Free Essay

Media Ethical Theories

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Harriscedd
Words 2039
Pages 9
Jour 575-Media Ethics and Social Issues
Theories for Mass Media

Team Projects
 







Teams and topics will be posted on 09/09 Each team will present and lead discussion for 30 minutes First team starts on 09/24 PowerPoint or pre-approved alternative for presentation and discussion Each Team Member must also submit



A five-page paper on the topic A confidential peer review of each other team member

Team Projects






Topic will usually be a Chapter/Case Study in the book Team is expected to go beyond what is in the book to provide additional information and analysis regarding the case study topic. Analyze case study in terms of major foundational ethical theories and major journalism ethical theories.

Authoritarian theory of the press:
The function of the press is to support the policies and actions of the state, and its authorities. The press should foster social solidarity and national unity. The state has the right to control the press for the overall public good. In many cases, controlling the press means preventing the press from embarrassing the existing government, to repress criticism and protest, and to severely restrict press freedom. The authoritarian view was prevalent in 17th century Europe where publishing came under the prerogative and censorship powers of the monarch and church. The authoritarian theory is embraced today by many leaders of non-democratic states.

Libertarian (or liberal) theory of the press:
The function of the press is to protect the people‟s liberties and rights, and to inform the public so they can participate as citizens in democratic self-government. The liberal theory prefers a privately owned news media that is maximally free to inform citizens and criticize public policy, as well as act as a watchdog on authorities. The right to publish and express oneself freely is not a prerogative of the state or a government. It is a fundamental right of free individuals. The liberal theory argues that a free marketplace of ideas, while it may cause harm over the short term, is the best safeguard in the long run for a free and liberal society.

The social responsibility theory:
The social responsibility theory: Four Theories describes social responsibility theory as a 20th century development and critique of libertarian theory. It attempts to balance the liberal stress on the freedom of the press. It argues that such freedoms of a powerful news media must be balanced by social responsibilities. Journalists have a duty to provide well-contextualized news in a comprehensive manner. They have a duty to provide a diverse forum of views and values. They have a duty to go beyond entertaining news consumers and to provide a core of in-depth analysis on the most serious issues.

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage One


Stage one: The invention of journalism ethics in the periodic news press of the 17th century, especially in London. The two traditions of factual news reporting and independent opinion-making begin here. Editors claim to adhere to such norms as impartiality, truthtelling, unbiased observation, credible informants, etc.

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage Two


Stage two: The “public” ethic: The development of the 18th century public sphere stimulated the growth of a more free and diverse press, including the first daily newspapers. The roles of journalist, news reporter and editor emerge. Journalists take on the persona of reporter, reformer, “polite” commentator and revolutionary. By the end of the century, the press is a “fourth estate,” a social force to be feared or praised. All forms of journalism justify their behaviour by appeal to their role as a “tribune” and protector of the public and its liberty.

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage Three


Stage three: The liberal theory of the press: The liberal theory is, strictly speaking, a 19th century phenomena, although it has long roots in the writings of Milton, Hume and other thinkers of the 17th and 18th centuries. It received its definitive defense in Mill‟s On Liberty.

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage Three
The liberal press was a creature of liberalism as a social movement of an ascendant middle class in England and other countries. Liberalism stressed liberty, a society organized around “merit” and knowledge, and wider political representation. Liberalism stressed a free marketplace in the world of ideas and in the economy. Social progress would come through education, social reform and a press that supported liberal ideas.

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage Three
Note: "Liberal press" is a misnomer. There were at least two types of liberal newspaper across the 19th century: the elite and egalitarian liberal newspapers. The English liberal press of the mid-1800s, such as the Times of London, exemplified the elite liberal newspaper. Its primary mission was that of serving the liberal elites, providing weighty opinion and educating the masses. The egalitarian liberal paper began as the cheap “penny” papers that began in the 1830s in major American cities and grew into a mass commercial press. This popular press depended on wide circulation and advertising. It had a brighter, more accessible style. Its mission was to provide “news for all” and to support a growing, egalitarian democracy.

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage Four
Stage four: Objectivity and the mass commercial press: By the end of the 1800s, the development of a professional “news” press gave birth to the doctrine of objectivity -- the ideal of the reporter as an independent, objective observer of events. This “traditional objectivity” became a strict methodology in newsrooms for eliminating opinion in the writing of news. By the 1930s, mainstream newspapers came to be defined in large part by an objectivity that was summarized by the mantra, “just the facts.”

