Premium Essay

Ottoman Empire

In: Historical Events

Submitted By strykex
Words 767
Pages 4
What were the military successes of the Ottoman-Turk?
In creating a third (non-Arab) Islamic Empire

Modern Middle East

31 May 2012

Introduction
The Ottoman success was largely due to the more advanced weaponry systems they had, because of the better equipment they had improved their battlefield success greatly. The Ottomans ruled a large area and let non-Muslims practiced their own religions long as they paid their taxes and obeyed the law.

Summary
The Ottoman Empire was a success because the military is made up of two distinct groups, the kapti kallari forces and the locals. The ghazis, which were the Turkish warriors, were largely responsible for the conquest of Anatolia. The first twelve sultans enjoyed long reigns, this was necessary because instability at the top is sure to force decline in any empire.

Body One of the reasons was because of nationalism and a notion that a state and ethnic nation are very similar; early on the Ottoman Empire was defined by his ruler, by its faith, as well as its military, all acting in sync. The empire emerged from a number of Turkey smaller states in Anatolia that was left behind from the devastating Mongol Victory at Kose Dagh (1243) over the Sultanate, Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66). The reign of this great king represented the acme of Ottoman power. This was one of the finest states in the Western World, a universal empire unmatched in size, wealth and military power. Obviously, other explanations about the rise of the Ottomans are in some ways connected to the fall of the Byzantine Empire. The Turkish nomads shared kinship and beliefs where a positive factor in Ottoman history. They provided a steady source of highly trained military manpower. The advance of the Mongols actually helped provide the people needed to make the Turks the ethnic masters of Anatolia, rather than…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Fall of the Ottoman Empire & Its Impact on the Middle East

...by the empires, and the conclusion of the war resulted in the destruction of the empires, particularly the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary Empire. The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire allowed many Middle East countries to be self-governed, while the West such as Great Britain and France had more interest in Europe than in the Middle East enabled the former to play a dominant role of colonization in the region. This seeded confrontation between two different civilizations, resulting in chaos later and to a large extent helping shape the Middle East in today's world. This paper attempts to examine this history arguing how the Ottoman Empire declined and eventually dissolved at the end of WWI. It shows that the internal problems of the Empire, such as its backward political and economic system, failed to compete with the increasing influence of the Western European countries, whose government was more efficient and more industrialized than the former, in the Middle East. The paper starts with a discussion of the contemporary situation in the Empire, and then deals with the problems that led to the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the European powers over the Middle East during WWI. It finally analyzes how the defeat of the Ottomans and the increasing British and French dominance in the Middle East laid the ground for today's conflicts in the region between the Arabic states and the Jewish nation, which is supported by the West. Since 1600s the Ottoman Empire......

Words: 3818 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Ottoman Turk

...From Here    | |   Wednesday, March 7, 2012 Research Paper on Ottoman Empire Research Paper on Ottoman Empire The Age of Reforms - Ottoman Empire The Ottomans first appeared on the historical arena at the end of the thirteenth century. According to the royal myth, the dynasty stretches much further back, certainly, but it was only under the leadership of Osman that this little group of warriors succeeded in moving out from its base in northwestern Anatolia and start conquering other territories. Their first important victories took place in the Balkans, and these conquests let them to return to western Anatolia flush with money and men. In the middle of the fifteenth century they had already got power over Byzantine capital Constantinople. This great city capture in 1453 laid the foundation for the imperial phase of Ottoman history. __________________________________________________________ We Can Write Custom Research Papers on Ottoman Empire for You! __________________________________________________________ During the next century they pushed confidently eastward and then southward. First they defeated Turkish principalities in Anatolia that remained and after that, in 1516 and 1517, they conquered the heart of the Islamic world--Syria, Egypt and Palestine. With these recent conquests they could responsibly claim the established leadership of the Islamic world. The greatest territorial extent the Empire reached under the reign of Suleyman (1520-1566) that......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

...The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire The rise of the Ottoman Empire started in Turkey and spread through most of the Middle East. Their military practice and successful transition to the use of gun powder made them one of the most successful ruling bodies in the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire which ruled until modern times had great influence on the Middle Eastern world. Their political and economic abilities astonished the western world. Their religious views and fears were instilled into any non-Muslim and helped the western world to find new trade. The rise of Christianity in the western world provided new ways to preserve the dead and ended the need for frankensence, the main export of the Ottoman Empire. This was a blow to their economy and their inability to change their polocies and find new trade left them behind economically which aided in the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Crusades in Turkey which began in 1097 with the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks lasted for many years (Pitman III). The Western crusaders took the side of the Byzantine Empire and assured defeats (Pitman III). However these winning streaks would not last for the Byzantine Empire. In the 1140’s Turks revolted and caused great damage to the Byzantine Empire (Pitman III). The French and Italian allies had to step in (Pitman III). Count Baldwin was named as emperor of the Latin Empire by the crusaders in 1204 (Pitman III). In 1261 the Latin Empire was on the run from......

