Ionospheric Electron Density Analysis

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Submitted By bhagyasri
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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 8, Number 16 (2013) pp. 1937-1943 © Research India Publications

Ionospheric Electron Density Analysis using Empirical Orthogonal Functions
Bhagyasree Nimmagadda, A.L Siridhara, D.Venkata Ratnam Department Of ECE in affiliation to K L University K L University (KoneruLakshmaiah Education Foundation) Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: Abstract

Ionospheric electron density variations are more predominant error sources in precise positioning with Global Positioning System (GPS) based navigation systems over low latitude regions such as India and Brazil. spatial and temporal variability is more in this region due to Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA), Spread F and ionospheric scintillations etc. Short and long term ionospheric changes such as the solar cycle, the annual and semiannual variations of the ionosphere needs to be investigated for improving reliable communication and navigation systems. In this paper, EOF analysis is used to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of ionospheric electron density. An empirical model is implemented based on coefficients and basis functions obtained from the EOF analysis. It is evident from the results that the coefficients of EOF basis functions well signify the solar activity, diurnal variations of electron density. Keywords: GPS, EOF, TEC and IRI model

1. Introduction:
The EOF analysis is originally introduced into meteorology as a method for extracting


Bhagyasree Nimmagadda et al

the dominant modes of spatial variability in meteorological fields such as Sea Level Pressure (SLP), sea surface temperature (SST), etc (Randall, et al., 2003). This is extensively used to represent meteorological and climatology data (Storch and Zwiers, et al., 2002…...

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