Louis and the Estates General

In: Historical Events

Submitted By moniqueperks1992
Words 889
Pages 4
Why did Louis call the Estates General in May 1789?
M.P

In May 1789 Louis called the Estates General for the first time since 1614 due to a number of different reasons like the financial crisis, the political crisis and the grievances of all three Estates. However, the main reason why the Estate General was called in 1789 was due to the political crisis and the constant change in political officials linked with Necker’s ultimatum. Between 1787-8 there was a political crisis in France which contributed to the calling of the Estates General a year later. The government official Necker was dismissed and replaced by Calonne, who was soon after replaced by Brienne the Archbishop of Toulouse who tried to introduce a number of new reforms to the system like reforming the education system, introducing a new treasury and to introduce religious toleration. However, the Parlement of Paris refused these new reforms and said that only the Estates General could consent to any new reforms. Thus, Brienne resigned. This led to the Estates General being called as the constant change in government didn’t restore confidence in the people of France and they began to doubt the government as each new official brought a different agenda to the table and none were being carried through. As a last resort, Louis brought back Necker as Government official but he came with an ultimatum that was before he made any reforms they would have to be approved by the nation. Necker’s ultimatum spurred on the calling of the Estates General as it gave Louis no other alternative. The political system was already seen to be weak and the stagnation of it would make it seem to be even weaker. On the 16th August 1788 the Crown was declared bankrupt. This had happened over a long period of time due to the fighting in the Seven Years War, The American War of Independence, Louis’ method in ruling of the…...

Similar Documents

Louis Brandeis

...Louis D. Brandeis was a United State Supreme Court Justice that fought against monopolies and big business and was a tireless advocate for free speech. Brandeis was best known for publishing his famous article in the Harvard Law Journal, for publishing his book about the banking industry, for upholding laws that protect the publics’ privacy and the freedom of expression and as the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice. Louis Brandeis was born in Kentucky on November 13, 1856 to Adolph Brandeis and Frederika Dembitz. His parents were Bohemian Jews that had a strong belief in culture and encouraged Brandeis’ education. Consequently, Brandeis graduated high school at the young age of 14. He first attended college in Kentucky but later transferred to Germany when his father had to relocate. He went on to study at Harvard Law School and graduated in 1875 as valedictorian at the age of 20. Brandeis started practicing law in St. Louis, Missouri and after a short time, he moved back to Boston to start a law firm with former Harvard classmate, Samuel Warren. The firm of “Warren and Brandeis” spent much of their time arguing against monopolies and large corporations and advocating for free speech. Together Brandeis and Warren published a famous article in The Harvard Law Review, “The Right to Privacy.” This article argued that private citizens should have the right to be left alone and the press should not be permitted to publish their photos or the details of their lives......

Words: 2167 - Pages: 9

Louis Vuitton

...2. The strength of Louis Vuitton is in its strong, established brand image and international presence. Brand name is what allows the company to de-commoditize luxury products and extract premium from the market. Throughout its history Louis Vuitton has developed a reputation for providing its customers both quality and unique product image. Louis Vuitton products distinguish themselves on five key traits: high prices, excellent quality, aesthetic and emotional value, rich brand history and uniqueness. Solid business model and rapid expansion overseas proved to be a great platform to help establish a high-end international brand image. Ability to control its distribution channels allows Louis Vuitton to capture value added instead of giving it to the middlemen such as suppliers and retailers and to deliver the best quality goods to the customers. Owning shops gives Vuitton control over level of stock, presentation and pricing. Additionally, LVMH is the most highly diversified luxury goods company. Even though LVMH is an acronym of three brands: Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy, the company owns over 50 brands: 13 apparel and leather goods brands, 20 wines and spirits, 6 retail brands, 10 perfumes, 5 watches and jewelry. This multi-brand strategy that LVMH adopted is another company’s strength. Opportunities exist for Louis Vuitton to continue with its current strategies of establishing large branches worldwide. Louis Vuitton products are designed for wealthy individuals, who......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Real Estate in Bangladesh

...Real estate Real estate is "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; (also) an item of real property; (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings or housing."[1] Real estate development, or property development, is a multifaceted business, encompassing activities that range from therenovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of improved land or parcels to others. Developers are the coordinators of the activities, converting ideas on paper into real property.[1] Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers also construct. Developer Louis Lesser drew the distinction in a 1963 New York Times article, "Developing is the key word. 'We don't build ourselves', Mr. Lesser stresses. 'We buy the land, finance the deal, and then we have the best builders build under bond at a fixed cost.'"[2] Developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, create, imagine, control and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end.[2] Developers usually take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards. Typically, developers purchase a tract of land, determine the marketing of...

