Microbiology Exam 3

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Submitted By amberelaine21
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Microbiology Exam 3
Amber E. Baity
Excelsior College

1.Blood isolated from an emergency room patient contains antibodies against the measles virus. Please explain whether or not the patient should be quarantined immediately because they are infected with the measles virus and why? What are the other plausible explanations for anti-measles antibodies in the patient’s blood?
Though this could appear a critical situation, this patient does not need to be quarantined, as we do not know if the antibodies present in his body are from a current infection or due to a vaccination. Measles and mumps antibodies are virus-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection by the measles or mumps virus, or in response to vaccination. There are two types of antibodies produced, IgM and IgG. The first type to appear in the blood after exposure or vaccination is IgM antibodies. Levels of IgM antibodies increase for several days to a maximum concentration and then begin to taper off over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a bit longer to appear, but once they do, they stay in the bloodstream for life, providing protection against re-infection.
When measles or mumps IgG antibody is present in a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill, then that person is protected against infection (immune). If a person does not have measles or mumps IgG antibodies, then they are not considered immune to the viruses. This may be because they have not been exposed to the viruses, because the IgG has not had time to be produced, or because the person does not have a normal antibody response.
2. Describe how the clonal expansion theory explains the more rapid production of antigen specific antibodies, Helper T-cells and Cytotoxic T-cells, during a secondary infection.
The clonal expansion theory, for which there is much evidence, suggests that…...

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