Mendelian Genetics, Scientific Paper

In: Science

Submitted By jessb2212
Words 3273
Pages 14
Examining Mendel’s “First Law”: Observing Anthocyanin in Brassica rapa


The foundation of genetics lies with the principles that Gregor Mendel outlined after his experiments with pea plants where he discovered the relationship between physical characteristics, or phenotype, and genetic traits, or genotype. This experiment aimed to reproduce Mendel’s results with the Brassica rapa plant, noted for it’s fast generation time, and anthocyanin, a purple pigment that can be visually tracked through subsequent generations. It is important for experiments resulting in scientific discovery to be replicable and peer reviewed. Since Mendelian genetics are the foundation of scientific education, including answering questions about evolution and heredity of beneficial or fatal genes, his experiment is a valid and important choice. The hypothesis was that the presence of anthocyanin in Brassica rapa follows Mendel’s laws. By germinating the P1 generation and creating the F1 and F2 generations through pollination the hypothesis was tested. The experimental hypothesis was accepted with ------ error and the null hypothesis that these results were due to chance was rejected.


A phenotype provides a clear visual cue for examining the inheritance pattern of genotypes and whether or not these patterns follow Mendelian genetic principles. Gregor Mendel is someone who is often referred to as the “father of genetics,” and discovered important theory pertaining to heredity. He did this by studying traits of pea plants in the garden of a monastery and found two main observations to be supported by the collected data from his experiments about the inheritance of traits in pea plants. As a result of Mendel’s experiments with pea plants, he developed two observations, which together comprise Mendelian genetics. The first observation is The Law of Segregation,…...

Similar Documents

What Makes a Paper Scientific

...opinion, makes a statement scientific? A scientific statement provides an explanation of a natural phenomenon through the use of objective observation and disciplined experimentation. First, scientific statements provide knowledge of the wide range of physical and natural aspects of the universe. Each of the different fields of the sciences gives us unique insights into a branch of scientific knowledge. Second, this knowledge is conveyed in theories backed by physical evidence obtained through observation and experimentation. Observation and experimentation are essential components of the scientific method because they result in valid and reliable scientific statements. All the different fields of the sciences form scientific statements which deepen our understanding of the universe. For example, biology which is one of the major branches of science focuses on the science of life and living organisms. Chemistry is the branch of science concerned with the composition of substances, their properties, and their reactions. Physics is yet another branch of science which deals with both matter and energy and their interactions. Therefore, scientific statements cover a wide range of subjects which revolve around the mechanics of the natural world. The high validity and reliability of scientific statements depend on the observations and experimentations performed as part of the scientific method. Scientists develop theories using well-organized scientific procedures which......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Mendelian Inheritance of Ptc Tasting in Humans

...MENDELIAN INHERITANCE OF PTC TASTING IN HUMANS ABSTRACT This experiment investigated Mendelian inheritance patterns of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) tasting in humans. The results were in the expected monohybrid rations of 3 taster: 1 non-taster phenotypes respectively. This supported the hypothesis that the traits were controlled by one gene with two alleles, where T is dominant to t. INTRODUCTION Mendel’s Law of Segregation – that two copies of a character (gene) segregate from each other during the formation of gametes, is apparent in the inheritance of PTC tasting in humans (Begg, 1959). The PTC sensory variation was first discovered in the early 1930s by A.L. Fox, which subsequently led to much research. It was reported not long after that PTC tasting is controlled by one gene with two alleles, and that inheritance of these traits is that of Mendel’s monohybrid ration of 3:1. However, there is evidence to suggest transmission of PTC tasting is more complex than this (Kim & Drayna, 2005). The presence of the dominant allele T determines wether or not an individual can taste PTC. A monohybrid cross of two heterozygotes results in three possible genotypes – TT, Tt, and tt, the only non-taster phenotype being tt (Schull, 1948). This study investigated inheritance of PTC tasting in humans to determine wether or not taster and non-taster phenotypes fell into the expected Mendelian ration. It was hypothesised that there would be a ratio of 3 taster: 1 non-taster......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Scientific Paper

...nation's development in various fields. The cause of the low quality of education in Indonesia among others is a matter of effectiveness, efficiency and standardization of teaching. Those still become problem of education in Indonesia in general. The specific problems in education there are Poor infrastructure, the low quality of teachers, the low well-being of teachers, the low student achievement, the low educational equity opportunities, and the high cost of education. 1.2 Problem After having the background above, I formulate the problem into : 1. What are problems of education in Indonesia ? 2. What are impacts of education problems in Indonesia ? 1.3 Objective Having problems above, the objectives of the paper are: 1. To state the problems of education in Indonesia. 2. To state the impacts of education problems in Indonesia. II. DISCUSSION 3.1. The Poor of Education Although Indonesia is famous for its diverse cultural and natural wealth of the results does not preclude the possibility for advancement in education on the basis of state revenue, but does not fully guarantee the quality of an education. According to World Bank Repport (2004) and studies of the IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement), in East Asia shows that the reading skills of fourth grade students in Indonesia is ranked lowest. The average score reading tests for elementry students: 75.5 (Hong Kong), 74.0......

