Learning and Cognition

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mama
Words 834
Pages 4
Learning and Cognition
Understanding the learning process and the role behavior plays is critical to comprehending human behavior. There are two types of learning, instrumental and classical conditioning. The relationship between learning and cognition is interdependent.
Learning is defined by Merriam-Webster as knowledge or skill acquired by instruction, study, or by being taught (An Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 2012). Psychologists view learning as changes in behavior. The changes are observable, somewhat permanent, do not always happen right away, are a result of experience or practice, and must be enforced.
Scientists have not found a way to observe and measure learning through neurological processes. Therefore, behavior plays a unique role in the learning process. Behaviors are easily observed, measured, and tracked. By doing so, theorists are able to draw conclusions, or make inferences, about the processes believed to be the catalyst to behavioral changes (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). B.F. Skinner had a different theory regarding learning and behavior. Skinner and his followers believed changes in behavior equates to learning.
Theorists believe learning is the outcome of experiences or practices that result in changes in behavior. For example, a cat is fed every day after the owner returns home from work. Over time, the cat learns when the car pulls in to the garage, the owner is home and it will soon be fed. Thus the cat runs to greet the owner at the door. The cat’s behavior changes after experiencing this for a period of time to running directly to the food dish.
The two types of learning are instrumental and classical conditioning. Conditioning refers to the practices, procedures, or actions that modify behavior. Classical conditioning is most often referred to by describing Ivan Pavlov’s studies of dogs and the physical reaction…...

Similar Documents

Learning and Cognition

...Learning and Cognition Lakeisha Jordan PSY/390 November 30, 2012 Ross Seligman Learning and Cognition Growing up there was always the phrase, “You learn something new every day.” Through learning more about psychology, this will deem to be true. Learning starts in the womb, being able to recognize their parent’s voices, and noises in the outside world. Learning is to gain knowledge, comprehension, or mastery through experience or study. Learning will lead to a change in behavior, in other words, the results of learning must always be translated into observable behavior. After learning, learners are capable of doing something that they could not do before the learning took place (Olson M. H. & Hergenhahn, B. R. 2009). To study learning, behavior is required or there is no way for it to take place. Behavior is changed through conditioning, and there are two types of conditioning mentioned in this paper. Classical Conditioning was discovered by Pavlov during the 1890s, and it was discovered by accident with him doing something as simple as feeding his dogs. Another type of learning is through Operant Conditioning, discovered by B. F. Skinner. This conditioning is described as the behavior being followed by a consequence, and it occurs through the tendency to repeat the behavior. Classical Conditioning is the type of learning introduced by Ivan Pavlov. To......

Words: 904 - Pages: 4

Learning and Cognition Paper

...Learning and Cognition Paper Introduction In today’s society the source of learning may come from several outlets, such as the television, the internet, or a magazine. Believe it or not we all learn something every day, whether we know it or not. Although most of us learn from our own experiences and some of us learned from watching other people's experiences as well. Since birth we all have been able to do things naturally and perform certain actions on our own, meaning we exhibit a great deal of behaviors. Though in the paradigm of learning, in the jurisdiction of psychology, is best described as, “Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or in behavioral potentiality that results from experience and cannot be attributed to temporary body states such as those induced by illness, fatigue, or drugs” (Olson and Hergenhahn, 2009). Nevertheless, a whole understanding of the contrivance of learning, as it relates to psychology in todays society is mostly established on the sympathetic of the unambiguous role that behavior plays in learning today. Learning and Behavior When a person is learning a new activity they are progressing information by using existing knowledge in which they learn throughout their life. Learning is the ability to progress new information by altering existing, values, behaviors, preferences, skills, knowledge, and includes producing different categories of information (Cherry, 2009). According to Gregory A. Kimble “learning as a......