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage Five
Stage Five: The return of interpretive journalism: Objectivity was challenged from the beginning by other forms of journalism -the muckrakers of the early 1900s, the interpretive journalism of Time magazine and the new tabloid papers. Also, from the 1960s onward, objectivity was challenged by the more personal form of broadcast news and by the popularity of investigative and literary journalism. By late century, the objective tradition was weakened further by the “civic journalism” movement and by on-line journalism. Journalism ethics in the 20th century was characterized not only by the dominance of objectivity, but also by its decline, and the return of a more interpretive journalism.

Ward‟s Alternate Theory: Stage Six
Stage six: Global journalism ethics in the 21st century: The major question of journalism ethics today is what type of ethics should develop in the 21st century. Will interpretive journalism, in the form of blogging or citizen-to-citizen communication, overwhelm the professional ethics of objectivity and verification developed by more traditional forms of journalism?

SAD Method


Fred Brown, a professor at the University of Denver gives his students a syllabus with the SAD method included. According to Prof. Brown, the SAD method is an acronym for Situation, Analysis, and Decision. By taking a situation and putting it through this formula, a reporter can be ready to face the critics and defend their decision.

TUFF
Professor John Merrill has a four-step approach to ethical journalism. His system is outlined by the acronym „TUFF‟. The T in the acronym says that journalism should be truthful. The U stands for unbiased journalism. The first F stands for „full‟, and the second F stands for fairness.

“Ethics of Care and Community”


The “Ethics of Care and Community” Journalistic approach to ethics is one of the lesser known ethical theories utilized by journalists today. As compared to other journalistic ethical philosophies, “Ethics of Care and Community” seems to be grounded more so in humanitarianism than teleological or deontological. This code of ethics requires that a journalist prioritize the formation of caring human relationships through their media work. Sticking to this philosophy, in theory, will help promote and foster more and better relationships amongst people, thus enhancing and strengthening the moral and social fabric of society.

Codes of Ethics


Society of Professional Journalists has a code of ethics which their website states is voluntarily used by thousands of journalists, regardless of place or platform, and is widely used in newsrooms and classrooms as a guide for ethical behavior for journalists. The code is meant as a guide to ethical journalism as it cannot be enforced by the constitution.

Codes of Ethics


The code states that journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information. The code goes on to state that journalists should: test the accuracy information from all sources, diligently seek out subjects of stories to give them the opportunity to respond to any allegations, identify sources, the public is entitled to as much information as possible on a sources‟ reliability, always question a sources‟ motives before promising anonymity, make sure headlines and etc don‟t misrepresent, never distort the content, avoid undercover means of gathering news except when traditional methods fail to yield information important to the public, never plagiarize, examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing those values on others, avoid stereotyping, support open exchange of views, give voice to the voiceless, distinguish news from advertising.

Codes of Ethics


The code continues to give examples of how to minimize harm, how to act independently (avoiding conflict of interests), and how to be accountable for themselves and to their readers and the public.



A journalist has a duty to the public to give as much news and important facts that are meaningful to the public through fair, objective, and open-minded journalism. A journalist should look at the public as a whole and decide what is best for the whole. I feel that this code of ethics well defines what it takes to be an ethical journalist.

Overby Formula


Fairness=accuracy+balance+completeness+detachment+ethics Dr. WickhamI would add diversity to the formula, as a specific component. Fundamentals of ethical journalism: * To get it right * To be fair * To tell the whole story

Potter‟s Box - Four Dimensions of Moral Analysis
Definition Loyalties


Values

↑ →
Principles

Potter‟s Box


Read pages 1-34 of the text for Wednesday.

Framing


Framing of stories—frames are sometimes as simple as metaphors. Sometimes as complex as analogies. They serve to make the unfamiliar more familiar—and to make the familiar a bit more exact; understood in different perspective. 1. Frames are what make facts make sense. Not just the issues of accuracy, interviewing, document searching, rather we also have to look at how we frame the facts in order to make sense of the world. (Conflicts/battles) 2. Frames set borders and boundaries. You decide what people, places, perceptions and hard facts to include and which to exclude. In a photo, a story, a headline. (Locations/timeliness) 3. Frames emphasize and de-emphasize. The way you frame a story puts some people or places or perceptions in the foreground and puts others in the background. (Location/proximity) 4. Frames create connections. Either as metaphors or analogies, they capture and convey information. (Human behavior)

