Mass Medias Affect on Voting Trends

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Xanter
Words 2848
Pages 12
Running Head: Mass Media in Elections

Mass Media’s Affect on Voting Trends
Arthur Gibford
California State University California

In today’s world, the news media reaches and affects every person in the United States. The question now is does mass media such as newspapers, television, and the internet affect the voting trends of the voters? The ownership of the media (Djankov, Nenova, McLiesh, & Shleifer, 2003), targeting specific demographics (Clinton & Lapinski, 2004), the implications of the internet (DiMaggio, Hargittai, Neuman, & Robinson, 2003) and how candidates use media (Aarts & Semetko, 2003) are all important aspects in determining whether a potential bias exists (Eveland & Shah, 2003) on the part of the news media. It is hypothesized that when the mass media displays certain biases leaning towards one party over the other, the populace tends to vote in the direction of the media. The following five scholarly literature reviews will attempt to demonstrate and support the hypothesis. According to Eveland and Shah (Eveland & Shah, 2003, p. 101)there is “a large percentage of the public (that) believes that the news media are biased, and the majority of these individuals consider the direction of bias to be against their own viewpoint”. This drives the question this paper attempts to answer. This article looks at media’s credibility and integrity in the eyes of individual people. The author’s give several hypothesis to provide multiple angles at which to look at the issue of the perceived hostile media bias’s. Aarts and Semetko offer a different look on media and voter trends. They research how on one side, media uses “diminishing knowledge and involvement and contributes to political cynicism and declining turnout. On the other hand, does media contribute to learning, political involvement, trust, efficacy, and…...

Similar Documents

Mass Media

...Mass Media Omar Orozco Hum 186 April 27, 2012 Mass Media Mass Media incorporates all those mediums through which information is distributed to the masses. These include advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet. Advertisements are intended to attract its audience into thinking they can't live without the product or service being presented to them. They prey upon our weaknesses and insecurities, and they use our desires and needs to seduce us. A good advertisement will make you buy a product, but a great advertisement will make you need a product. Magazine life span increased as the industry stabilized. Magazines originally only had seven main categories: religious, literary, agricultural, general, medical, miscellany, and social reform, as the modern magazine era was entered new categories were added at an exponential rate. Today there seems to be a magazine to cover every topic imaginable. Some of the new magazine genres are fashion, health, interior design, pets, teen life, children, parenting, adult entertainment, mechanics, military, and technology. This sub-category division of magazines is advantageous for advertisers making it easier to reach their target demographic. Copyright laws evolved alongside the rapidly expanding literary market in order to protect the published material from pirating by other publications. Newspaper is perhaps the one word most commonly referred to as a mass media, and it is the oldest form. The......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Mass Media

...Evelyn Widjaja Ms. Webster Expository Composition Period 2 7 April 2011 Mass Media The concept of media has expanded throughout society, whether to being on the newspaper, television, radio and the internet (Robyn 1). The main purpose of mass media in our society is to provide information, entertainment and advertisement (http://saching.com/Article/The-Positive-and-Negative-Effects-of-Media/873). I will discuss the influence that mass media has for the public and some evidence that will help support the statement “People are more influenced by mass media that they think” (Alexander & Janice 1). Technology has attracted people to engage in mass media, it has brought out easy ways of communication and provided us to make contact with people from different places (Robson 1). Mass media does not corrupt us but it gives the information clearly and steadily (Robyn 1). We need to add to these different types of media as in a way that can help us in life ( Levine 9). Our everyday style is showered with advertisement, more like information and other sorts of different type of mass media (Robyn 2). For instance the newspaper is an incredible influence tool in the society, they can easily turn on people emotions in favor or against an issue sometimes (Robyn 2). This is because we as readers tend to believe everything that is written in the newspaper even though it might be the wrong information (Robyn 2). Due to the technological purposes, we have achieved a step......

