Livelihood Constraints

In: Social Issues

Submitted By nehassingh
Words 426
Pages 2
Constraints facing the Livelihood sector
The present situation indicates that rural livelihoods in the select districts of some states are still ensconced within the agrarian structure. Alongside, a number of allied activities (farm based/off farm/non-farm) are also positioned as secondary sources of livelihoods. In some areas, however, even these have acquired the status of primary sources of livelihoods. The varying forms of micro level house hold behaviour in terms of their livelihoods strategy however indicate a common behaviour, viz: dependence on agriculture (cultivation of foodgrains – cereals/coarse) to address the issue of household level food security coupled with at least one secondary occupation, that ensures some cash flow to meet the daily requirements of non-food items in the household consumption basket.

The factors that emerged as constraints in the realising higher gains along the value chain of the key sectors/activities of livelihoods in the various sectors may be broadly classified as technical and institutional. The interventions, therefore, have also been suggested accordingly, with varying combinations of technical and institutional measures for the different sectors in the select districts covered under the various livelihood projects. However, the study also shows that in order to address the basic livelihoods question at present in the district, the institutional interventions may have to be taken on a priority basis, so that adequate base is created among the key players to absorb the technical interventions. It is the institutional interventions that would help define the willingness of the poor marginal households to absorb the technical inputs so as to move to a higher output, employment and income trajectory.

A review of the livestock sector highlights the constraints facing poor rural livestock producers. Livestock…...

Similar Documents

Constraint Theory

...The Theory of Constraints and the Automotive Industry The bottleneck appears in many aspects of the automotive industry. Not only is the specified branch of the manufacturer but also in more specific branches of products such as locally owned dealers, individual parts suppliers, and then on the consumer service side, repair shops. Looking at all of these some bottlenecks or constraints are easily identifiable. For this I will look closer at the service side of the industry and how the theory of constraints can affect the repair shops. First off forecasting for a repair shop can already be a hard to estimate because it is an as needed service. The slow-downs in this business are close to impossible to predict as there is no real season for car repairs. So the major constraint will be an unexpected demand in repairs. For the theory of Constraints to help with this, further causes for this restraint need to be identified. So if we are looking at a smaller locally owned shop we could identify the restraint as being poor scheduling of both labor and appointments. Once this is identified the theory will help ease the restraint. To handle this they will need to pad the forecast for the amount of work they estimate will be needed and accommodate the scheduling to match this. This can be done with a unique scheduling system for the shop with room for the varying service levels needed. With that the shop as a whole has to have the initiative to focus on the areas needed during...

Words: 359 - Pages: 2

Theory of Constraints

...Theory of Constraints John Blackstone (2010), Scholarpedia, 5(5):10451. | doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.10451 | revision #91862 [link to/cite this article] | Curator and Contributors 1.00 - John Blackstone * John Blackstone, University of Georgia The Theory of Constraints is the name given to a series of decision making techniques first created by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt beginning around 1980 and later applied and augmented by a number of others. The Theory of Constraints has been applied to production planning, production control, project management, supply chain management, accounting and performance measurement, and other areas of business as well as such not-for-profit facilities as hospitals and military depots. It has also been applied to decision making in educational settings. Dr. Goldratt holds a Ph. D. in physics; he has often stated that in developing the Theory of Constraints he is applying the techniques of the hard sciences, such as cause-and-effect analysis, to soft sciences such as business management. The Theory of Constraints states that constraints determine the performance of a system. A constraint is anything that prevents a system from achieving a higher performance relative to its goal. A system is any collection of interconnected parts sharing a common goal. The Theory of Constraints was first applied to business systems. Dr. Goldratt defines the goal of a for-profit business as to make more money now and in the future. This definition is in......

Words: 7150 - Pages: 29

Theory of Constraint

...Theory of Constraints The topic for my discussion on the Theory of Constraint is the team that handles rental properties for a real estate business. This includes homes as well as commercial properties for rent, from the perspective of the tenant and the landlord. The organization is a team of real estate agents that specialize in rental properties. The goal is to generate profitable revenue by ensuring the quota is met for lease contract agreements to go to settlement in the specified time. Throughput are the number of contracts for the lease of properties that have completed, settled, and funded. Inventory comprises of available rental properties that have been listed with the company, as well as landlords that are represented by agents of the company. Operating expenses include costs associated with the listing or showing of rental properties, such as open houses, advertising costs, and transportation of prospective tenants to the property. The bottleneck is the landlord’s approval and acceptance of the terms of the contract. This will be discussed in more detail in the five steps below. 1) Identify the system’s bottlenecks. Typically the landlord will want to maximize profit by listing the property for as much as possible. Regardless of the listing price being inline with the market area, or being overpriced, lease offers will often be less than the asking price. With lease offers from more than one prospective tenants require more time in their......