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6

Ap Biology Response to Scientific Paper

...respected scientific magazine. Science is always backed up by details, data, and citations from where they came from. I saw a lot of data and details, however no citation. An article based solely on opinion can go without citation, but only until real facts and statistics come into play. There were a lot of ‘international teams of researchers’, but no names. Monsanto should be one of the names listed. The article gave off a sneaky feel to it because of the fact that there were no names or places to look up the information you did not want the reader to be aware of. So, with that in mind, it would make sense why you would not put the name Monsanto in your article because they are building up a very bad reputation. By taking away the name and not providing any information to allow someone to look further into the specific example, you have forced the reader into one belief. Which you stated was one of the reasons that made all these anti-GMO groups putting labels stating nutritional information the makers of a bad idea, insinuating that they are bad. As a reader of Scientific American magazine, I was surprised to see this article written with hypocritical statements and no names, making me believe that the writers did not want their names on the commentary. It was a very controversial topic, and writing an opinion-based article is understandable. However, the fact that there is missing information throughout the piece really takes away from the respect given to a......

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Paper on Scientific Body of Knowledge

...THEORY: Theory is a set of underlying principles is essential explaination of the causal relationship among phenomena under study. RESEARCH: Reasearch is a systametic & objective attempt to study a problem for the purpose of deriving general principles. SCIENTIFIC BODY OF KNOWLEDGE: A concept of scientific theory as a set of ideas useful for for the purposes of science has been developed.There are strategies to develop a scientific body of knowledge.Strategies are developed by Bacon.Bacon’s strategies are- * Research than Theory * Theory than Research RESEARCH THAN THEORY: * Selecting & listing of characteristics of a phenomenon * Measuring characteristics in a variety of situations * Analyze the resulting data create further attention * Formation of the pattern as theoretical statements CONDITIONS OT BE EFFICIENT STRATEGY: * Relatively small number of variables to measure during data collection * Only a few significant patterns to be found in the data DRAWBACKS: Baconian strategy appears to have two major drawbacks- * Two conditions are not enough to meet based on present knowledge of social phenomena because of- * Infinity of variables * Causal relationship influencing most variables * Statistical test of significance among a large number of variables & too many potential relationships lose such of their value to give all of them serious consideration THEORY THAN RESEARCH: Theory than research has been...

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Mendelian Inheritance

...Bio 405 Genetics Mendelian Inheritance This video is talking about the Mendelian genetics. This videos starts off by telling us the meaning of both genetics and heredity. Genetics can be used in many different subjects such as zoology, molecular biology, microbiology and topics dealing life as examples. It then goes on to discuss the father of genetics which is Gregor Mendel who was and Austrian monk that grew up with a family of religious beliefs. Throughout his life Gregor was interested in botany and mathematics. He is known as one of the first scientist applied mathematics to his science research. There was two viewpoints of heredity which where blending and particulate hypothesis. The blending hypothesis didn’t work when the father of evolution, Charles Darwin did not have enough evidence. The particulate hypothesis was then discovered by Gregor Mendel. This video also breaks down the meaning of genes and traits. You have different characteristics for genes and traits such a height, weight, and appearance. It then goes to tell us about the advantages Mendel had with us pea plants in his study. From the hybridization experiments, he induced two generalizations which later became known as Mendel's Principles of Heredity or Mendelian inheritance. The speaker of this video also proceeds to talk about alleles, which are known as variation of different genes. Most alleles are represented as the dominant trait. Mendel’s Principle of Dominance says that the......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Genetics Paper

...Suemin Chi November 30th, 2013 The Genetics Disease: Galactosemia There are many genetic diseases out there today, but one that caught my attention was Galactosemia. Galactosemia is a genetic disorder that affects how the body processes the simple sugar, galactose. There are three types of Galactosemia; Classic Galactosemia, Galactosemia Type II, and Galactosemia Type III. All three types are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern but the most common is the classic Galactosemia. According to the Genetics Home Reference, it states, “Classic Galactosemia occurs in 1 in 30,000 to 60,000 newborns, Galactosemia type II and type III are less common; type II probably affects fewer than 1 in 100,000 newborns and type III appears to be very rare.” This disorder is rare but if affected with it, can show symptoms that range from mild to very severe if not controlled. Those who are affected with classic galactosemia lack the enzyme Galactose 1-phosphate; (GALT), galactosemia type II has a mutation in the GALKI gene and in type III, the GALE gene. Galactose is one of the products formed from lactose when absorbed into the body. In an unaffected person, GALT will bind to galactose, which later converts to glucose and then used for energy. In an affected person, there is no GALT, so the build up of galactose will cause toxic affects on the organs. This is a very dangerous disorder one can have, but it is especially dangerous to newborns because they will not be able to drink any...