Words: 1972 - Pages: 8

Louis Vuitton

...Louis Vuitton Malletier , or the history that we are also a favorite as ' Louis Vuitton ' , but there are many girls who like to short the LV (LV) bags , Louis . Vuitton is a brand that was established at the year of 1854 when France by Louis Vuitton malware Lake Fortier present bags brand Louis Vuitton is a brand that can be considered a giant . most people around the world know . LV logo is just tremendous value it. This product brands that are available . Packaging bag , clothing , handbags , clothes , shoes, watches and jewelry. By all bags of Louis . Vuitton has potential inspiration that "Art of Travel" , which is the core of the design and concept of the design handbags , Louis Vuitton , all leaves and designers , the current of Louis . Vuitton 's Marc Jacobs , which is the design of his people , it is the favorite of the celebrities . Around the world. Bag Louis . Thailand women 's values ​​, rather than just a bag . Believe that in a number of various bags brand bags Louis is one of the most popular women purse Thailand . Most women want to have the most possession . But with the price of the bag has a very high price to make a purchase using the card , it will not be easy , but if I do not pay for quality and a long history of the brand. Thailand had to accept that women are not less patience to collect money in order to have a pocket or purse LV logo Louis Vuitton itself....

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Louis Vuitton

...October 14, 2013 Louis Vuitton Case Study 1. What has made Louis Vuitton’s business model successful in the Japanese luxury market? Louis Vuitton’s business model in Japan is truly extraordinary in the way they use product, price, place, and promotion. The company was founded on producing products of the highest quality by Louis Vuitton Malletier in 1854. LV continuous effort to innovate their product through partnerships with local artist to create limited product lines and never deviate from the founding father’s vision is directly related to LV’s success. Louis Vuitton’s product image in the consumers mind is so important that they are taken huge measures in preventing counterfeiting of their product globally. The next portion of the LV’s business model is price. For a majority of company’s price is determined all by market demand and can fluctuate in order to stimulate or maintain consumer demand. For LV it is different, their products are priced unnecessarily high all the time despite what the market demand is. They do this because LV products are luxurious status symbols and in this sense offer absolute value out of a purchase. If the company prices their item any lower than what the current price is then the LV label will hold its social value. LV’s choice of place is unique because they only sell from a very small number of stores of which are mostly owned by the company. This is unique because traditionally an increase and sales can directly...

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Louis Armstrong

...   Louis Armstrong American Jazz Icon Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) one of the renown fathers of American jazz music. One cannot think of American jazz and not think of the huge smile and the puffy cheeks of the one affectionately called “Satchmo”. Few can hear the songs “Hello Dolly!” (Jerry Herman and Michael Stewart – 20th Century fox 1964) and “What a Wonderful World” (Geroge Weiss & Bob Theile 1968) not hear the deep raspy voice of this beloved icon. With his incredible energy and joy for life, few would believe his humble and heartbreaking beginnings. What made him famous was his inner strength, drive, openness and the ability to learn from others. Humble and Tumultuous Beginnings Louis Daniel Armstrong was born August 4, 1901 in New Orleans to William Armstrong and Mary Est Albert. His father William Armstrong was a boiler stoker in a turpentine plant and left him shortly after he was born. His mother was a laundress and part-time prostitute who drifted in and out of his life (Tirro, 2000). The first five years of his life he lived with his grandmother Josephine and was later returned to his mothers care. Back in his mother’s care Armstrong lived in a cabaret district where he was exposed to the up and coming jazz music. In 1913 Armstrong was arrested for shooting a gun off during a New Years Eve celebration and sent to the New Orleans Colored Waifs’ Home for boys. Her in a disciplined environment he was given formal music instruction....

