a scientific theory of the movement of an object. Kinetic theory relates to capacity of a subject to do work on another object due to their motion. Kinetic theory of matter explains that the same is compose of tiny pieces of, atoms or molecules in continues motion. The theory states that the actions of matter inside an object and the actions heat generates. Kinetic theory explains as well the temperature transition by the means of transmission, where thermal powers shows to be conducted throughout matter, heating up cooler regions. This reaction is the delivery of heat or heat flow. Kinetic theory relates to the study of heat due to the fact that once heat is produced, kinetic energy is created as well. Heat energy can convert or transfer its self into kinetic energy that could make a subject move. Definition of Heat and Temperature Heat: Heat could simply be summarize as been energy. It is the delivery of Kinetic energy from one subject to a different one. Heat is conveyed in three different ways: radiation, convection and conduction. An example of heat by radiation could be infrared energy when this one strikes a surface. Heat by conduction occurs when two subjects are in direct contract with one another. Heat by convection can occur as the movement of a......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Heat

...“How does the study of heat relate to the Kinetic of matter?” Heat is transferred into motion. This is done by kinetic matter. It moves at a rapid motion, making the heat that’s being transferred combine with the motion of atom and molecules. Therefore, matter takes on changes when heat is constantly being applied. For this reason, the process is called the kinetic theory. Heat takes on 3 stages and they are solid, liquids and gases. Solids forms there shape by arrangements of molecules. For example, ice has a shape but, changes when melting. Solids form around a fixed close position fitting making it stronger and Causing solids to maintain its shape. Liquids are closer together but, will change its form because space is provided. Gases are higher and 10 times the distance between that of solids and liquids. Therefore, allowing the particles to move freely and use the space available to them. “What is heat?” Heat can be describing that something that move between object when 2 objects of different temperature are brought together or energy transfer that move between object of different temperature (energy transfer). For example, when you rub your hand together, then you will feel the heat (warm) in center of your hand. There are two kind of energy. It’s call “External energy” and “Internal energy”. External energy is define as the total potential and kinetic energy of an everyday-sized object. Internal energy is the total kinetic and potential......

Words: 923 - Pages: 4

Heat

...First discuss how energy can be converted from one form to another, giving specific examples. The seven major forms of energy are: sound, chemical, radiant (light), electrical, atomic (nuclear), mechanical, thermal (heat). Remembered as “SCREAM Today” The two states of energy are potential and kinetic. (Clarkson, edu.2008). Energy can be converted to useful forms by various means. Energy and its conversion between forms can be expressed quantitatively. When converting energy, a significant fraction of that energy can be lost from the system (in the form of heat, sound, vibration, etc.) For example: in a power plant burning coal will produce heat energy, heat energy transfers to the water causing water to turn into steam, steam move the turbine due to pressure, energy is now transfer from heat to mechanical energy, then mechanical energy is converted to electrical by the generators, here we have a good example of energy converted to another form. Another example: leave a stone from a certain height and it will fall straight down. all the potential energy has been converted into kinetic energy. (YahooAnswers.com, 2012). Define what we mean by fossil fuels and explain why there an attractive source of energy. Fossil fuel consists of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content. They are attractive because they are or were, readily available, can be easily transported and can be refined to......

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Heat and Temperature

...Heat relates to the gases that consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. When they impact on the surface they cause the gas pressure to move, this is what we feel as heat it is basically kinetic energy of motion. Heat is made up of massive numbers of small particles of single atoms or molecules in continuous motion. It’s the behavior of matter in an object and the movement that heat produces. It’s also the connection between pressure, temperature and volume properties of gas. Heat is energy. It moves in waves like other forms of energy, and can change the matter it touches, by heating up which starts molecules moving. It is what happens to matter that is in motion. The atoms and molecules move back and forth hitting each other causing a form of energy that is in all matter. Heat is a measure of the total inner energy that has been absorbed or transferred from one body to another. Heat is a form of energy that is measured by temperature. Although heat and temperature are used interchangeably, heat and temperature are not equal. Heat is used in chemical reactions to give energy to reactants. Chemical reactions lose energy to the system in the form of heat, which is described as entropy in the Laws of Thermodynamics. If there are any changes in it create changes in temperature Temperature is the degree how hot or cold something is. It is not energy, it is something that could be measured, it also refers to how fast the molecules and atoms are moving......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Kero Kero Chime English Subbed | BD高清 韩国/2004 总统浪漫史 崔智友 安圣基 安圣基/崔智友/林秀 | Rejestracja