Words: 3675 - Pages: 15

Research on Livelihood

...REPORT ON SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD FRAMEWORK (Based on interview with Mr. Shyam Bahadur Khatri,peanut seller) GROUP MEMBERS: AASISH WAGLE MAHENDRA BHAT JELINA SHRESTHA LAXMAN MAHARJAN Mr. Shyam Bd Khatri, a residence of Argakhachi who has migrated to Kathmandu is a peanut seller. He had to migrate to kathmandu due to thepoor economic condition of the family. His family consist of 4 members: Laxmi khatri (wife), Sanjay khtri (Son) & Meena khatri (daughter). His son is currently working as a laborer in contruction site whereas his wife and daughter works as maid at different houses. He expalins that due to the poor economic condition he couldn’t send his childrens to school. So unwillingly they have to go to work in early age. He said that he had 3 kattha of land as family asset in argakhachi but during the maoist protest period he was forced to give that land to the one of the maoist member of his village. After that as there was no asset & there was no source of food he migrated to kathmandu to make his livelihood better. He also told that he was not sent to school by his parents as the family condition was very miserable. In kathmandu he is living in 1 room with his whole family by payin Rs 1500 per month rent. On the course of interview, we found out that the trend or the maoist revolution he had to suffer a lot which brought his life into a very miserable condition.Similarly the seasonality of the peanut also brings very hard time as he has to work as......

Words: 818 - Pages: 4

Sustainable Livelihood

...Sustainable livelihood livelihood is defined as the combination of all activities developed in relation to the resources that permit households to cover their needs in order to continue surviving and developing. Various elements at different levels interact within these systems: * The context of vulnerability may reflect geographical factors, climate, history, demographics, and the social and economic situation. This context defines the risks that the population faces. * The resources or assets to which the family or individuals have access, control or possess and with which they carry out productive processes, participate in the labour market or use for exchange with other families or individuals. These can be classified in the following manner: * Natural capital: made up of natural resources such as land, water and other biological resources. * Physical capital: includes the goods that have been created through productive processes, for example infrastructure (roads, bridges) and machinery. * Human capital: the ability to work and the labour capacity of a family unit or individual. * Financial capital: the household’s access to money, which may be through savings or credit. * Social capital: attitude towards reciprocity within the community, between households or individuals, based on the confidence formed through social links. * Policies, institutions and organisations influence the access to necessary livelihood resources......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Theories of Constraints

...Introduction To apply the Theories of Constraints, we will need to express the goal and other measurements then outlining the five-step processes that will identify the bottleneck resources to dictate our throughput and inventory. Operational Measurements Our organizations’ operation will be expressed in three measurements; the goal, throughput, inventory and operational expenses. These measurements will help to keep our resources balanced and help increase the throughput while reducing the inventory and operational expenses at the same time. For the organization, the goal would be to obtain at least $15 million in funding sources within the next two fiscal years. We would pay special attention to the requirements of the competitive awards and would not attempt to complete proposals for awards that we are not currently eligible for. The throughput will be the number of grant proposals that are submitted. Our inventory is measured in open and eligible grants that we have not been completed or submitted. And the operational costs would include personnel costs, fundraising expenses and other resources that are used to complete the proposal process. The Five-Steps of the Theories of Constraints Step 1: Identify the organizational bottleneck(s). After reviewing the budgeted funding pipeline for the year, we only received 35% of the funding we expected between January and July. We found that there were grant proposals that we were eligible for that we did not compete for and...

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Theory of Constraints

...Theory of Constraints Term Paper BUSN 6070, Summer 2014 In the day and time in which we live, “quality” has come to encompass much more than just product or process conformance. Quality is a requirement for today’s customer regardless of type of product or the price the consumer has paid. But, when producing a quality product there are some constraints. In management, especially quality management there is something called the Theory of Constraints. The Theory of Constraints is defined as: A management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints. There is always at least one constraint, and TOC uses a focusing process to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the organization around it. TOC adopts the common idiom "a chain is no stronger than its weakest link." This means that processes, organizations, etc., are vulnerable because the weakest person or part can always damage or break them or at least adversely affect the outcome. (Garrison, Managerial accounting 14th ed.) Have you ever heard the saying, “You can’t put ten pounds of sand in a five-pound bag?” How about, “I’m trying to juggle too many priorities at once.” If you’ve heard (or said) either of these things, you have some sense of the stress that constraints impose on everyone. In many cases, the challenge appears to be not enough time. But, the characteristics of time are......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Theory of Constraints