Words: 1009 - Pages: 5

Louis

...courses in Child Development, English, English as a Second Language and Engineering Technology and Health. Those courses which are transferable to California State University for elective credit are labeled with “CSU” Courses do not accept for transferable: BTEC 108A, CDEV 108A, ESL 20,23,26,75,85,110,112,120,120A,120B,122,130,132,142 ENGL 9,90,91,92,93,94,96 ET 108A, HLTH 8. Admission as a transfer student: Completing minimum 60 transferable unit (CCSF course No. 1-799 except for some non-degree applicable: Biotechnology, Child Development, English, English as a Second Language, Engineering Technology, and Health Education) Grade point 2.4-2.8 grade point average in all transferable units. A minimum of 30 units of General Education with grades of C or better including A1 Oral Communication, A2 Written Communication, A3 Critical Thinking, B4 Quantitative Reasoning. A1 = ESL 79, Speech 1A, 3,4,6,11,12,20 A2 = ENGL 1A A3 = ENGL 1B, 1C, Philosophy 2,4,40, Speech 2 They do no accept more than 70 semester units of community college credit ? Candidates for a bachelor’s degree must satisfy the requirement in American Institution and United States History by completing one course from each of Group 1. Political Science 1. Group 2 Asian American Studies 20, History 1,9,12A,12B,17A,17B,41A,41B, Labor And Com Studies 70, 70A, 70B. Accept for transferable credit English:......

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

The General

...because of how he did it. Harold Lloyd made us laugh as much, Charlie Chaplin moved us more deeply, but no one had more courage than Buster. I define courage as Hemingway did: "Grace under pressure." In films that combined comedy with extraordinary physical risks, Buster Keaton played a brave spirit who took the universe on its own terms, and gave no quarter. I'm immersed in his career right now, viewing all of the silent features and many of the shorts with students at the University of Chicago. Having already written about Keaton's "The General" (1927) in this series, I thought to choose another title. "The Navigator," perhaps, or "Steamboat Bill, Jr.," or "Our Hospitality." But they are all of a piece; in an extraordinary period from 1920 to 1929, he worked without interruption on a series of films that make him, arguably, the greatest actor-director in the history of the movies. Most of these movies were long thought to be lost. "The General," with Buster as a train engineer in the Civil War, was always available, hailed as one of the supreme masterpieces of silent filmmaking. But other features and shorts existed in shabby, incomplete prints, if at all, and it was only in the 1960s that film historians began to assemble and restore Keaton's lifework. Now almost everything has been recovered, restored, and is available on DVDs and tapes that range from watchable to sparkling. It's said that Chaplin wanted you to like him, but Keaton didn't care. I think he cared, but was......

Words: 6535 - Pages: 27

Joe Louis

...JOE LOUIS JONATHAN RIVERA PROFESSOR MICHEAL GOOCH JOE LOUIS This report is about a man that changed American history Joseph Louis Barrow was a world heavy weight champion from 1937 to 1949. He was born on May 13, 1914 Lafayette, Alabama, his father was Monroe Barrow and mother was Lilly Reese. Joe spent 12 years growing up in Alabama, then later moved to Detroit Michigan because of the Klux Klux Klan harassment. Later in his life he went to work part time for Ford Motor company. Louis also attended vocational school to learn how to make cabinets. When the great depression hit Joe began to spend time in a local south recreation center in Detroit, Michigan. This is where he picked up the sport of boxing. He made his armature debut around 1932, he was 17 years old. Louis had numerous victories during his armature career, he earned a club championship of his brewester street recreational center. In 1933 Louis won the Detroit Golden glove novice championship for the light heavy weight classification. The next year he trained and prepared to compete in the Golden glove tournament of championship where he won the light heavy weight classification. Later that year, he also added a national AAU Tourney in Missouri. This caught the eyes of many boxing promoters, they wanted Joe to turn professional. Joe Louis' amateur record was an amazing 50 wins with 4 loses, 43 knock outs. Joe Louis turned pro July 4 1934 he had many heavyweight fight his most notable was his fights......

