Free Essay

Intro to Philosophy Final

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By caretto89
Words 1416
Pages 6
INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY FINAL EXAM (West campus)

1. Which of these is a problem with Kantian moral theory: a. the individual doesn't count, a few can be sacrificed for the benefit of the many b. it appears impossible to calculate the resulting effects of any action on all the different people it affects in all the ways it affects them c. the moral truths are universal, and thus differences in particular circumstances of certain situations cannot be accounted for d. all of the above e. none of the above 2. Thomas Hobbes: f. believed that human beings are naturally evil g. believed that human life is "nasty, brutish and short" in the absence of a Leviathan h. was one of the founders of the idea of the "social contract" i. all of the above j. none of the above 3. Which of the following is true of Rawls' "veil of ignorance": k. it is used to try and determine the fairest rules of a just society l. it forces us to imagine that we could be anybody in a society m. it leads to an argument in favor of progressive taxation n. all of the above o. none of the above 4. The teleological argument: p. Asserts that the universe appears “designed” q. Even if accepted, does not demonstrate the specific existence of the Christian God r. Is promoted by nonprofit groups today in the US for inclusion in gradeschool biology textbooks s. All of the above t. None of the above 5. The “ontological argument”: u. Demonstrates the existence of God by use of empirical evidence v. Is refuted by the observation that “to exist” is not a quality of a thing w. Argues that we should believe in God even though there is no evidence x. All of the above y. None of the above 6. Cultural Relativism: z. argues that morality does not exist {. provides one culture with the theoretical resources to criticize another |. opposes the idea that there are universal moral truths }. all of the above ~. none of the above

7. The problem of evil:

. is a problem for traditional (Christian) monotheism . argues that evil is allowed by God as punishment . provides support for the belief in God . all of the above . none of the above

8. According to the text, “perverse” freedom is:

. The freedom of sexual pleasure . The freedom to act according to whim, which does not answer to rational justification . The freedom to act in accordance with one’s own rational reasons . All of the above . None of the above

9. Mill argued that:

. The freedom of the individual could be limited if they were psychologically bullying another . The freedom of the individual could never be limited . The freedom of the individual could be limited if they were physically abusing another. . All of the above . None of the above

10. Nietzsche criticized utilitarianism:

. Because it offended his belief in God . Because it cannot maximize pleasure while minimizing pain like it says . Because it was not empirical . All of the above . None of the above

11. Locke believed that:

. Humans were naturally endowed with a right to property by God . Humans achieved the right to property only through social contract . Humans had no rights . All of the above . None of the above

Section II: True or False

12. Kant argues that our ethics come from using our rationality to figure out the correct action in any situation by willing that it be universal. 13. Plato thought that art was a good thing because it gave us a higher level insight into the Truth. 14. Bentham argued that some kinds of happiness were of a higher quality than others. 15. Compatibilism is the idea that one can have free will in a deterministic universe. 16. Political Liberalism (in the classical sense) emphasizes that social formations are nothing more than aggregations of individuals 17. Classical liberalism is what today we would call libertarianism. 18. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that human beings were naturally good and that they were corrupted by civilization. 19. Expressionism is the idea that art can make the viewer feel the inner emotional state of the artist. 20. Cultural Relativism is usually rejected because of the disastrous history of European imperialism. 21. Nietzsche argued that he did not believe in God—though not on evidentiary grounds as much as because the idea of God offended his emotional sensibilities. 22. Hobbes thought that human beings were born naturally good, but Locke thought they were born naturally evil. 23. John Rawls’ argued that under a “veil of ignorance” we would prefer a rule benefiting the least advantaged in society. 24. Marx had an “organicist” view of society, which means he thought that only the body of the individual (as opposed to the social body) mattered. 25. Wittgenstein argued that art has a particular definition, the way the concept of games has a particular definition.

Extra credit: Scarface. Describe the character of Tony Montana, what are his values (and is he “good” or “bad” or…), what does he symbolize in relation to the concept of American (USA) culture?