...Chapter 5 Theory of Constraints What You Will Find Out About in This Chapter  The importance of managing system throughput  The differences between cost-world orientation and throughput orientation  The importance, and often the difficulty, of identifying constraints  The five-step process of constraint management  The circumstances in which the theory of constraints is valuable in increasing throughput  How throughput accounting and appropriate performance measures can encourage a throughput emphasis Management Accounting for Change: Process Improvement and Innovation 5.1 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................................85 5.2 MANAGING PROCESS THROUGHPUT ....................................................................................................85 5.2.1 Defining TOC...........................................................................................................................................86 5.3 NATURE OF THE ‘GLOBAL GOAL’ VS LOCAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT ........................87 5.3.1 The Global Goal .......................................................................................................................................87 5.3.2 Local Performance Measurement .............................................................................................................87 5.3.3 Conflicts Between Local Performance and the......

Words: 9715 - Pages: 39

Investmnet Constraints

...An investment plan must consider both investment objectives and investment constraints. Major constraints include liquidity, time horizon, tax concerns, legal and regulatory concerns and unique circumstances. Liquidity refers to the need for cash in excess of any savings or new contributions available at a specific point in the future. Liquidity needs may be planned (child’s college funding in 10 years) or unplanned (a medical emergency) but both require ready ability to convert investments into cash. Some assets, such as real estate, may take considerable time to sell. Others, such as certificates of deposit, may impose early withdrawal penalties. Time horizon typically refers to the time at which an investment objective must be met. Some objectives such as saving for a house may have a short time horizon, while retirement or endowment planning can have long horizons. Investors must often plan for several time horizons at once. The time horizon influences the ability to accept risk and could modify asset allocation strategy. Investors with little tolerance for temporary return fluctuations may need a different plan than would be suggested by time horizon alone, and multiple time horizons can further constrain allocation decisions. Tax concerns include differences between the tax rates for different types of investment return (interest versus capital gains or dividends), estate taxes, differences between current income and retirement income tax rates, and the......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Theory of Constraints

...Theory of Constraints In today’s economic climate, many organizations struggle with declining sales and increasing costs. Some choose to hunker down and weather the storm, hoping for better results in the future. However, layoffs and workforce reductions jeopardize future competitiveness. However, organizations that have implemented the Theory of Constraints (ToC) continue to thrive and grow in difficult times, continuing to achieve real bottom line growth, whether by improving productivity or increased revenues. Since 1985, the Theory of Constraints has been delivering startling tangible results to companies worldwide. An independent study of Theory of Constraints implementations around the world found that huge results were consistently achieved: Lead Times Reduced 69% Cycle Times Reduced 66% Due Date Performance Improved 60% Inventory Levels Reduced 50% Revenue / Throughput Increased 68% This is a system improvement tool, which states that every system has one goal and it is achieved by many linked processes and out of those processes, one process acts like a bottleneck. So, this theory is utilized in order to remove that bottleneck and ultimately achieve higher productivity. Commonly these bottle necks can be easily understood by the example of assembling operation. There are 5 stations; each station has different times for assembling e.g 40 minutes, 50 and 60 minutes. Out of these stations, station with maximum operation time will be considered as......

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Theory of Constraints

...THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS Key Term The key term I selected is Theory of Constraints. I selected this term because in my Aviation Maintenance profession this term is getting more visibility as we attempt to implement Continuous Process Improvement (CPI). Explanation of the Key Team Satterlee describes Theory of Constraints as the greater gain will come from identifying which part of the process is a constraint to the whole, rather than focusing on increased output from an entire process (p. 247). In support of the key term, I selected the article, “Theory of constraints: a theory for operations management” (Gupta & Boyd, 2008). Major Article Summary The selected article first investigates linkages between Theory of Constraints and the core concepts/components of operations management and shows how operations management concepts can be integrated with Theory of Constraints (Gupta, & Boyd, 2008). Next, the article proved Theory of Constraints has properties essential for a good theory. Within the article it identifies six steps for implementing the theory of constraints and also describes the five-step thinking process designed to organize the thought process involved in approaching a bottleneck and trying to resolve the problem relating to the constraint (Gupta, & Boyd, 2008). Discussion The Theory of Constraints is an important tool for operations managers to manage bottlenecks and improve process flows. Theory of Constraints views organizations......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Intigrity Constraint