Framing


5. Frames orient—create a mental model of how the world worlds. Some frames are pre-fabricated and resemble stereotypes. (SUV drivers, Ole Miss students) 6. Frames explain—and sometimes pre-ordain and sometimes, like skeletons, hold the pieces together. They create an understanding of the whole through an examination of the parts. (Reflex, not reflection) 7. Frames reflect—worldviews, belief systems, personal definitions of the truth, can be so persuasive and pervasive that everything you see through that frame. That makes it harder to consider other frames of refine existing frames. (Black and white view of the world). 8. Frames are efficient ways to sort information and to create stories. They connect newsrooms to the common understandings of our communities and the larger culture. They make facts meaningful. Frames create reality. Because they re constructed they not only can refract but they can also distort our view of reality to blind us to other areas. (Rote coverage, not examined reporting). 9. Every story has at least one frame, most have more than one frame, and they give stories meaning. But to be an ethical journalist: know your own frames, know how you have simplified the world, recognize when you need to reframe. Reframe well.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...Nine theories of ethics that rule the world 1. Consequentialism maintains that the majority of an action depends on the nonmoral consequences that the action brings about. Morality of an action consists of the ratio of good to evil that the action produces. We should perform right and only right action in terms of good and evil, as each individual defines good and evil, and right and wrong. There is no objective right and wrong or good and evil. The person defines these. You bump into a car at the mall. You could leave a note, but since there were no witnesses and the owner is not around, you decide not to because you recognize that the damage is low (probably only a couple of hundred dollars). The car owner probably has insurance, and it would be such a hassle for the owner to contact you and your insurance company. You may have to end up paying higher premium, the owner may think ill of you—all of which are nonmoral reasons that may be unpleasant for you. Ethical egoism state that you should always act so that your actions produce what is in your own best long-term interests. Personal egoism states that an individual should always act in his or her own best long-term interests, but that does not say how others should act. Impersonal egoism states that an individual should always act in his or her own best long-term interest. 2. Values Clarification (Philosophical Relativism) teaches that the most important aspect is not what one believes, but being aware......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...Ethical Theories In today’s society, especially in business the question of what is ethical is a dilemma that a great deal of individuals is faced with every day. Ethics vary from person to person and culture to culture. What is unethical in the United States of America may be completely ethical in China. Dictionary.com defines ethics as the moral principles that govern a person’s or a group’s behavior. There are many different theories of ethics, and which one a person chooses to live by, depends on which theorist the individual believes to be more in line with their own personal moral beliefs. When business ethics is discussed it is hard to speak about it without mentioning the name of Milton Friedman. Milton Friedman was an economist that theorized business ethics as monetarism. He is essentially responsible for promoting the economic growth of a company and the benefits to their shareholders. The primary goal and motivating force in business is to make a profit, and try to maintain efficiency while making a profit. Friedman’s theory is in correlation with the philosophy of corporate law. In corporate law the shareholders own the company, and they vote on the Board of Directors. The greatest duty is owed to the shareholders as owners of the business. Typically the Board of Directors makes the important decisions because they ensure the company is running efficiency while making a profit at the same time. Making a profit is the primary reason any company is in......

Words: 3336 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...RUNNING HEAD: Ethical Theories Ethical Theories and Practices Antoinette McIntosh ETH/316 September 24, 2012 University of Phoenix There are different types of ethical theories. Ethical theories help to find how a person should act towards another or in a situation. The various types of ethical theories helps people define what is right and what is wrong and how we make those assumptions. Although the three main theories of ethics have the same purpose they are different from one another. The virtue theory is the ethical theory also called character ethics is based on the moral of what is ethical. It is based on personal belief and feeling of character. It “describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior, rather than rules (Wikipedia, 2012). Virtue ethics is character based and focuses on helping people develop a better character trait. According to the text (2009), virtue ethics “take the viewpoint that in living your life you should try to cultivate excellence in all that you do and all that others do. These excellences or virtues are both moral and non-moral.” It deals with the moral character of a person rather than what is the more ethical thing to do or what society expects from them. Utilitarianism states that something is morally right if it is for the greater good of all. It is most often used in the United States government because of the principle of......