The movie is focused around the life of a man by the name of Tony Montana and depicts his rise to power from a political refugee from Cuba to a drug warlord. In the course of the movie, Tony Montana also known as Scarface, is able to go from a dishwasher in a small restaurant to a very powerful man in the States through the drug trafficking and distribution of large amounts of Colombian cocaine. The movie shows Scarface’s rise to fame and then his downfall caused mainly through cause and effect. As Tony Montana puts it, he must be the bad guy. But is he really? Or the better question is: is he really the worst? Placed in antithesis with any average, hard working, person, Tony Montana ought to be the bad guy. But this is not where the movie stands or what the creators are trying to tell the viewer. For obvious or maybe not so obvious reasons, the viewer cannot help but sympathize with the Cuban immigrant that starts working his way towards the ‘American dream’, using any means necessary. It is quite clear that the creators’ intentions is for the viewers to like Tony Montana, which is why he is presented as the better human among the wolves he is surrounded by. As Tony climbs the power ladder, the situation is actually getting worse for him, and, when he is caught between a rock and a hard place, and he must go to jail, he is presented by Sosa with an offer he cannot refuse. The Bolivian drug Lord asks Tony for assistance in getting a journalist killed, in exchange for his freedom. Tony accepts it, but, when the killer sent by Sosa wants to blow the journalist’s car, along with the man’s family, Montana goes crazy regarding the situation, and he kills the assistant. The reason for his actions is, as he clearly states, that the deal was not to kill a woman and her children. This also reveals another aspect of Tony’s personality; even if he is a drug dealer and a murderer, he wants to have a family and kids, something that remains unattainable until the end. Showing a human face, even if in a crude and violent way, absolves Tony of many of his sins, at least in the eyes of those watching the movie. I think Tony was not a good example to the society specially for all the cocaine he brought to the US and also all the coke he took at the end of the movie is not a good thing, and also he became too addict and is not a nice thing to see. Tony Montana does not confront only with other people along the way, he also confronts with a system of values. By pursuing the American dream, he basically falls in the same trap as many others: the eternal fascination of wealth, of money that needs to be acquired no matter the means. The society the poor Cuban immigrant enters flaunts its riches and beautiful women in front of him, and, as any other man, he falls to temptation. Of course, his own credulity and ignorance lead him to the inevitable finish line, but the circumstances that contribute to his fate cannot be ignored. The restaurant scene from the last part of the movie must be among the most revealing.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Institute of Philosophy and Religious studies. Affiliated to The Catholic University of Malawi PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE (Epistemology) Student: OTIENO STEPHEN MBAKA Class Notes INTRODUCTION Fundamental Notions THE "PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE" is that branch of philosophy which tries to determine in a general way what the nature and scope of man's capacity to know are. Precisely what this determi-nation will turn out to be cannot be foreseen at the beginning of our investigation since the very reason for undertaking such a project is to find that out in a methodical and systematic way. Nonetheless, even at this point, we do have a vague sense of what we are after, and, presumably, we have had enough experi-ence of our ignorance and capacity for error to motivate us to take up this arduous task. Our common-sense notion of nature tells us that an investigation into the "nature" of anything means at least that we are ask-ing "what sort of thing is it?" To be sure, this question is none too precise, but it will do for a beginning. Again, our common-sense notion of "scope" tells us that an inquiry into the "scope" of any-thing means at least that we are asking "how far does it extend?" Again, this imprecise query will do for the moment. Notice that we are not asking whether we know anything at all. The reason is, as we shall see in detail later that this question cannot be asked at all, because to have asked it is to have......

