Natural Hazardous

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Broadly, hydrogen selection membranes (based on the materials used) can be categorized into four types: (i) polymer (organic), (ii) metallic, (iii) carbon, and (iv) ceramic.8 The latter three are called inorganic membranes. Inorganic membranes can be classified into two groups from the viewpoint of the raw material-metal membranes and ceramic membranes.21 Also, it could be divided into porous (meso- and microporous) and nonporous (dense) membranes.25 Dense inorganic membranes are typically made of a polycrystalline ceramic or metal. The table below illustrates some of the most important factors in membrane properties.
Table 15 provides a comparison of the classes of the H2 separation membrane materials presented throughout this review. When this information is compared against the 2015 targets, we quickly see that each individual class has its own distinct advantages and disadvantages

While polymer-based membranes are arguably the cheapest and easiest processed of the materials, they are less thermally robust and lack sufficient selectivity and flux capacities.

Dense type polymer membranes can be divided into glassy and rubbery polymeric membranes. The former have higher selectivity and lower flux, whereas the latter have higher flux but lower selectivity.19 According to Kluiters,19 operating temperatures for polymer membranes are _100 °C. Several key advantages are that they possess the ability to cope with high-pressure drops and low cost. However, limited mechanical strength, relatively high sensitivity to swelling and compaction, and susceptibility to certain chemicals such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur oxides (SOx), and CO2 make polymeric membranes less attractive.

Though carbon-based membranes show much promise in the area of light gas separations, they stillpossess problems that influence their introduction to market. First,…...

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