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...Ethical Theories Everyday people are faced with decisions that are made using ethical and moral values. There are various ethical theories that philosophers have proposed throughout the last two millennia and I will discuss one theory that I feel is closest to how I make my decisions of right and wrong. Some people use the words of the Bible to make those decisions while some use rationing and reasoning. Whichever ethical theory one uses, they are still making ethical decisions to determine right from wrong. The Kantianism Theory is based on the theories of German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804). Many of the moral laws that Kant speaks of can be found within the Bible but also allows the laws to be derived through the process of reasoning. Meaning that one that follows the Kantianism Theory can explain why an action is right or wrong instead of simply stating it is wrong because it is written within a chapter and verse. Kant believed that moral universal laws should guide people’s actions. For instance, if a friend is wearing an outfit that you believe is not appropriate and they ask your opinion of such outfit, you should tell them the truth because telling the truth is the right thing to do, regardless if the outcome is not what the friend wants to hear. He also believed that people should treat one another as an end and never as a means to an end. For instance, if I go to an interview with the intention of being employed by that company for a short......

Words: 861 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Theory

...University of Phoenix Material Student Name: ___ Facilitator: __ Ethical Theory Comparison of Ethical Theories Utilitarianism Ethics Deontological Ethics Virtue Ethics Definition “Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that holds that an action is right if it produces, or if it tends to produce, the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people affected by the action. Otherwise the action is wrong. According to utilitarianism, we should evaluate an action by looking at its consequences, weighing the good effects against the bad effects on all the people affected by it. If the good outweighs the bad, it tends to be a good action; if the bad outweighs the good, it tends to be a bad action” (DeGeorge, R. T. (2005). “The deontological approach to ethics denies the utilitarian claim that morality of an action depends on its consequences. Deontologists maintain that actions are morally right or wrong independent of their consequences. Moral rightness and wrongness are basic and ultimate moral terms. The deontological approach is not dependent on good and the production of, or the failure to produce, good. A person’s duty is to do what is morally right and to avoid what is morally wrong, regardless of the consequences. “Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach which emphasizes duties...

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...Ethical Theories Ethical theories can be best described as someone’s viewpoint on how you should base a decision. When I was young, decisions were made for me based on someone else’s beliefs of right and wrong. As I grew older and was still under my parents ruling, my decisions were influenced by family, their religion and society. Living on my own I started to base my decisions on my own life experiences, including my twenty years in the military. My thoughts and decisions are always changing in order to fit the situation. In order to try and understand the reasons why decisions are made, the ethical principles behind them must be explained. For that we need to start at the very basic, what is ethics? According to the article, “What is Ethics?” ethics refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. (2010,p6) Ethical principles are those standards of conduct which defines our behaviors. They are what drives our decisions and beliefs. They formulate in which ethical theory we fall the most under. According to “Business Ethics and Leadership”, there are 12 principles in relation to ethics. Honesty, integrity, promise-keeping, loyalty, fairness, caring-concern for others, respect for others, law abiding, commitment to excellence, leadership, reputation and morale, and accountability. (Josephson, 2010) Although these may be the principles, I......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

... Ethics Task 1 Ethical Theories For the task at hand we are to identify and describe the theories of Ethical and Psychological Egoism. First let us look at Ethical egoism, this theory is based on the idea that each individual should do what is entirely in his or her self-interest. A description of this type of egoism is, if you are doing things that are only in your best interest to do, you have achieved morality. Secondly we have the theory of Psychological Egoism a theory that is based on the idea that each person has but one ultimate aim, their own welfare (Christman, 2002, pg 29). This view is defined as human nature, holding to the belief that all human behavior is motivated by self-interest. This theory results from evaluating the human condition and all of it associated quirks, and can only be accepted as truth if there are no exceptions. Psychological egoism makes no claim as to how one should act because it is not an ethical choice. It also states that people will always seek their own self-interest and that if taken in that context will always be true. The fallacy of the Psychological Egoism theory is that it is irrefutable (Rachels, 2007, p. 73) meaning once an example is given and accepted; that data can be provided and interpreted to support it. The whole idea appears to be overly simple and all inclusive which in itself draws some scrutiny to it. The basic premise of the theory states that people are always motivated by their own......

Words: 927 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Media

...How Ethical is the Media? In today’s day in age media has become such an important part of many people’s lives, this is because of how quickly one can become up to date on the issues of the day. The media is not only used to inform individuals of devastating or serious events; the media has become a source for anything that interests the nation’s and/or world’s population. The news can be anything from entertainment to sports or politics to environmentalism, there is really no subject that cannot be discussed now and days. A big issue with today’s media world is an ethical one, many of us ask ourselves, “Does the media go a little too far at times?” Now and days it seems like no subject is too risqué to touch up on, but should there be a line which should not be crossed? Are there some ethical perspectives that are being set aside? How far will the media go in order to keep people informed? The media keeps us informed of everything that is going on in the world around us which aids the public into being prepared when any serious event takes or will take place. Media is an extremely competitive field because all the networks want to be the first to present the news to the public. The main responsibilities the media has are to be the representative of society in order to best inform the people, to help the different fragments of society come together by providing them with a source of communication no matter the rift that differentiates them from each other, and...