Words: 49506 - Pages: 199

Free Essay

Philosophy and Religion

...Albert Rosales Professor: Gill Intro Philosophy: 213 In writing this paper, I was apprehensive by the immensity of the task that was required of me, having never studied Philosophy and philosophers before this class and not having a good understanding of it. I could not begin to comprehend Metaphysics, Ethics Epistemology etc. if it was not for this course. This may sound ignorant but I had never really given any thought to my worldview. If asked what I believed about something I would give my belief and that was that. What exactly is a worldview? A worldview is what it sounds like. It is the way one may see the world or as Nash puts it in his book Life’s Ultimate Questions “the sum total of a person’s answers to the most important questions in life(392).” Everyone has a worldview whether we realize it or not. How does one get their worldview? Our education, our upbringing, the culture we live in, the books we read, the media and movies we watch, all can help shape our worldview. Nash says, “Worldviews contain at least five clusters of beliefs, namely, beliefs about God, metaphysics (ultimate reality), epistemology (knowledge), ethics and human nature (14).” Using these five sections I will share my worldview. In general my worldview is a Christian one. I believe that there is one God who exists in three forms who created the Heavens and the earth. In the Bible Genesis 1:1 tells of how God is the beginning of everything; he created the heavens and the earth out of......

Words: 2495 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...stretches back at least to Aristotle, and the topic remains a staple in contemporary philosophy. Though the concept of causation has emerged in Pre-Socratic philosophy, it was probably Plato who first stated the principle of causality: "everything that becomes or changes must do so owing to some cause; for nothing can come to be without a cause". But Plato emphasized the causal importance of formal causes. Nothing can be unless there be a changeless pattern of formal causes of which the individual sensible phenomenon is a mere appearance. However, Aristotle was the first philosopher to give an extensive account of causes. From the very beginning, and independently of Aristotle, the investigation of the natural world consisted in the search for the relevant causes of a variety of natural phenomena. Aristotle introduced a theory of causality, for the first time in human thought, which brought together elements of various thinkers of his time. He reaffirmed ""becoming"", arguing that change is not an illusion but that humans actually experience nature as change. Reality is not some external given, but an experience one perceives. Humans can trust their experience; indeed, this is the only way of making sense of reality. Aristotle first introduced this theory of causality as a way of understanding the human experience of physical nature. There may be multiple causes, but there is one cause, the final cause, the fundamental source of becoming, which is teleology.......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Introduction to philosophy final Exam My personal philosophy of life is to be kind, generous, helpful, and honest. My personality is best suited for the profession of counseling and teaching. I love to work with people and help others grow and develop into the people they choose to be in their lives. I believe people have the innate abilities to succeed if they can remove the obstacles to their growth. Fear, anxiety, and depression are crippling influences in the normal pattern of development for people. Life is about growing, changing, and continually trying to find out who one is in their lives. Life is mysterious, intriguing, scary, and at times meaningless. These contradictory qualities of life make it unsettling and ambiguous. Nevertheless, change and progress speed forward. The rudder in my life while we are proceeding forward seems to be the self-actualization of people and trying to help them through the wisdom I have gained over my life. I see myself more as a mentor to the young than anything else. I love to take the energy of people around me and channel it to the next step in their existence. Another important tenet of my philosophy is focusing on the importance of my family. I believe it is our duty to raise healthy happy children in an environment of a healthy marriage. I have grown, struggled, and been very joyful in my relationship. I believe a relationship commitment is one of the most important elements to have in ones live to fulfill the......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intro

...Student: ASHLEY KRUEGER Instructor: McGraw - Hill Course: Connect For Education Connect Lucas GENERIC Sp10 - CFE Title: Ashley Krueger Specific Purpose: My purpose is to inform my audience about growing up and who I am now. Central Idea: Intro Sensitive, caring-sometimes too much, gets frustrated easily, honest, respectful, unfocused, and worrisome. These are just a handful of my traits and what makes me, me. I have learned many things over the last few years that have determined the type of person I want to be and who I don't. I have my good days and definitely my bad days, but all of these have helped me learn and grow. I will be letting you know of 4 different things about me. Where I come from, they type of person I was heading towards, how I have changed over the last few years and the type of person I want to be. Body I was born and raised in Springfield, Mo. It was my sister and I until I was 8, we wished and wished for my parents to have a baby boy. Well my mom got pregnant, but it was another girl. So we got a sister. At the age of 14 my parents got a divorce and since then I have gained a step-bro and sis and a half sis. It is a lot of fun for the most part having a big family because you always have someone to lean on and talk to. I am the oldest so I of course had the most responsibility and have had people that look up to me; I needed to be a good role model. I feel like I have done an okay job, with the exception of......