Words: 610 - Pages: 3

Mass Media

...Abstract Experts play a number of important roles in society (e.g., doctors, lawyers, scientists). Much of their social function is communicative, and as a public we rely in various ways on these communications. Access to experts and expert information is largely a function of media. As our information and communication media have evolved in recent years, so too must our methods for assessing the accuracy, truthfulness and usefulness of information. The current study examines how modern media, particularly television and the internet, have affected communication both between experts and the public, and among communities of experts. This is demonstrated by the analysis various forms of expert communications: a scientific journal article, news coverage of a political event, and televised advertisements for law firms. It is argued that the greater the premium a society places on specialized knowledge and skills, the more we are obligated to trust experts, and this entails a greater responsibility of “the media” to connect the public to experts in transparent and useful ways. Trust the Experts: The Importance of Media in Connecting Experts to the Public Contemporary “first world” society relies heavily on specialization and the distribution of labour. The complexity of our collective activities is beyond the capacity of any individual, and thus social responsibilities are divided largely on the basis of profession (Mieg, 2006). We entrust doctors with our......

Words: 2926 - Pages: 12

Mass Media

...2/22/12 Sociology Mass Media Assignment Being ‘Dazed and Confused’ in 1976 Mass media has slowly progressed in America since its foundation. Then in the twentieth century, mass media fundamentally changed society forever. From newspapers, to television, the internet, and cell phones, the media affects socialization on a massive level. ‘Socialization is the process whereby we internalize our culture’s values, beliefs, and norms. Through this experience, we become functioning members of our society’ (Introduction to Sociology: A Collaborative Approach; Second Edition, page 398). Anything that has to do with any sort of social norms or behavior comes from the media and is affecting society more and more every day. It has gotten to the point where most people are consumed by it. For example, newspapers describe new situations and current events in the world. This keeps people aware of only what the men in charge want them to know. Television was invented as another way to show news and forms of entertainment which in some cases, provide examples of social ‘norms’. Norms are what certain groups or societies expect everyone within that group or society to uphold as part their values. When the internet was created, it was made to provide a mass network of computers all around the globe. This allows anybody to receive any sort of information at anytime, anywhere in the world. Then cell phones were invented, and more recently, internet on cell phones. This is how the media has......

Words: 953 - Pages: 4

Mass Media

...Mass media refers to communication devices, which can be used to communicate and interact with a large number of audiences in different languages. Be it the pictorial messages of the early ages, or the high-technology media that are available today, one thing that we all agree upon, is that mass media are an inseparable part of our lives. Entertainment and media always go hand in hand, but in addition to the entertainment, mass media also remain to be an effective medium for communication, dissemination of information, advertising, marketing, and in general, for expressing and sharing views, opinions, and ideas. Mass media is a double-edged sword which means that there are positive as well as negative influences of media. Print Media Print media encompasses mass communication through printed material. It includes newspapers, magazines, booklets and brochures, house magazines, periodicals or newsletters, direct mailers, handbills or flyers, billboards, press releases, and books. Newspapers: Newspapers enjoyed the position of the most preferred medium to reach a wider audience until electronic communication emerged on the media scene. In the early days, newspapers were the only medium that masses at large depended on, for daily news. A newspaper carries all kinds of communication related to a variety of topics like politics, socialism, current affairs, entertainment, finance, stocks, etc. Apart from this, it also includes topics which are in lighter vein like cartoons,...

Words: 1440 - Pages: 6

Mass Media

...The major developments in the evolution of mass media during the 20th century? The Mass Media in the 20th century could easily be defined as Mass of Change in technology. Taking over the world many people weren’t ready nor expected the media to branch out in so many directions or availability. When this storm of technology approached; many people were left in the dark not knowing what was about to be offered for them to have access to. From once dialing a phone number on a rotary telephone to dialing the same number in the 20th century from a car phone or cellular phone. Having people out evaluating which computer would suit their needs along with their families and soon becoming familiar with the internet. No need for a computer retail store to be the last stop on the way home; also stop by and pick out a satellite and make the appointment to have it installed. I remember all too well living in the country where there was only 3 local channels; so having a satellite installed we became popular with neighbors who couldn’t afford a satellite at the time. Having many different workplaces getting the taste of the changes also; colored printers were now available, making everything a lot brighter than the original black and white. I’ll say in the 20th century many ideas became reality and only started this race now of who can invent and over challenge the latest edition. One example comes to mind is a Galaxy 4 cellphone; that in at least 6...