Words: 2094 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ottoman vs. Spanish Empire

...During the time period from 1450 to 1800, two powerful empires were in the process of being built. These two empires were the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Empire. During the building process of their empires, the Ottoman and the Spanish both developed many similarities in their political, social, and economic affairs. A similarity between these empires was that they both had some type of slave system. Even though they did have some things in common there were also many differences that were between these empires. Some differences between these two were that the Ottomans had the devshirme slave system and the Spanish had the encomienda system. The devshirme system was the practice in which the Ottomans recruited and then forcibly took Christian boys from their families and put them in Ottoman society. These Christian boys were called Janissaries. The Janissaries were converted to Islam and trained so that they could obtain a high position in society such as being a military leader or a high administrator. The reason for this system was that the Ottomans wanted to have the most able men trained to lead the empire. The encomienda system was a practice employed by the Spanish during the colonization of the Americas. It was used to regulate Native American labor. In this system, Spanish-Americans were given grants from Spain for which they had to take care of a certain number of Native Americans. These men that were given grants were instructed to teach the natives the......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Islamic Empires

...three major Islamic Empires called the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughul. These Empires were alike in many ways, being Muslim. The Ottomans and Mughul’s viewed Iranians as cultural superiors. The Ottoman were inter-communal meaning they desired to have harmony between religious groups. This great empire is known as having one of the longest reigns, not breaking for 36 generations, was ruled by Suleyman the Magnificent. He was a fierce leader known for his brutality but effective ways. The form of government he used was abolished in 1923 and replaced by a republican form of government in Turkey. Suleyman was called “Kanuni” meaning lawful. The government was well staffed and organized. Everything was clear as to what was expected, leaving no confusion. The Ottoman’s were not liked by the rest of the world because of their unlimited resources making them a superpower. Anything was within their reach to help them grow into a strong successful empire. Suleyman oversaw huge structures to be built in the capital city. This helped to employ many. However most of his focus was towards conquests and military campaigns during his time as ruler. The most significant culturally and religiously influencing empire was the Safavid. From 1290 to 1918 most of the population ruled consisted of Persian, also eventually influencing the language used as well. Instead of focusing on the Military, like the Ottoman ruler Suleyman, Abbas was more interested in building a strong empire and growth. He......

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Fate of Empire

...THE FATE OF EMPIRES and SEARCH FOR SURVIVAL Sir John Glubb John Bagot Glubb was born in 1897, his father being a regular officer in the Royal Engineers. At the age of four he left England for Mauritius, where his father was posted for a three-year tour of duty. At the age of ten he was sent to school for a year in Switzerland. These youthful travels may have opened his mind to the outside world at an early age. He entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich in September 1914, and was commissioned in the Royal Engineers in April 1915. He served throughout the first World War in France and Belgium, being wounded three times and awarded the Military Cross. In 1920 he volunteered for service in Iraq, as a regular officer, but in 1926 resigned his commission and accepted an administrative post under the Iraq Government. In 1930, however, he signed a contract to serve the Transjordan Government (now Jordan). From 1939 to 1956 he commanded the famous Jordan Arab Legion, which was in reality the Jordan Army. Since his retirement he has published seventeen books, chiefly on the Middle East, and has lectured widely in Britain, the United States and Europe. William Blackwood & Sons Ltd 32 Thistle Street Edinburgh EH1 1HA Scotland © J. B. G. Ltd, 1976, 1977 ISBN 0 85158 127 7 Printed at the Press of the Publisher Introduction As we pass through life, we learn by experience. We look back on our behaviour when we were young and think how foolish we were. In the same way our......

Words: 13065 - Pages: 53

Free Essay

Ottoman Empire

... Middle East Name: Course: Instructor: Date: Aristotle divides law into positive and natural law. Natural law describes laws that originate from the universe and the nature. Natural law uses reason to analyze both the personal and social behavior binding specific individual. Positive law comes from the regulations made by the lawmaker. Positive law describes the laws made by humans and obligate people to do a specific action. Positive laws also refer to the laws established by a particular group of people to define specific rights. Under natural rule, something is illegal because it is wrong and is inappropriate to our human nature. Under positive rules, an action is wrong because it is illegal. Natural law and positive law are opposite, and Aristotle states that the laws are a contrast. Both the natural law and positive law have theorists who simply the topic of law and society. The natural law theorists are Aristotle, St. Thomas and Plato while the legal positivists are Thomas Hobbes, H.L.A Hart and John Austin (Adolphe, Fastiggi & Vacca, 2012). Nevertheless, natural law is more essential than the positive law. Positive law has no power to abrogate or change natural law. Positive law focuses primarily on human behavior and activities which the natural law does not rule out. Positive law, as St. Thomas says, ‘'can only add value to natural rules; it cannot subtract from the law ''. Therefore, another possible way of looking at......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Position of Women in the Ottoman Empire