...Integrity Constraints Before one can start to implement the database tables, one must define the integrity constraints. Intergrity means something like 'be right' and consistent. The data in a database must be right and in good condition. There are the domain integrity, the entity integrity, the referential integrity and the foreign key integrity constraints. Domain Integrity Domain integrity means the definition of a valid set of values for an attribute. You define  - data type,  - lenght or size - is null value allowed - is the value unique or not for an attribute. You may also define the default value, the range (values in between) and/or specific values for the attribute. Some DBMS allow you to define the output format and/or input mask for the attribute. These definitions ensure that a specific attribute will have a right and proper value in the database. Entity Integrity Constraint The entity integrity constraint states that primary keys can't be null. There must be a proper value in the primary key field. This is because the primary key value is used to identify individual rows in a table. If there were null values for primary keys, it would mean that we could not indentify those rows. On the other hand, there can be null values other than primary key fields. Null value means that one doesn't know the value for that field. Null value is different from zero value or space. In the Car Rental database in the Car table each car must have a......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

From Servitude to Great Livelihood

...Antonio Cortez III Second Essay Music 1306 [ 11 October 2013 ] From Servitude to Great Livelihood Antonio Cortez III From Servitude to Great Livelihood The art of music and the industry has grown developed from the days when composer were servants and have grown to become well established paid artist. It is only in the eighteenth century that we can begin to see music as a commercial enterprise—a multidimensional business that provided employment for not only musicians but also those working for not only musicians but also those working in music-related fields. Certainly, many of the components of the industry were already in place by 1700: public performance for profit, instrument making, music publishing, and private musical instruction had been viable enterprises for decades, even centuries (Campbell, 2011, p. 109.) The stratification of musical life development—the further evolution of classical music, the emergence of a forward looking mentality and an artistic elite to nature it, and the growth of a branch of the music industry that captured to mass taste—the musical world in Europe and North America was far more stratifies in 1900 than it was in 1850 (Campbell, 2011, p. 234.) Beethoven elevated the status of composer from servant to artist; he demanded a pension from aristocratic patrons so that he would not have to concern himself with such mundane matters as money. Our modern conception of the musician as artist derives most directly from him (Campbell...

Words: 660 - Pages: 3

Management by Constraint

... 1. Please identify the steps in Management by Constraint. Answer: Management by constraints is an innovative and effective approached developed by Goldratt and Cox (1992) and it is based on a seven- step process 1) Determine the system’s goal 2) Establish global performance measures 3) Identify the system constraint 4) Decide how to exploit the constraint, break dummy and policy constraint 5) Subordinate the rest of the system to the constraint 6) Elevate and break the constraint 7) If constraint is broken, return to step 3. Do not let inactivity or sluggishness become a system constraint. 2. Please Identify and explain the types of Constraints. Answer: Constraints is any important factor that prevents an organization from reaching its goal. Types of constraints are: i. Resource constraint: This is so heavily used that it cannot perform all required task. There are several constraints under the resource constraint and they include Shortage of a critical resource (bottleneck or internal constraint) such as an employee, piece of equipment or a phone room. It is difficult to open a bottleneck because it might be capital intensive or special training if it requires a highly skilled individual. ii. Permanent Bottlenecks: These are constraints that could be expensive or in short supply an example of this is a Physician with a rare expertise, this become a bottleneck in an hospital environment because of the demand targeted at them, same can be......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

The Triple Constraint

...The Triple Constraints of Projects: Quality, Cost and Schedule The Triple Constraint The challenge of every project is to make it work and be successful within the Triple Constraint; theTriple Constraint being quality (scope), cost (resources) and schedule (time). These three elements of a project are known to work in tandem with one another. Where one of these elements is restricted or extended, the other two elements will then also need to be either extended/increased in some way or restricted/reduced in some way. There is a balancing of the three elements that only when fully understood by the Project Manager, allows for the successful planning, resourcing and execution of a project. At the end of the day, these are the key elements of a successful project and these are the things that will determine whether or not you have successfully managed a project. More on the Triple Constraint Now, you may ask yourself, what is so important about the Triple Constraint and what does it affect in the scheme of things? Let’s look a little more closely at the three components that make up the Triple Constraint: Scope/Quality The scope of a project (often called the Scope of Work) is a clear, specific statement as to what has been agreed to be preformed/achieved in a particular project. In other words, the scope expressly lays out the functions, features, data, content, etc. that will be included in the project at hand. You could also say that the scope clearly......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

فول آلبوم مليحه | Больше >> | DiskDigger 1.20.6.2609 Multilingual