Words: 1112 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Final Exam Philosophy 101

...Final Exam Philosophy 101 The base questions posed by philosophy, seem almost like puzzles themselves. “What is knowledge”, “What is it to exist”, “is it possible to know something”, these questions at first seem so simple that it's easy to assume an answer but by nature so abstract that the answers will always be arguable. Looking at it from a teachers view point, arguability may have been the point, to cause a student to continually question, to inspire them to reevaluate past beliefs. In ancient times the Question was the only tool they had to investigate the world around them, so it stands to reason that the purpose of the Questions was more than just a problem in need of a solution. The Question was a tool used to investigate the problem, and once the solution was thought to be found, it would then be turned into a question of it's own and used to see if the original question was correct. It's easy to see how algebra evolved from this type of thought. Religion is a subject that I've always avoided it turns normal rational people into crazed unyielding lunatics. While this is just my opinion, it is hard to argue, because of how many wars have been fought and people killed over religious beliefs. One fascinating behavior is the way a person can be rational level headed and kind even when faced with beliefs that conflict with their own. But to challenge the shared beliefs of a group of rational level headed, kind people is often deadly. My WOW moment in this......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Philosophy

...Intro to Philosophy Wendy Broussard-Murray Aiuonline Intro to Philosophy Mere Assertion – A belief that what you think is true just because you want it to be, but you have nothing solid to prove it to be correct. It is basically ones opinion. Example: Brenden did not steal the IPod because he is not a thief. Circular Reasoning – (begging the question) A question that is never really answered or proved. Example: Perry Marshall claims, “DNA is not merely a molecule with a pattern; it is a code… and an information storage mechanism. All codes are created by a conscious mind; there is no natural process known to science that creates coded information. Therefore, DNA is designed by a mind.” (Perry, 2014) Ad Hominem – The attack on a person’s character distracting you from the real issue. Example: Don’t believe what Larry says about raising children. He is the head of pro-abortion campaign. Red Herring – During a disagreement, one person goes on a tangent, bring up a different side of the disagreement that distracts everyone from what is really going on, usually not going back to the original disagreement. Example: A person is reading a book and is lead to believe a specific character is guilty, when in fact the person is innocent. Pseudo-questions – A question that has no real answer because it makes no sense. Example: “Do you support the right to possess a hand gun as set forth by our constitution?” (Gracyk, 2012) False Cause – It is assumed that there is......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Intro to Philosophy

...                            Khalia Mone’t Brenson, @02577445 Introduction to Philosophy, Dr. Verharen Fall 2009     What are the differences between the philosophies of sociology and psychology toward mental illness? Table of Contents          I.           Introduction                                                                                                    P.1       II.            What is Philosophy?                                                                                      P.2-14                                                              i.      An Introduction to Philosophyby George S. Fullerton                                                            ii.     Principles of Philosophyby Rene Descartes                                                          iii.      The Gift of Fire by Richard Mitchell                                                          iv.      I and Thou by Martin Buber                                                            v.     Philosophy: Who needs it? by Ayn Rand  III.           Sociology                                                                                                        P.15-19                                                              i.      The philosophy of sociology                                                            ii.     Sociology towards mental illness    IV.           Psychology ...