Words: 1528 - Pages: 7

Phl 458- Scientific Discovery Paper (Pencillin)

...Running head: SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY PAPER Scientific Discovery Paper On Penicillin Tracey Ann Elledge University of Phoenix, Las Vegas NV Creative Minds and Critical Thinking PHL 458 Cornell Horn, M.A.; M.A. December 01, 2009 Scientific Discovery Paper Penicillin is an antibiotic that destroys bacteria by destroying the cell wall of the microorganism. It does this by inactivating an enzyme necessary for the cross linking of bacterial cell walls. The enzyme is known as the Tran peptidase. It accepts the penicillin as a substrate, it the alkanolates a nucleophilic oxygen of the enzyme, rendering it inactive. Cell wall construction stops and the bacteria soon die. The antibiotic nature of the penicillin so due to the strain lactam ring, on opening the ring strain is relieved this makes penicillin more reactive than ordinary amides. Before penicillin a simple pinprick or tiny cut could have been lethal. There are so many people easily catching infections that would rage out of control. Children died regularly from scarlet fever, from infections of the bones, throat, stomach or, brain. Many of us would not be here today had it not been for the discovery of penicillin. In 1928, Alexander Fleming made a chance discovery from an already discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold that had contaminated the experiment turned out to contain powerful antibiotic, penicillin. However, though Fleming was credited with the discovery, it was over a......

Words: 1546 - Pages: 7

Mendelian Genetics

...MENDELIAN GENETICS DEFINITION OF TERMS * Genetics – the study of heredity and variation * Heredity – the transmission of traits from one generation to another, from parents to offspring; the protoplasmic continuity between parents and offspring * Variation – any difference existing between individuals of the same species * Chromosome – rod-shaped body in the nucleus of eukaryotes and prokaryotes that contains the hereditary units or genes seen particularly during cell division * Gene – the unit or heredity occupying a particular location on the chromosome and passed on to offspring * Locus – the location of a gene on a chromosome * Diploid – the 2N number of chromosomes; twice the number of chromosomes found in gametes * Haploid – the N number of chromosomes; half the diploid number; the number characteristic of gametes that contain only one set of chromosomes * F1 generation – first filial generation; the first-generation offspring of a genetic cross that has at least two generation * F2 generation – second filial generation; the second-generation offspring of a genetic cross * Homozygous – a pair of similar of like genes for any one character * Heterozygous – a pair of contrasting traits of two kinds of genes * Genotype – the particular genes of an individual that determine a specific trait * Phenotype – the outward appearance of an organism, caused by genetic and environmental influences * Allele......

Words: 3129 - Pages: 13

Scientific Method and Steps in Scientific Inquiry Paper

...Scientific Method and Steps in Scientific Inquiry Paper Monique Reed BSHS/435 February 22, 2015 Dora Baker Scientific Method and Steps in Scientific Inquiry Paper In this paper in will provide details on how scientific methods can be used in the Human services. Explaining the steps of scientific methods, and how it serves as an important key to Human services professionals. Each steps will be included on how they are define and what purpose it serves will scientific methods are applied. Human services professionals use the scientific methods to gain information on the client as well as how to approach the clients issues. Also researching other resources to meet the needs of the client to ensure the client is receiving accurate help. Scientific Method Scientific method is a method that used to research and study that involves investigation and evaluation of present or future problems. Scientific method helps with produce the right answers to questions that cannot be answered with common sense alone. Researchers can use scientific methods to exploit all the facts, evidence, opinions, and records to find the right plan. As a Human service professional using scientific method can help with identifying the solution of the client’s problem and finding a resolution to ensure it will help to rebuild the client’s life. No matter field an individual is in when it concerns Human services, research will always be needed to ensure self-thoughts, bias, and ones on solution is......

Words: 1047 - Pages: 5

Scientific Paper

...Science Daily Using Less Water to Grow More Potatoes ScienceDaily (Sep. 1, 2011) — Research conducted in part at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has confirmed that in some production systems, planting potatoes in flat beds can increase irrigation water use efficiency. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) agricultural engineer Bradley King, who works at the ARS Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory in Kimberly, Idaho, was one of the scientists who led these studies. ARS is USDA's chief intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA commitment to enhancing sustainable agriculture. When potato production started in Idaho more than 100 years ago, farmers seeded their crops in ridged rows and watered their plants by channeling surface irrigation to flow through the furrows between the rows. Even though most commercial potato producers in the Pacific Northwest now irrigate their crops with sprinklers, they still typically use ridged-row planting systems. But this planting configuration allows irrigation runoff to collect in the furrow and percolate below the crop root zone. This means that the water is unavailable to the crops, and can also lead to increased nitrate leaching from the soil. King and his partners conducted a series of studies on planting potatoes in flat beds instead of ridged rows. One two-year study compared ridge-row planting systems, a 5-row planting configuration on a raised bed where the plant rows were......

