Kongfu Panda

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全球化传播中电影的新文化塑造
——以《功夫熊猫》中的融合文化为例

【摘要】

随着《功夫熊猫》的上映,国内学者对于电影所带来的文化现象展开了激烈的讨论。本文通过分析美国电影的文化表达,电影的消费观念和全球化背景下的媒介文化传播与特征,探讨在电影中两种具有明显差异性的文化走向平衡与配合,使得电影所营造出的一种浅层化,拼接的亦东亦西的“新”融合性文化,并探讨全球化媒介文化是否存在对于民族传统文化的威胁。

【关键词】
功夫熊猫 媒介文化 全球化 浅层化 文化拼接

《功夫熊猫》一登陆中国就曾遭到艺术家赵半狄的抵制,如今《熊猫2》的抵制队伍中还出现了北大教授孔庆东、北京电影学院动画学院院长孙立军的身影,理由是好莱坞电影用中国的符号在中国掘金并进行文化侵略。然而,《功夫熊猫2》依然继续前一部的票房佳绩。虽然这部动画片突出好莱坞电影一贯主张的美国个人主义价值观,但作为一个媒介文化产品,其在中国的传播影响力和传播效果都是值得称赞和肯定的。 由《功夫熊猫》被抵制现象和最终票房的成功,不禁让人联想到电影所带来的媒介文化全球化。我认为,大众媒介和消费经济介入文化传播之中,使电影所营造的文化不单纯只是中国文化,或者单纯的美国文化。在全球化的趋势下,在商品经济的背景下,具有明显差异性的两种文化在电影中走向平衡与配合,使得电影所营造出的媒介文化在浅层化和混杂化的过程中,形成了一种既非东方、又非西方的、“超国界的、调和着不同国家之间”的“第三种文化”[1]。

一、从美国电影中的文化表达说起 纵观美国好莱坞电影,其中的几个经典的角色比如超人、蜘蛛侠、西部牛仔,无一例外地出现在一个公式化的高效生产模式之中:他们的出生或许高贵或许卑微,但都在自己的努力下成为了拯救大局的英雄。这些围绕人物而展开的电影,主角总是占据不可替代的地位,而旁人多扮演着辅佐或提点的角色,“个人”的地位故事中被夸张性地放大,最后的胜利也归功于主人公的选择和努力。这次,连中国的熊猫也难免落入了这种好莱坞电影的套路之中。 这种“好莱坞”电影套路可以从文化根源和传播介质两方面分析。首先,在文化方面,美国作为一个典型的基督教国家,“新教精神”渗透到美国人生活的方方面面,成为人们日常的道德规范。它认为上帝创造每一个个体都有其意义,每一个生命无论是高贵还是卑微,都极为宝贵。这就是为什么在很多好莱坞灾难片里,拯救地球往往都是意想不到的小人物[2]。另外,由新教精神与资本主义经济体制所融合产生的“个人主义”也是美国文化价值的核心。它强调人是具有独立精神的个体,应该在政权和宗教之外保持一种人格上的独立与自尊,在文化上强调个人独立性、创造性,强调个人自由发展。可以看出,这种电影套路正是美国精神的一种表现,它源于美国的文化并反映美国的价值观。 在传播介质方面,电影作为大众传播媒介之一,是文化的产物也是文化的载体,在美国好莱坞它更是一种商业产品。作为世界经济大国和传媒大国,美国自然不会忽略“电影”这样一个重要的媒介方式,好莱坞的电影作为一种文化商品被销售到本国及其全球市场,电影的商品属性使它的内容意义便于复制和接受理解。在消费电影的同时,观众能够通过电影作品的人物形象和故事情节直接感触到的是一种感性的、直观的力量,理解出的是关于人性的、道德的、伦理的文化内容,甚至是一种普遍认同的文化核心价值观,进而通过电影在目标市场上确立一种大众共同信守的文化秩序。 正因如此,相比于其他国家的电影作品,好莱坞电影在文化价值观表现和商业性这两个方面做得尤为突出。这两点特性成为促进美国电影变革发展的动力,同时也伴随着电影——这一大众媒介所塑造出的文化景象的改变。

二、电影媒介文化的浅层精神消费 媒介文化在通常情况下是以文化工业的加工方式来生产的,而且以市场为中介,以商品的姿态走进人们的生活之中。在大众传媒时代,商品化进入文化意味着艺术术正在成为商品,电影艺术也逐渐走向电影产业。一切都和商品化、大众消费联系在一起,文化艺术完全成为消费社会的一部分。…...

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