...POSITION OF WOMEN IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRECourtney L HendricksJuly 15, 2015 Through human history, the power of a woman and her role especially within the Islamic society has been a contentious topic. Many people, when they look at Islamic women and their roles, see a secluded and oppressed sex and which is taken to much inferior to men in most cases. Furthermore, when it comes to issues such as politics, women from the Islamic society are considered voiceless and thus play now important role as they work is seen much in the households chores as well as remaining submissive and faithful and to their husbands and the men around them with questioning.  However, this is not the case when we look at the Ottoman Empire as things are totally different from what most people think and perceive about women in the Islamic society[1]. In fact, this has brought about an endless debate in terms of the place of women and their importance especially based on the Sultanate of Women period. This paper dives into the debate as we analyze the actual position that was taken by women specifically in the Ottoman Empire. Prior to the introduction of Islam religion, women did not have much say or significant contribution in the society as they were basically treated as inferior to their male counterparts.  However, things were quite different, especially with the situation in the Ottoman Empire. Here, women enjoyed much freedom and had rights in regards to marriage, inheritance, divorce among other......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Ottoman Empire

...Principles of Atatürk and the History of Reform Date: 12.12.2014 Question 1: How did the decline and collapse of the Ottoman Empire affect Young Turk thinking? Elaborate on how modernization, constitutionalism and Westernization became the principal lenses of Committee of Union and Progress thinking. Answer: The collapses of the Ottoman Empire opened the path for the future development and expand their ideas ingrain in the Young Turk ideology. The enormous obstacle of them being the infinite power of the Sultan was now displaced and they had to invigorate their principles and be sure of their spread to the commonalty in order to get acknowledgement and support for their ideology. Question 2: In your view, how did World War I (1914-18) and the War of National Liberation (1919-22) transform Young Turk thinking into Kemalism? Which principles were retained and-or intensified, and which principles were excluded? What is the relationship between Young Turk thinking and Kemalism? Answer: The brutality of World War I (1914-18) brought the need for the strong diplomacy and military leadership and powerful figure. It was a demanding need for the nation to gather under a strong ideology and this continued over the libration war. There was need for the people of different beliefs to gather under one principle and defend a territory so clearly the religious dimension was to be left out for that of nationalism to that the strong leadership (military, diplomatic......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ottoman Empire

...Principles of Atatürk and the History of Reform 1/12/2015 On October 29, 1923, Mustafa Kemal (later called “Atatürk," father of the Turks) proclaimed the Republic of Turkey as a pure nation-state for the Turks by abolishing the multiethnic Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president of the Turkish Republic, Turkish army officer, reformist, was born on19th May 1881 and died in 10 November 1938 at the age of 57 year. He was a and the first President of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introduced a form of secular fundamentalism; bend Turkey from its Islamic roots. Kemalism has since replaced Islam as Turkey's state religion, enforced by its high priests, the generals of the military. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was a military officer during World War I, and faces defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, after that he found and led his movement. His military campaigns led to victory in the Turkish War of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular-state under his leadership, thousands of new schools were built, primary education was made free and compulsory, and women were given equal civil and political rights, while the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced. His government also carried out an extensive policy of Turkification, the principles of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk reforms, upon......

Words: 1902 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Ottoman Empire

...Kadir Has University History of Turkish Republic 4/9/2015 Shah Basit Hussain Qureshi 1- In your view, what were the reasons for the Ottoman Empire’s demise? How did competing internal and external factors play into the weakening of the empire? There were few vital reasons for the downfall of Ottoman Empire’s, linked with some of internal and external factors which played a important role to weaken the Ottoman’s empire. I will take this opportunity to write on this significant historical downfall factors of Ottomans Empire and I will write try to accomplish those major points from which this downfall led to Ottoman Empire. It was the second Egyptian crisis which manifested tensions in the Middle East. The elementary problems of the empire, caused by rising pressure between the different nationalities and communities, which the central government was not capable to get to the bottom of or control. Nevertheless for about 15 years they did not express to large-scale interference on the part of the enormous powers of Europe. The most aggressive internal conflict of these years was fought in the Lebanon. The tough man of the region was the Emir Bashir II, who belonged to the miniature religious group of the people of Druzes 3, but he was converted to Christianity and he ruled the Lebanon from his stronghold in the Shuf Mountains for almost 50 years. He had associated his providence strongly to the Egyptian professional forces, and when the concluding...