Words: 973 - Pages: 4

Learning and Cognition

...Learning and Cognition Mellissa Trevino PSY/390 February 12, 2013 Laura Mueller, Psy.D. Learning and Cognition People acquire knowledge, skills and behaviors through learning and process information acquired via the methodology of cognition; mental functions and processes. Cognition helps process information acquired using different parts of the brain (Snowling & Humle, 2009). This makes it easy for the learner to understand what he has learned and demonstrate it by displaying various behaviors. For example, students learn how to perform scientific experiments through observation (Snowling & Humle, 2009). Cognitive views of learning tend to see the learner as socially interactive, and influenced by mediating influences such as perceptions, expectations, motives, and feelings. The learner is intrinsically motivated to make sense of their environment and views the world qualitatively and quantitatively differently at each stage of cognitive development. For example, a teenager may learn how to balance a checkbook by watching her parents but will not practice that behavior until she gets her own checking account. Learning is a term associated with behaviorism whereas cognition emphasis on the nature of the mental representation and the mental encoding and retrieval processes involved. Humans have the capacity to learn whereas learning is the process for cognition. Most human behavior is learned; therefore, understanding the main reasons as to how we learn may......

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Learning and Cognition

...child. When looking back at earlier psychologist such as Piaget he believed that a child learned and grew as a person through experiments of their own interactions. Freud and Erikson believed that family interaction a different role in child development. Beside a parent interaction a parent has different styles to help shape up a child as the child is growing as well. Early childhood education and early intervention also help develop a child. Affects As a child starts to grow and starts to develop he or she begins to develop through the five senses as the child's brain begins to develop. The child's family helps play a role in this development. Parents play a role by teaching them safety measures they do this while the child is learning how to crawl and walk around by telling them no in unsafe places. Also, by reading to the child, and repeating the abc and 123's to the child the parent is also developing the child's brain at an early age and the child is listening and taking everything in this develops this is developing cognitively. According to The American of Pediatrics they believe that parents influence through direct interaction, identification, and transmission of family stories. "The profile of cognitive abilities, beliefs, ethical values, coping defenses, and salient emotional moods that characterizes each child at each developmental stage is the result of diverse influences operating in complex ways. Most students of human development agree that......

Words: 1954 - Pages: 8

Learning and Cognition

...Learning and cognition Christina Huffman-Hansman 390 March 3, 2014 Patty Anstatt Learning and cognition Learning is the result of experience which is portrayed through behavior modification. The potential for behavior modification is the result of an individual’s experiences in their environment. Experience is considered the independent variable upon which experience intervenes and creates a dependent variable, known as behavior (Olson, 2013). This learning can take on many forms in terms of measurable behavior. Behavior is defined as either overt or covert (Olson, 2013). Overt behavior is demonstrated in outward physical changes, such as dribbling a basketball or riding a bike. The covert changes that may occur when learning these activities may be an elevated heart rate or muscle contraction. These actions occur as one is demonstrating behaviors throughout the learning process. Behavior is also considered relatively permanent. The basis of relative permanency is constructed on the individual’s ability to retain information. Some information is not considered useful to the individual and is only retained for a short period of time. Other information, if actively used or studied, may become more permanent, with a higher retention rate. Behavior may also be modified, but not yet demonstrated through an individual’s actions. This type of demonstration is more commonly known as performance. Although an individual has gained the potential to perform a learned......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Learning and Cognition

...Learning and Cognition Spencer Surjue-Bowens Psych390 Prof. Gayle Ball October 10, 2012 Throughout history there have been many theories on the different styles of how people learn and retain information. There have also been different speculations on how these different learning styles pertain to certain types of behavior. Although this has been a strenuous taskresearchers have been able to conclude some theories by correlating learning to behavior. There are many variables to consider when discussing learning and cognition. According to Bietz (2010) “Learning is often defined as a relatively lasting change in behavior that is the result of experience. Learning became a major focus of study in psychology during the early part of the twentieth century as behaviorism rose to become a major school of thought. Today, learning remains an important concept in numerous areas of psychology, including cognitive, educational, social, and developmental psychology.” People normally link learning with the different experience that occur in life. Most can relate what they learned to a certain emotion that presented itself at that time. Behavior is at the core of psychology; it is behavior that we study,analyze and experiment to understand the psychology of any person (Changani, 2011). There are numerous behavior types and most behaviors are a series of learned conditions that one experienced. Behavior plays a considerable role in learning because it is through one’s behavior that...