Words: 955 - Pages: 4

Louis Riel

...Louis Riel Lana Forsberg 11172571 Native Studies 107 Swapna Padmana November 19, 2014 Louis Riel is one of the most influential citizens in not only Metis history but also in Canadian history. Riel’s story shows society that life is a battle of controversy when trying to gain the rights and freedom that you are deserved. Although Louis has inspired a lot of people, he has also caused a lot of hatred and pain because of his actions. Many people consider him to be a hero but on the other hand others see him to be a killer and a mad man. A person’s actions can affect the way people view them for the rest of their lives and in Riel’s case he is a prime subject to this. Riel led the Metis through a historical rebellion and throughout this rebellion made it sane for scholars and historians to view him as a hero but also a victim in Canadian history. In 1844, Louis Riel was born into the Red River Settlement, which now is considered Manitoba. Louis Riel grew up around the time when the west was opening up and a lot of different ethnicities were migrating into Manitoba. This caused issues for the Metis because the Metis people were offered little education and food sources started going scarce. The Metis were considered to be half-breeds and eventually there was an account of starvation and mass hunger throughout the area. Even though this was all happening during Riels pre-adulenscent years, he was one of the few people that were able to get education and......

Words: 968 - Pages: 4

Louis Vuitton

...challenges of Louis Vuitton, the leading European luxury sector multinational firm, in Japan, the second largest economy in the world. The case illustrates the business strategy of Louis Vuitton in an important market, taking into account the unique features of brand management, and integrating culture and consumer behaviour in Japan. In the last decade, Japan has been Louis Vuitton’s most profitable market, representing almost half of its profits, but it seems that the global economic crisis has resulted in a decline in sales. Other European brands in the luxury and fashion sectors have also been generating one third of their profits from Japan. Facing a weak economy and a shift in consumer preferences, Louis Vuitton has been adapting its unique strategy in the Japanese market, taking into account consumer behaviour patterns. The days of relying on a logo and charging a high price seem to be gone as there is more interest in craftsmanship and value for money. To promote sales, the company has had to launch less expensive collections made with cheaper materials. The brand has also been opening stores in smaller cities, where the lure of the logo still works. Louis Vuitton may be French, but Japan has become a land full of Louis Vuitton lovers. Over the years, Japanese consumers have demonstrated fascination with and passion for the iconic brand. What have been the keys to Louis Vuitton’s......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Louis Vuitton

...Louis Vuitton Analysis Mary Askew American Public University Abstract Louis Vuitton is a brand of luxury items. It was started by an avid trunk makers and is now currently the top luxury brand provider for the tenth year straight. Louis Vuitton has been able to sustain its leadership in this competitive field by being innovative and garnering the best team the company can have. The leaders keep close tabs on the inner workings and control all aspects of products from manufacturing to sales.They are always looking to expand and increase market share. This paper will take a look at how Louis Vuitton maintain such a strong presence on the global stage. Louis Vuitton Analysis Louis Vuitton’s Business Model Luxury brands, generally speaking, have not fared well during the past few years. The industry (luxury items) declined by billions of dollars. Writers for luxurydaily.com said the “air of rarity” was in peril. The global recession put luxury markets in a downward spiral. That is, except for Louis Vuitton (LV) and Chanel. The LV brand held onto the number one spot it has held for the past ten years. This year has seen an increase in profitability upwards of 16 percent, almost triple that of 6 percent last year. (King, 2015) The Louis Vuitton business model implements innovative and alluring ways of capturing new audiences. For instance, the company added social media and the likes of snapchat to their traditional modes of marketing. The management company for the......

Words: 1268 - Pages: 6

Louis Vuitton

...concern for Louis Vuitton’s stock in the near term. v  Louis Vuitton is undertaking a transformation strategy to evolve into a global lifestyle brand anchored in accessories. However, we believe this transformation will take at least a few more quarters to reap the desired results. v  Increased private label offerings by wholesale customers also increase the competition for Louis Vuitton.  BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS: LOW v  Louis Vuitton sells through both, the direct-to-consumer channel and the wholesale channel. The direct channel, which includes Louis Vuitton operated stores and e-commerce sales accounted for around 89% of its total sales in fiscal 2012. v  Since wholesale customers account for only around 10% of the total sales, we believe their bargaining power is limited. v  We think the bargaining power of end-customers is moderate. Louis Vuitton has positioned itself as an exclusive luxury brand and enjoys strong brand recognition due to its high quality products. v  We believe that the customers’ bargaining power will remain low in the future as Louis Vuitton’s efforts to reinvigorate its brand appeal will be offset by rising competition in the market. THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS: LOW                               v  To start up a new brand, significant capital expenditure is required for marketing and floor space. v  Brand recognition and loyalty are among the main factors that drive middle-to-high income earners towards luxury companies such as Louis......