Words: 2464 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Role of Islam in the Ottoman Empire

... 12/15/2015 In this essay I will attempt to answer the following question: What role did Islam play in the Ottoman and Mughal empires and what was the situation for religious minority groups? Overall, especially compared to Europe, religious toleration was very high in the two empires. While religious toleration varied along the years and the importance of Islam and its role in the two empires changed, it is safe to say that both of the empires went through a period of time where religion played a vital role in the people’s lives and tolerance of minority groups was at a high point. I will look more in-depth at the overall role that religion played in the empires as well as discuss both the positives and the negatives of the situation for minority groups. Islam played a big role in the Ottoman Empire. As a religion it was a focal point around which the rulers based their decisions as faith was a “major pillar of dynasty and empire”(Stearns, Peter N. World Civilizations. Fifth Edition. 2007. Pg. 580) . Islam played a role of civilization and it is also what encouraged emperors to keep expanding the empire. Finally it promoted principles of political succession- in other words it stimulated competition. Overall the religion served to bind people together and achieve a stable regime. Similarly in the Safavid Empire there was a lot of emphasis put on Shi’ism, and citizens were encouraged to convert to this religion. Religious festivals became focal...

Words: 1130 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Empire

...Emily Rosales February 24, 2016 A first time viewer of the TV show Empire might consider the two main characters Cookie Lyon and Lucious Lyon very different or as complete opposites. However, Cookie and Lucious are more similar than they are different. Some of the similarities that they share are selfishness, competitiveness, and arrogance. In season 2, Lucious is trying to run his company Empire as he is serving time in jail. He faces betrayal when Cookie plots a scheme with his two sons Andre, and Hakeem to hire an investor named Mimi Whiteman to finalize the hostile takeover of Empire. Cookie isn’t satisfied with just being part owner of the company, she wants the entire business to herself and all the power in her hands and doesn’t care about how it will affect Lucious. Lucious then gets released from jail to find out his family plotted a scheme against him to take Empire from him. Lucious being very selfish with his company wasn’t going to allow for the takeover to happen, so he partners up with the investor Mimi Whiteman which stops Cookie from gaining the business. Cookie has a dispute with Lucious demanding half of the company Empire but he refuses and instead offers her an income and living arrangements which she doesn’t agree. Disputing about Empire caused the family to distance amongst each other. Lucious son Jamal worked with him in the music industry Empire so he prohibited Jamal from working with Cookie under any circumstances with his music. When......

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Ottoman Empire: the Rise, Fall and Influence in Today's Middle East

...The Ottoman Empire: The Rise, Fall and Influence in Today's Middle East By: Robert Rosen M01 A1 Written Assignment   Throughout history, there have been many empires. Some of them lasted years, some lasted decades. But one stands alone as the longest running empire.  The Ottoman Empire ruled from 1280-1922. The Empire saw 37 Sultans and an expansion of power and control over most of the Middle East and parts of Europe and Africa. The Empire had a slow, but sudden burst of growth. That burst was immediately followed by their undoing. But it left behind a long legacy which is still felt to this day in the Middle East. During this period, the Mongols were running rampant.  In order to avoid certain death, the Turkic Kayi tribe fled.  The Byzantines were being fought by the Rum Seljuk.  Kayi tribe chief Ertogrul offered his stable of 444 horse soldiers to aid in fighting the Byzantines. In exchange, he was given land. When Ertogrul died, his son Osman (1280-1326) took power.  He was given a sword and he would go on to fight against the Byzantines, just as his father had before him. The basis of this war was religion, with the Byzantines Christian and Osman Islamic.  Osman would raid Byzantine land, overtaking it in the name of Islam.  Osman refused to make peace and finally took the city of Bursa, which became the very first capital of the Ottomans.  (Goldschmidt Jr & Davidson, 2010, p. 131-132) Osman's eventual death opened the door to his son to become ruler. Orhan......

Words: 1897 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Empire

...Vernacular language is defined as the standard native language of a country or locality. Latin is a vernacular language that had an large impact on the medieval way of life. The Roman Empire spoke Latin and this language became a prominent part of the culture until the 1200 A.D. For years and years to come Latin language dominated the western world and were every the Roman Empire ruled this was the primary language that was used. When the Roman Empire began to fall the Latin language faded away and the countries began to use their vernacular language. These languages would one day be known as Portuguese, French, Spanish, Italian, and etc. The vernacular languages would also be considered as the large family of contemporary “Romance” languages (Matthews, 2011). Before the twelfth century, Latin was the major language that was used by writers. The developments of Latin were influenced by other native languages which included Celtic languages, Greek, and Etruscan (University of Calgary, 1996). Latin was continuously developed because there were significant differences in each period. These differences included those in the literary written language, and also in the differences in the spoken language of the educated and the less educated populace. Between 500 – 100 after the Empire, the peninsula was also using the vernacular language in the form of popular celebrations of religious festivals, improvisational troupes of actors, story-tellers, etc......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Jackie Chan | Tu Cheez Lajawab - Raju Punjabi | Эссе, очерк, этюд, набросок 475