Words: 657 - Pages: 3

Mass Media

...Century, mass media could be classified[by whom?] into eight mass media industries: books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television and the internet. With the explosion of digital communication technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the question of what forms of media should be classified as "mass media" has become more prominent. For example, it is controversial whether to include cell phones, video games and computer games (such as MMORPGs) in the definition. In the 2000s, a classification called the "seven mass media" became popular. In order of introduction, they are: Print (books, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, etc.) from the late 15th century Recordings (gramophone records, magnetic tapes, cassettes, cartridges, CDs, DVDs) from the late 19th century Cinema from about 1900 Radio from about 1910 Television from about 1950 Internet from about 1990 Mobile phones from about 2000 Each mass media has its own content types, its own creative artists and technicians, and its own business models. For example, the Internet includes web sites, blogs, podcasts, and various other technologies built on top of the general distribution network. The sixth and seventh media, internet and mobile, are often called collectively as digital media; and the fourth and fifth, radio and TV, as broadcast media. Some argue that video games have developed into a distinct mass form of media.[6] While a telephone is a two way communication device, mass......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Mass Media

...THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN DEEPENING DEMOCRACY SHEILA S. CORONEL EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Since the 17th century, the role of the press as Fourth Estate and as a forum for public discussion and debate has been recognized. Today, despite the mass media’s propensity for sleaze, sensationalism and superficiality, the notion of the media as watchdog, as guardian of the public interest, and as a conduit between governors and the governed remains deeply ingrained. The reality, however, is that the media in new and restored democracy do not always live up to the ideal. They are hobbled by stringent laws, monopolistic ownership, and sometimes, the threat of brute force. State controls are not the only constraints. Serious reporting is difficult to sustain in competitive media markets that put a premium on the shallow and sensational. Moreover, the media are sometimes used as proxies in the battle between rival political groups, in the process sowing divisiveness rather than consensus, hate speech instead of sober debate, and suspicion rather than social trust. In these cases, the media contribute to public cynicism and democratic decay. Still, in many fledgling democracies, the media have been able to assert their role in buttressing and deepening democracy. Investigative reporting, which in some cases has led to the ouster of presidents and the fall of corrupt governments, has made the media an effective and credible watchdog and boosted its credibility among the public. Investigative......

Words: 8223 - Pages: 33

Mass Media

...Since the 1990s, Zambia has experienced drastic political, social and economic changes, these changes have proliferated in the media industry more especially radio broadcasting. The need for community radio stations in Zambia has risen over the past few years this is because radio is still the dominant mass-medium in Zambia and Globally. It has the widest geographical reach and the highest audiences as compared to television, newspapers and other information and communication technologies. Radio seems to have proven itself as a developmental tool, particularly with the rise of community and local radios. Therefore, its from this background that this article…. A community radio station is a type of community mass media. The different types of mass media in Zambia can be classified under print, broadcast and electronic media. A community radio station is defined as a non-profit distributing which is designed to serve specific communities of location and interest, thereby providing programming that is relevant to the community, and with management structures that represent the community the station serves. (Lewis and Jones, 2006). It is operated in the community, for the community, about the community and by the community. It is said to be a sound broadcasting station that serves a specific section of society known as a community. The ownership and management of a community radio station is representative of the community that persues a social development agenda and which is......

Words: 1550 - Pages: 7

Mass Media

...make a definition of what mass media is. All the different tools that are used to assist the distribution and circulation of information and entertainment to the public come under the umbrella of mass media. Radio, television, cable, telephone, telegram, newspapers, magazines,theatre and movies are all considered as ‘mass media’. These tools involve exchange of opinions, and public involvement. Today the list of mass media also embraces pagers, satellites, electronic mail, internet, cell phones, and computers. These new additions, unlike the other tools of mass media that work as transmission technologies transmitting information from one source to many receivers, are basically interactive; working more on the person to person formula. As the name suggests ‘mass media’ revolves around the masses-the people. Although cinema, radio, television, and press take centre stage in mass media; the role of books, magazines, posters, billboards, pamphlets cannot be discounted. The reach of these tools extends to enormous varied masses of the populace living across the spread of the country. Here in this debate, as a team we focused on the importance of the most up-to date means of communication, the internet and ıts application such as facebook, twitter, my space and counless number of social networking sites. In short SNSs. It would be in place to call these new means of technological media MASS DISTRACTION or DESTRUCTION for students instead of Mass Media. We do not exlude the......