Words: 610 - Pages: 3

Psy 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class

...PSY 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class Download Here: http://www.homework-aid.com/PSY-390-Complete-Class-DQs-Individual-and-Team-Assignments-232.htm PSY 390 Week 1 Individual Assignment - Learning and Cognition Paper Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the concept of learning and how it is related to cognition. In your examination, address the following questions:   • What is the definition of learning? What role does behavior play in learning? • What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response. • What is the relationship between learning and cognition? Provide a specific example.  Format according to APA standards. PSY 390 Week 2 Individual Assignment - Operant Conditioning Paper Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the theory of operant conditioning. In your examination, address the following items:   • Describe the theory of operant conditioning. • Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement. • Determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective. Explain your reasoning. • Select a scenario in which you would apply operant conditioning to shape behavior. • Create a reinforcement schedule for your selected behavior • Format according to APA standards.   PSY 390 Week 3 Team Assignment - Functionalistic and Associationistic Theories Presentation Select one theorist from each of the following paradigms in preparation for......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Learning and Cognition Paper

...Learning and Cognition Paper Salma El Gharabawy PSY 390 University of Phoenix Everyday, people tend to learn something new in their lives; whether through watching other people or through their own experiences, people learn. We all “know” things, and naturally perform a lot of actions, meaning we exhibit in a lot of behaviors. Ever stop to think where all of this came from? Some are innate, while others are only acquired actively; therefore, any knowledge or behavior that we have now and were NOT born with, was one way or the other, “learned”. Learning is an integral part of all living things’ lives; some certain behaviors we are born with, innate (genetically predisposed at birth or maybe even during conception) such as certain reflexes and some specific species behaviors; while others are only gained through learning. Learning, in the field of psychology has been best described as “ . . . .a relatively permanent change in behavior or in behavioral potentiality that results from experience and cannot be attributed to temporary body states such as those induced by illness, fatigue, or drugs” (Hergenhahn & Olson, 2005). That said, in order to get a complete understanding of the mechanism of learning, in regards to the psychology field, it is really important for a person to first understand the specific role that is played by behavior, in learning, the different types of learning as well as the relationship between the two; learning and cognition. Needless to......

Words: 1137 - Pages: 5

Learning Cognition Paper

...Learning and Cognition Paper Michele Fonseca University of Phoenix Learning and Cognition Learning is basically a combination of different experiences in which individual skills like knowledge. When we learn it is a lifelong process this we know for a fact we do only focus on notions that school and training is essential for development. As we know essentially 'cognition' means is 'to know', gaining knowledge through thought or perception. Cognitive learning is about enabling people to learn by using their reason, intuition and perception. This technique is often used to change peoples' behavior. But people's behavior is influenced by many factors such as culture, upbringing, education and motivation. Therefore cognitive learning involves understanding how these factors influence behavior and then using this information to develop learning programs. Learning through experience can come in many forms not always as noticeable as others. For example, students in an academic setting have different learning styles. This specific type of learning ability could allow students to absorb information in a classroom setting effortlessly. This type of learning is more of a passive ability, rather than something that requires effort to accomplish. This type of student could be learning although not paying any attention what so ever in a classroom. This type of learning also can be accomplished outside of a classroom setting within society passively......

Words: 678 - Pages: 3

Psy 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class

...PSY 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/psy-390-complete-class/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com PSY 390 Week 1 Individual Assignment - Learning and Cognition Paper Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the concept of learning and how it is related to cognition. In your examination, address the following questions: • What is the definition of learning? What role does behavior play in learning? • What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response. • What is the relationship between learning and cognition? Provide a specific example. Format according to APA standards. PSY 390 Week 2 Individual Assignment - Operant Conditioning Paper Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the theory of operant conditioning. In your examination, address the following items: • Describe the theory of operant conditioning. • Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement. • Determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective. Explain your reasoning. • Select a scenario in which you would apply operant conditioning to shape behavior. • Create a reinforcement schedule for your selected behavior • Format according to APA standards. PSY 390 Week 3 Team Assignment - Functionalistic and Associationistic Theories Presentation Select one theorist from each of the following paradigms in preparation for this assignment: ......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Psy 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class