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Joe Louis

...In 1926, Louis' family joined the African-American migration from the rural South to the urban North. They settled in Detroit and that was where he grew up. As a teenager he worked odd jobs and began boxing with neighborhood kids. Louis used the 50 cents a week his mother gave him for violin lessons to rent a locker at the Brewster Recreation Center, where he began a successful amateur boxing career. John Roxborough, the illegal numbers betting king in Detroit's black ghetto, decided to sponsor Louis's professional career. He enlisted the help of Julian Black, a Chicago speakeasy owner and numbers operator, and they moved Louis to Chicago to train with Jack Blackburn, a former lightweight boxer and skilled trainer who had already taken two white fighters to world championships in lower weight divisions. Blackburn patiently taught Louis a fundamental style of boxing that emphasized balanced but unspectacular footwork, a strong left jab, counterpunching, and throwing combination punches in rapid sequence. Until his death in 1942, Blackburn ensured that Louis ran six miles a day, sparred with discipline, and maintained his physical superiority and confidence against all challengers. By March 1935, Louis had won 18 professional fights and was bumping up against the barrier of segregation. Denied economic opportunity and political power, African Americans were invisible in America's emerging media age. With the exception of occasional tokens in track and field and college......

Words: 1849 - Pages: 8

Louis Vuitton

...1. What has made Louis Vuitton’s business model successful in the Japanese luxury market? ლუის ვიტონის არჩეული ბიზნეს მოდელი მართლაც წარმატებული აღმოჩნდა იაპონურ ლაქშერი ბაზარზე, რომელზეც 2004 წლის მონაცემებით მთელი ფუფუნების საგნების 55% მოდიოდა. ეს ბრენდი გამოირჩეოდა იმითაც რომ მისი მოგების მარჟა შეადგენდა 45% - ს, როდესაც ანალოგიურ ბაზარზე 25% იყო ნორმა. რით იყო ეს გამოწვეული? თავდაპირველად დავიწყოთ ამ ბრენდის პროდუქტის განხილვით. Louis Vuitton- ის ჩანთები იკერებოდა საფრანგეთში, სადაც წარმოება გაცილებით ძვირი ჯდებოდა, მაგრამ სამაგიეროდ ბაზარზე მისი პოზიციონირება ხდებოდა როგორც ნამდვილი ფრანგული საქონლის. რაც შეეხება მის ხარისხს, აქცენტი უფრო დეტალებზე კეთდებოდა, მის მოსახერხებლობზე. შეუძლებელია იმის თქმა, რომ მისი მაღალი ფასი კონკურენტებთან შედარებით უშუალოდ შესამჩნევი ხარისხით იყო გამოწვეული. შედეგად ლუის ვიტონის ჩანთები იყო ძვირი, თუმცა ეს ფასი იყო სრულიად გამართლებული და მომგებიანი. ამ ჩანთებში გადახდილი ფული მომხმარებლისთვის იყო გამართლებული. ის ხდებოდა ახალი სოციალური ფენის ნაწილი და იღებდა საზოგადოებაში სტატუსს. ასევე მან წარმატებით მოახერხა დაპირისპირებოდა მის გაყალბებულ ვერსიებს. შემდეგ, გაამართლა შეზღუდულმა გამოცემებმა. ბრენდი ყურადღებას უთმობდა ადგილობრივ მომხმარებელს და ადგილობრივ ბაზარს, რაც საკმაოდ დადებითი იყო აზიური კულტურისთვის. კომპანია შეიტანა სიახლე იაპონიის ლაქშერი ბაზარზე, როდესაც „shop-in shop“ დანერგა. მართალია მისი მაღაზიები ყოველთვის წარმატებული იყო და გაყიდვების აღმატებოდა......

Words: 606 - Pages: 3

Le guide de la maison et des objets connectés | Plus Size Cat Graphic Christmas Hoodie | saison 4, épisode 9 - Hau'oli La Ho'omaika'i (Joyeuse Thanksgiving)