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Mass Media

...Mass Media Messages and Effects Mass Media Messages and Effects When it comes to mass media, it is important to not only understand the different roles the media has in society but to also recognize with every message, there is an effect. The message that the media source is giving may have a negative or positive effect on an individual, a group of people or on society as a whole. Messages from mass media can and will have an effect also on their own organization and at times have had to certain repercussions when not following certain rules set that they must adhere to. In many situations, mass media uses what people consider an unethical approach to influence society. Due to the many laws that exist to protect society, the government has made sure to have an involvement on mass media to regulate what type of content can be released as well as protecting the rights of the people. The audience has an expectation with the messages that the media is providing to society. Society expects mass media to be honest and ethical which is how a media source can earn the respect of its audience, which will lead to a regular return by viewers. Because there is no set of rules that apply to the requirement of ethics in media, it is in the Medias best interest to consider the golden rule and the “do unto others” as this is something that people tend to expect from others. At many times, it may appear that mass media try to brain wash, persuade, or decide for society......

Words: 1407 - Pages: 6

Mass Media

...Media History Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.1.9 Issues with definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professions involving mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence and sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethical issues and criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 6 6 7 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 19 20 21 21 21 1.1.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.13 External links . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 146891 - Pages: 588

Mass Media

...Mass Media is a unit of different devices and media outlets that are used to spread information through mass communication. It is used to spread a variety of news, events, and things such as the weather or other topics. In this day and age not many people use a newspaper or magazine for their source of daily information, but rather a variety of digital Medias such as the internet, television, and their smart phones. Everything that is printed on paper can be easily accessed from the comfort of your home without having to leave the house and pay for the information. The effects of Mass Media on the public are that we now have access to a much easier way to communicate and get a message spread across the world. Some of the major developments of Media over the last century are: The newspaper and Magazine in the 1900’s, the Radio in the 1940’s, The Television in the 1950’s, Satellite TV in 1962, the Internet in 1969, and the first smart phone (IBM Simon) in 1992. All of these media outlets have played their own roles in society, and they still do to this day. All of the types of media that were mention are all still used to this day. So how exactly have these different types of media played a role in society? The Newspaper for starters, was one of the first types of media ever invented. It was different from a book, more efficient than word of mouth, and much unlike the other “newspapers” before it. It allowed people to find many different news stories and much more in one......

Words: 1025 - Pages: 5

The Mass Media

...The Mass Media The mass media, including Television, Video Games, Radio, Newspapers, Magazines, the Internet and Advertisements, have a great influence in shaping peoples thoughts and ideas, sometimes in a better way, but most of the time in a unconstructive way. The purpose of mass media is to entertain, inform and persuade information to a large group of people, and it can affect how we dress, what we buy and how our society functions. Even though there are a lot of positive influences in the media, in my eyes there is still way more negative influence. The media is affecting children, the youth and society in general. According to the studies by the Kaiser Family Foundation there was a 400% increase from 1976 to 1996 in sexual references. Not to mention all of the television shows that influence crime, drugs and drinking alcohol. If children learn by observing, imitating and making behaviors their own, then why are all of these negative influences on the mass media? People are trying to understand why the crime rate is so high in the youth population, maybe they should take a look at what they are watching on a day to day basis. Now day’s children have an extremely easy access to the media. Sometimes parents will even hand their children the remote, or buy them a new video game to act is if it were a babysitter. What people need to know is; children learn by observing, imitating and making behaviors their own, so all of the things they are......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Mass Media

...Mass media is media which is intended for a large audience. It may take the form of broadcast media, as in the case of television and radio, or print media, like newspapers and magazines. Internet media can also attain mass media status, and many mass media outlets maintain a web presence to take advantage of the ready availability of Internet in many regions of the world. Some people also refer to the mass media as the “mainstream media,” referencing the fact that it tends to stick to prominent stories which will be of interest to a general audience, sometimes ignoring controversial breaking news. Many people around the world rely on the mass media for news and entertainment, and globally, mass media is a huge industry. Usually, mass media aims to reach a very large market, such as the entire population of a country. By contrast, local media covers a much smaller population and area, focusing on regional news of interest, while specialty media is provided for particular demographic groups. Some local media outlets which cover state or provincial news may rise to prominence thanks to their investigative journalism, and to the clout that their particular regions have in national politics. The Guardian, formerly known as the Manchester Guardian, for example, is a nationally-respected paper in England which started as a regional daily. One of the biggest criticisms of the mass media is that it is too topical. When a media outlet is forced to cover national and international......

Words: 451 - Pages: 2

Shin Chou Kyou Ryo: Condor Hero English Subbed | GARO: Fang of God | Kimi ga Aruji de Shitsuji ga Ore de