Words: 7433 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Intro to Philosophy

...Introduction to Philosophy Essay There are many reasons one should study philosophy. The study of philosophy can ultimately change the way a person lives and unlock some deep questions about the meaning of their life. Questions you ask yourself such as why you are doing the things you are doing or where your life is heading or what you want to become in life can be answered throughout the study of a philosophy course. Understanding philosophy is the key in motivating us as individuals to explore life’s most challenging issues. Moreover, learning to understand philosophy will help you to become more open-minded, thoughtful, attuned to life in general, more of a critical thinker, and less accepting of simplistic answers. Philosophy can train your mind to think clear, analytic, and in a powerful way if you allow it. In turn this will enable you to make thoughtful decisions, communicate more effectively, and ultimately grow as a person. The knowledge of philosophy will help you to reach your full potential in life as an individual. As a student, the study of philosophy will take your vision of what you want to be in life and make it reality. Philosophy can more broadly be defined by examining the four major philosophical areas of inquiry which are wonder, wisdom, truth, and the dynamic process. Philosophy begins with wonder. Wonder is a search for unity of knowledge and the desire to answer the great questions of life. “The feeling of wonder is the touchstone of the......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Philosophy

...PHI130 Mind, Meaning, and Metaphysics DALILE, Boushra Rationalism vs. Empiricism: A Deficient Distinction Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. It explores how knowledge can be acquired and considers its limits and validity. Rationalism and empiricism are distinct epistemological schools of thought. Among others, they differ significantly regarding the source of concepts and ideas. Prominent rationalists, including Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz, argue that one must rely on reason as a purely deductive process to attain justified truths about reality (Cottingham 1988). In contrast, empiricists, including Locke, Berkeley and Hume, argue that knowledge is derived from the role of experience and sense data to formulate ideas. The question of what is the ideal foundation of knowledge is still debatable to date. I will argue that the rationalist vs. empiricist distinction is not exhaustive, and that carefully considering the approach-discipline relationship is crucial. In order to support this claim, this essay will discuss differences between rationalism and empiricism. Next, it will closely examine the advantages of each, drawing on the works of René Descartes and David Hume. Finally, this essay will identify problems with both theories and argue that reason and experience can together generate factual knowledge with respect to the subject matter. The major difference between rationalism and empiricism concerns their......

Words: 1768 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Final Philosophy Feminist

...Subjective Essay on Feminist Moral Theory Do men and women have different morals perspective? I would venture to say that if asked, 9 out 10 people will answer, “yes”, for different reasons. A large number of feminist seem to believe so as well. All beliefs are influenced by something, as children, the influence usually comes from our parents or whoever we are raised by. In saying that, morals are introduced to us as youth. As we evolve into young adults we encounter other influences, decide what makes most sense to us as individuals, and we start to develop our own morals/ethics. Our surroundings also play a large part in our moral approach. In the book Elements of Moral Philosophy it was explained that psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg developed a scenario that was presented to random individuals in order to gage their moral beliefs (Rachels, 2003). The scenario involved a guy whose wife was fatally ill. The guy knew a pharmacist who was selling a medication that could cure his wife’s illness. The pharmacist was selling the drug for significantly more money than what it cost to produce the drug and more than what the husband could afford. The pharmacist would not agree to sell the medicine to the husband for any less than the offered price and would not allow a payment plan. The husband is now contemplating stealing the medication. The question is would he be wrong for doing so? This scenario was pitched to two people, a young boy and a young girl. The boy expressed that......

Words: 828 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Philosophy

...first final exams, and that morning, philosophy students began exams in the Events Center that also serves as a basketball arena. The test started, and no problems occurred until women basketball team entered the arena and started practicing while exams progressed. It resulted in discomfit among students because they could not concentrate. They started complaining to the graduate instructor who approached the coach concerning why the basketball team had taken the arena. Both the coach and instructors claimed the arena reservation for the respective activities in progress thus the coach refused to stop her team. Further complications arose from the scheduling office because it could not handle the problem. Furthermore, the professor who could handle it had not arrived. Students got angered and stopped doing the test. Why did the problem occur? Activities within the university get confirmation on where to occur from the scheduling office. There was a clash in programs that morning that came because the office in charge had allocated the events arena to two different groups. The philosophy class arrived earlier for exams but later on, the ladies basketball team came in and started training. Despite the failure of the scheduling office, the basketball coach also contributed to the situation. She should have looked for an alternative to the arena after she found it occupied by philosophy students. Her basketball team consisted of few students compared to the over 300-philosophy......