Words: 1089 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...Ethical Theories Virtues, ethics, and morals are what define people as good or bad, their actions as right or wrong. American society holds one’s virtues in high regard and often evaluates one based on virtue and moral conduct. Virtue by definition is, “the quality or practice of moral excellence or righteousness” (Collins English Dictionary, 2010). Thomas Mallory offered the most ethical character in fiction, Lancelot. It is his virtue that “Is an essential aspect of his success in arms” (McCarthy, 1988, p. 22). Virtue ethics and ethical relativism, studied by learned philosophers, help define the basis of right and wrong. Major Elements According to Aristotle, morality is a specific attribute of a person with regard to his or her own inner harmony. Aristotle explained moral attributes in the terms of one’s lucid ability of the inner self to manage its appetite for portion. He asserted that moral attributes are erudite and should be practiced to become habit (Athanassoulis, 2010, para 2). According to the textbook, “virtue is a state of character, that of being a good person” (Freeman, 2000, p. 88). Moral theories concern right and wrong behaviors; but virtue ethics change the kind of questions asked about ethics. Major elements in the theory of virtue ethics are the subjective behavior, qualities and habits that can lead the individual to make choices. This theory helps the individual to ask about right and wrong and how genuine fulfillment may be reached......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Media Theory

...MEDIA UND GSELLSCHAFT(media and society) 1) Imagined Community Benedict Andersen (politcal scientist) Without papers there is no such a scene. Nation is a community. Propaganda People who living big citi -monopolisierung -kanalisierung Most famaous propaganda poster comes from Russian Revoluation America kriegspropaganda Kalten Krieg 2)theory of propaganda a)selective perception and selection retention b)die meinungen der gruppe,zu der der empfanger gehört c)interpersnoal dissemination des kommunikationsinhaltes d)you have to convince important people opinio-formers kausalitat zwischen Konsum von Massenmedien und konkretem sozialem Verhalten ist kaum nachwiesbar. Bestenfalls können Korrelationen bewiesen werden, aber nicht Kausalitat. 3)culmination Theory George Gerbner (Media theoretiker) Mean world syndrome. People who watch a lot of tv have this syndrome. Law and Order Status Quo We can prove there is a mean world syndorme.people with this syndrome are convinced world is a bad place also they are convinced vice versa because police always wins. 8)Medieninhalt als ‘Text’ Marxisten, Strukturalisten und post-strukturalisten Roland Barthes Michel Foucault Jaques Derrida Slavoj Zizek Text is important 9) Der kulturelle Kode(key concept!) Symbols we learn and we use it culture. it helps us to communicate it can be anything. Sign, book... different culture -> different code. 10)Mytos Roland Barhes Cultural code are products of......

Words: 1275 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...There are a lot of things we have learned in this course from ethical theories to moral reasoning and I think what we have learned in these last five weeks will help and should help us in a decision making process in the future. Virtue Ethics says that a person should make a decision on behalf of them rather than their culture or laws, as long as they are a good person, it is a good decision. It is person based rather than cultural. Virtue, practical wisdom and eudemonia, are the three main concepts that virtue ethics’ enforces. Aristotle and Plato are virtue ethics principle ethicists. Utilitarianism’s principal concepts are: egalitarianism, hedonism, consequentialism. This ethical system is based on a perception that a choice is moral when it has a result that is more positive for people. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-73) who was actually one of Bentham’s students, are, ethicist’s involved in developing utilitarianism. Social contact is that the persons’ moral or obligations are dependent on a contract or agreement. To be polite, not cheat or lie to one another in marriage, which marriage is like a contract. The ethicists that were involved in this were Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Individual relativism says that is not a universal standard. “All values are subjective because they are based upon the personal preferences that express one’s own self-interest” (Argosy, 2015). What you says goes basically, what you think is......