Words: 3777 - Pages: 16

Scientific Research Paper

...Sample Scientific Research Paper Just as animals around the world have evolved to better survive in their environments, botanical life everywhere has also been forced to grow and adapt to their habitats. Every plant—from the smallest strain of seaweed to the tallest redwood—is the result of billions of years of competition for optimal growth conditions. In many places with harsh conditions or where there is a very large population of plants competing for limited resources, some plants have developed amazing ways of surviving. Some are poisonous to prevent animals from killing and eating them, while others have become carnivorous, eating and digesting insects to make up for a lack of nitrogen that most plants would absorb through soil. The greatest example of plant adaptation, however, is found in a unique succulent, more commonly known as the cactus. The majority of cacti are made up of four simple parts: the stem, the needles, the flowers, and, like all plants, the root system. The stem of a cactus acts as the plant's water storage system. Once water is drawn in through the roots, it can be stored in the stem for long periods of time, allowing the cactus to live through the long periods of drought and intense heat for which deserts are so well known. While most plants absorb sunlight and photosynthesize through their leaves throughout the day, for most succulents, these vital processes are also performed by the bulky stem. All plants have stomata, or......

Words: 1562 - Pages: 7

Scientific Method and Steps in Scientific Inquiry Paper

...Scientific method and steps in scientific inquiry paper BSHS 435 Mary Evitt January 11 2016 Introduction In this essay, I will define the scientific method, and how it relates to the human service research process. I will explain what the steps are in the scientific method of inquiry or research process, and why must each of the steps being included to support the scientific method. I will discuss how the scientific research method was applied in the article that I chose to complete my research on. I will summarize how scientifically profound research meaning referring to scientific method supports the function of human service manager. Scientific method When defining the scientific method and how it relates the human service research process, when using the scientific method in research you are gathering answers that you do not know about the subject. Using the scientific method is the best way to discover the truth from lies and disillusion. As a human service professional you will work with many clients that will come to you with many different problems wanting your guidance, using the Scientific method you will help guide your clients in the right direction and find the right solution to their problem. The steps in the scientific method There are six steps in the scientific method to help researchers “identifying a problem that defines the goal of research, make a prediction that, if confirmed, resolves the problem, gather data relevant to this......

Words: 1026 - Pages: 5

Scientific Paper on Diffusion

...ARTICLE IN PRESS Journal of Econometrics ] (]]]]) ]]]–]]] Modeling the diffusion of scientific publications Dennis Fok, Philip Hans Fransesà Econometric Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, NL-3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands Abstract This paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and features of the articles. More specifically, parameters measuring citations’ ceiling and the timing of peak citations are correlated with specific features of the articles like the number of pages and the number of authors. Our approach amounts to a multi-level non-linear regression for a panel of time series. We illustrate our model for citations to articles that were published in Econometrica and the Journal of Econometrics. Amongst other things, we find that more references lead to more citations and that for the Journal of Econometrics peak citations of more recent articles tend to occur later. r 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. JEL classification: C33; M21 Keywords: Diffusion of innovations; Multi-level regression 1. Introduction Citations to scientific publications like journal articles often show characteristics that bear similarities with the diffusion of a new product. Shortly after......

Words: 8068 - Pages: 33

Application of Biostatistics in Medical Genetics

...APPLICATION OF STATISTICS IN MEDICAL GENETICS INTRODUCTION "Significance" has a very particular meaning in biology thanks to statistics. How does this term prove an experiment's results are worth special attention? Once one has performed an experiment, how can one tell if the results are significant? For example, say if we are performing a genetic cross in which we know the genotypes of the parents. In this situation, we might hypothesize that the cross will result in a certain ratio of phenotypes in the offspring. But what if our observed results do not exactly match our expectations? How can we tell whether this deviation was due to chance? The key to answering these questions is the use of statistics, which allows us, geneticists, to determine whether our data are consistent with our hypothesis. Statistics and Human Genetics are twin subjects, having grown with the century together, and there are many connections between the two. Some fundamental aspects in particular the concept of Analysis of Variance, first arose in Human Genetics, while statistical and probabilistic methods are now central to many aspects of analysis of questions is human genetics. The most common areas where one can find an extensive applications of statistical methods in human genetics is * Human Genome Project * Linkage Analysis * Sequencing STATISTICAL GENETICS Statistical Genetics involves the identification of genetic variation to help us understand why certain people......

Words: 3309 - Pages: 14

Pearl Harbor | Power Rangers Megaforce (45) | A description of slavery in the many books of peter kolchin