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Name Professor Course Date Ethics Ethics is a general term used to stress on the character role and the moral philosophy instead of people just acting so that they can bring real consequences. Aristotle is the father of the virtue ethics, and he concluded that the people who have ideal character traits were virtuous. However, once these characters are established, they need to be nurtured so that they can become stable. For instance, a moral person is kind in very many circumstances during his or her lifetime because that’s how her personality and will simply do her duty without expecting any favors. Virtue ethics shows focuses on how people should live, which the real social are and the family value and also what the best life to live is. The show Sons of anarchy is very interesting because of the way William Shakespeare Hamlet has inspired it. For instance in the play, Jackson has virtue values whereby he is trying to maintain peace with the violent gang. The virtue ethics values have three main categories that include; the care ethics, eudemonism, and the agent-based theories. The human ability to perform the distinctive functions well is equated with human flourishing that is based on eudemonism. Eudemonia means happiness and the well-being of the human. Human will always revenge to get their happiness. For instance in the show Sons of Anarchy, the retaliatory sense becomes a menace to......

Words: 2397 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Philosophy

...is also unclear whether the ancient Chinese believed T’ien responded to human supplication or simply worked in accordance with the principles of T’ien. | God created human beings and everything. | Monotheism, belief in one God, is the most important and foundational concept in Islam. Muslims believe in one God who created the universe and has power over everything within it. He is unique and exalted above everything. He creates, and His greatness cannot be compared to His creation. | Man | Men had the dominant role in public life in ancient Greece. They were engaged iin politics and public events, while women were often encouraged to stay in the home. | For the Chinese then, Philosophy is the translation of words into action or the application of theory into praxis. Thus for the Chinese, philosophy singles out a person to live on what he says/teaches thus, a man/woman of integrity who has word/s of honor. | In Hindu tradition, Manu is the name accorded to a progenitor of humanity being the first human to appear in the world in an epoch after universal destruction. | He has been created to live on it only for a probationary period, and, in due course, he will return to his Lord, to be judged according to the way he has spent that period. | World | | | | Babor (2007) further expounded that Islamic philosophers in their falsafa (philosophia), through the concept of hikma, view the world and humanity as “intrinsically and substantially unified” “…that Islamic......

Words: 1762 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Philosophy

...of New York All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher. For information, address State University of New York Press, 90 State Street, Suite 700, Albany, NY 12207 Production, Laurie Searl Marketing, Fran Keneston Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mason, Richard, 1948– Understanding understanding / Richard Mason. p. cm. — (SUNY series in philosophy) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7914-5871-7 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7914-5872-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Comprehension (Theory of knowledge) I. Title. II. Series. BD181.5.M27 2003 121—dc21 2003042557 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 for Margie Contents INTRODUCTION, 1 CHAPTER ONE WHAT WE UNDERSTAND, 7 CHAPTER TWO HOW WE UNDERSTAND, 21 CHAPTER THREE UNDERSTANDING AND KNOWLEDGE, 39 CHAPTER FOUR INTELLIGIBILITY, 51 CHAPTER FIVE FAILURES OF UNDERSTANDING, 67 CHAPTER SIX BEYOND UNDERSTANDING, 89 viii CONTENTS CHAPTER SEVEN WISDOM, 105 NOTES, 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 125 INDEX OF NAMES, 131 Introduction A physicist tries to understand quantum mechanics. A parent tries to understand a......

Words: 57755 - Pages: 232

vidaXL Steun voor Motorfiets Wielsteun Motorwiel Motorsteun Wielhouder | Sono Toki, Kanojo ... | Coles Little Shop Mini Collectables - Original and Christmas Collection