Words: 1154 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethical Theory

...Applying an Ethical Theory Moral or Ethical dilemmas are an everyday occurrence in our society. The situations present two options as solutions from which one is expected to choose. There is an expectation though that one will choose the option that is considered moral. Ethical questions or problems face every human being at some point in life. One such moral question is; “is it right for women to have abortions”. Abortion has been a major cause of controversy all around the world, with people having different views on whether abortion is good or bad based on their moral beliefs. The main issue that surrounds this ethical dilemma is whether the fetus should have rights to life. Another issue is whether there is justification for a woman to perform abortion based on the rights to her body considering the fetus also has rights to life (Tännsjö, 2008). The deontological theory is not in support of abortion; the objection though, is that women also have rights over their bodies. Discussion Deontological ethics is a moral theory that is in line with common sense intuitions, the scriptures, and natural moral duties or rules. The theory mainly focuses on compliance with moral duties or rules. The main principles of the theory include a task should be carried out for the sake of the obligation. For instance, there is a duty not to do certain things such as murder, lie or break promises since these acts are considered to be wrong. The expected consequences define what the duty is...

Words: 891 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...2. Ethical Theories used to justify Anglo-American’s Obligation to the ethical issue in Chilean Mines 2.1 Virtue Ethics: In virtue ethical theory, an individual is judged by his character rather than by his actions that may deviate from his normal behavior (Fraedrich, Ferrel and Ferrel, 2009). In Chile’s case, application of virtue ethics justifies the following mishaps: Fairness: With Research gathered from the case study, contract workers are assigned much more dangerous tasks with great risks of injury towards their health i.e. the company uses these workers for a certain period of time and do away with them once younger stronger workers become available while protecting their full time staff with easier tasks and extra benefits (Chatterjee, 2014). Compassion: Researchers’ report have shown that unfair labour practices at the mines such as long working hours, dismissal threats etc. These has caused destruction of family ties and negative social attention of miners in the society, Therefore lack of compassion from the employers was exhibited (Chatterjee, 2014). Integrity: The Chileans mines have polluted the dams used for water supply therefore contaminating the water in the community. Although Supreme Court has ordered for the removal of the mines yet the company is yet to comply by the rules, thus endangering the environment and its residents (Aljazeera, 2015). Moreover its expansion to Brazilian amazon encouraged the Brazilian government for improvement in the......

Words: 920 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...Ethical Theories Matthew James Ditolla ETH/316 October 12, 2015 Kevin Barker Ethical Theories How does an individual determine what is right, wrong, ethical, or unethical? Throughout history, people have created various theories to help others answer that question. Virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontology are examples of ethical concepts. Through personal experiences, and an in-depth look and comparison of the various ethical theories, one gains a greater understanding of them all. Virtue Theory Virtue theory is an approach to ethics that emphasizes an individual's character as the prominent element in making ethical decisions. Dissimilar to the other two types of ethics, virtue ethics focuses on what kind of people we should be. Virtue theorists believe that everyone is born with their set of character traits and that each of us should foster those traits as we grow older. For example, a student in one of my previous cohorts plagiarized a large portion of his assignment and was caught. I knew the student very well, and as a result, I was able to judge the students character when deciding whether or not he intentionally plagiarized. This student usually produced excellent work, and perhaps the student had a family emergency or a late night and forgot to cite his sources properly. In this scenario, I was able to apply virtue ethics and be lenient on my peer. One weakness in virtue ethics is that it does not take an individual's......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethical Theories

...Assess Students’ Knowledge and Application of Ethical Theories? EB EP Copyright Gregory B. Sadler, 2011 What Do You Need to Know To Assess Students’ Knowledge and Application?  You need basic understanding of each ethical theory  You need to know what to look for in student responses  You don’t need to be in agreement with any of these ethical theories  You don’t need to know whether these theories are ultimately correct or not  You don’t need to be concerned with other “big picture” issues, e.g. the origin of ethics EB EP Copyright Gregory B. Sadler, 2011 What We Are Going To Cover  Five Ethical (families of) Theories  Each articulates a particular perspective on good and bad, right and wrong  Basic Principles / Key Terminology  Important Variations in that family  What to look for in student responses  Knowledge of theory  Application of theory EB EP Copyright Gregory B. Sadler, 2011 Five Theories  Egoism  the self and its needs  Utilitarianism  overall pleasure and pain for all concerned  Deontology  duty  Care Ethics  relationships, vulnerability, and empathy  Virtue Ethics  character EB EP Copyright Gregory B. Sadler, 2011 Three important points  These are not the only Ethical Theories out there  These are among those most frequently discussed in Business Ethics literature  A number of other Ethical Theories which are not the same as these, or......

Words: 2008 - Pages: 9

Elsword: El Lady | Inazuma Eleven GO 2: Chrono Stone | Flesopener Bedankjes