...PSY 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwaid.com/shop/learning-and-cognition/     PSY 390 Week 1 Individual Assignment – Learning and Cognition Paper Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the concept of learning and how it is related to cognition. In your examination, address the following questions: • What is the definition of learning? What role does behavior play in learning? • What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response. • What is the relationship between learning and cognition? Provide a specific example. Format according to APA standards.   PSY 390 Week 2 Individual Assignment – Operant Conditioning Paper Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the theory of operant conditioning. In your examination, address the following items: • Describe the theory of operant conditioning. • Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement. • Determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective. Explain your reasoning. • Select a scenario in which you would apply operant conditioning to shape behavior. • Create a reinforcement schedule for your selected behavior • Format according to APA standards.   PSY 390 Week 3 Team Assignment – Functionalistic and Associationistic Theories Presentation Select one theorist from each of the following paradigms in preparation for this assignment: •......

Words: 732 - Pages: 3

Psy 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class

...PSY 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/psy-390-complete-class/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com PSY 390 Week 1 Individual Assignment - Learning and Cognition Paper Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the concept of learning and how it is related to cognition. In your examination, address the following questions: • What is the definition of learning? What role does behavior play in learning? • What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response. • What is the relationship between learning and cognition? Provide a specific example. Format according to APA standards. PSY 390 Week 2 Individual Assignment - Operant Conditioning Paper Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the theory of operant conditioning. In your examination, address the following items: • Describe the theory of operant conditioning. • Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement. • Determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective. Explain your reasoning. • Select a scenario in which you would apply operant conditioning to shape behavior. • Create a reinforcement schedule for your selected behavior • Format according to APA standards. PSY 390 Week 3 Team Assignment - Functionalistic and Associationistic Theories Presentation Select one theorist from each of the following paradigms in preparation for this assignment: ......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Psy 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class

...PSY 390 Learning and Cognition / Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/psy-390-complete-class/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com PSY 390 Week 1 Individual Assignment - Learning and Cognition Paper Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the concept of learning and how it is related to cognition. In your examination, address the following questions: • What is the definition of learning? What role does behavior play in learning? • What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response. • What is the relationship between learning and cognition? Provide a specific example. Format according to APA standards. PSY 390 Week 2 Individual Assignment - Operant Conditioning Paper Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you examine the theory of operant conditioning. In your examination, address the following items: • Describe the theory of operant conditioning. • Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement. • Determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective. Explain your reasoning. • Select a scenario in which you would apply operant conditioning to shape behavior. • Create a reinforcement schedule for your selected behavior • Format according to APA standards. PSY 390 Week 3 Team Assignment - Functionalistic and Associationistic Theories Presentation Select one theorist from each of the following paradigms in preparation for this assignment: ......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Learning and Cognition

...Ricardo Alvarado Learning and Cognition PSY390/ Learning and Cognition Professor Geske To know the concept of learning and how it is related to cognition you need to know what they mean and what they stand for. According to about.com “Learning is often defined as a relatively lasting change in behavior that is the result of experience (About.com, 2012)”. Learning has become an important focus of study in psychology at the beginning of the 20th century when behaviorism started to rise as a major school of thought. According to about.com “learning remains an important concept in numerous areas of psychology, including cognitive, educational, and social and developmental psychology (About.com, 2012)”. For knowing the role of what behavior play in learning, we need to see some of the history. From the very day we are born, to the day we die, we are always learning. Learning is a constant role in our lives. Many people think that learning happens only in school or some kind of training process. Some people say they do not enjoy learning new things or activities but yet they are capable of using all types of different technologies. Even the worst child who does not want to listen in class or participate in the learning experience will eventually learn something. The student tends to test the instructor with their behavior. If the teacher reacts by getting mad or by trying to force the student, sooner or later the student is learning that they can take control or the......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4

Frontier.S02.German.DD51.DL.2160p.NetflixUHD.x264-TVS | Watch movie | تحميل