‘Outline and Discuss Some Sociological Perspectives on Deviance’

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By elodie22
Words 343
Pages 2
When looking at the topic of deviance, sociologists make it clear to define between

what is criminal and what is deviant or at least what is seen to be either of these two

things. For example, when defining deviance, sociologists often describe it as the

breaking of social norms as opposed to the breaking of criminal law as a crime would

be defined. In this essay I am going to discuss different sociological perspectives on

the issue of deviance, how it affects society as a whole as well as individuals, and

different social groups within it. I will be looking at what are believed to be the

functions of deviance to society, if any, and arguments as to whether deviance is

positive or negative.

One sociological perspective on deviance is that it is perfectly normal in all healthy

societies. For example, functionalists see society as based on a value consensus,

meaning all members share common norms and values and are in agreement of what

is acceptable and unacceptable in society. They suggest that all social institutions

work together to create social harmony and social order that assist in the smooth

running of society. Functionalists therefore, see deviance as being a positive attribute

for society. Durkheim, a functionalist, says that deviance is inevitable in society; in

other words, it is impossible to have no deviance. Durkheim says that the punishment

of deviance warns people away from wrongdoing through things such as public

punishment and criminal trials, it reinforces boundaries, and makes people aware of

what is right and wrong. He also believes that deviance can bring about change as

things that may be seen as deviant at first can turn into a new set of morals. Davis

(1961) agrees with the functionalist perspective that deviance is functional for society.

Davis…...

Similar Documents

The Sociological Perspective

...The Sociological Perspective John J. Macionis explains the sociological perspective as a special point of view that takes a look at how particular groups of people in society are influenced in making choices, feel and even the way they think. These are general patterns that occur in our daily lives and all around the world but differing from one social group to another. Macionis teaches us that our way of living is influenced by the particular group in society which we belong to. Unconsciously all our choices come from what society expects from us, either being our level of education, the partner we decide to marry, the amount of kids we decide to raise or even where we decide to live. The groups we belong in are based on economic status, gender, race, religion, age group etc. for example students attending college are fairly young because that is the specific age group that society expects to attend college. Moreover the level of education students achieve is determined by the economic status they hold because as education goes higher costs also goes higher, hence the institutions chosen by high income versus low income students differ. The amount of kids we decide to raise may be influenced by the education available on contraceptives which is very limited in poor countries. Whom we decide to marry and where we live is also influenced by economic status as we can see here in Belize that major political leaders live in the cities. The sociological perspective allows......

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Sociological Perspective on Illness

...* Your School or College Social constructivist perspective for understanding schizophrenia, mental health and illness Mentor: Student: *name *name Spring, 2013 Contents: 1 INTRODUCTION 3 2 Social constructivist perspective of schizophrenia 4 3 CONCLUSION 7 REFERENCES 8 INTRODUCTION In this paper we analyze the concept according to which mental illness is as much a socially constructed disease as it is a physiological one and especially the example of schizophrenia, one of the oldest, most documented, and least understood of all the behaviors that fall under society’s category of mental illness. One of the most influential theoretical positions evident in the sociology of health and illness over the past 30 years has been social constructivism. A central assumption within this broad approach is that reality is not self-evident, stable and waiting to be discovered, but instead it is a product of human activity. In this broad sense all versions of social constructivism can be identified as a reaction against positivism and naive realism. There are multiple intellectual roots of a social constructionist approach to illness. Some of the basic building blocks are evident in the writings of early sociological thinkers (Durkheim, Mannheim, Thomas), but one of the most important intellectual foundations of the social construction of illness is social problems theory...

Words: 2130 - Pages: 9

The Sociological Perspective

...The sociological perspective is a look for general patterns by sociologists in behavior of particular people. There are three divisions of social perspectives; the structural-functional approach, the social-conflict approach, and the symbolic-interaction approach. The structural-functional approach contributes to how society’s functioning as a whole whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. This is a relatively stable pattern of behavior. Structural-functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, or cohesion, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. Emile Durkheim suggested that the consensus takes only one of the two forms; mechanical solidarity (a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society maintain similar values and beliefs and engage in similar types of work) and organic solidarity (a form of social cohesion that arises when the people in a society are interdependent, but hold to varying values and beliefs and engage in varying types of work). Robert Merton expands our understanding of the concept by indicating social structures have many functions such as manifest functions (recognized, obvious, and intended consequences of any social pattern) and latent functions (unrecognized, not obvious, and unintended consequences of any social pattern). The manifest function of attending a church, for instance, is to worship as part of a religious...

Words: 430 - Pages: 2

Criminology: Functionalist Perspective on Crime and Deviance

...Criminology: Functionalist perspective on crime and deviance The functionalist approach to analyzing deviance and the causes of crime looks at society as a whole. It explains crime and deviance by saying that the source of deviance lies in the nature of society itself rather than in psychology or biology. It should be noted that functionalists see deviance as an inevitable and necessary part of society. Some also consider deviance to have positive aspects for society. Emile Durkheim Durkheim argued in The Rules of Sociological Method that a certain level of crime was inevitable within any society. In fact it is normal and 'an integral part of all healthy societies’. The reason that deviance is inevitable is that not everyone is equally committed to the collective values and moral beliefs of society. There will always be disagreement and dissent. In addition, deviance can act in a positive way in that it helps to reinforce ideas of right and wrong in society. It reinforces ‘collective sentiments’ in society. Problems with deviance arise when the level of crime becomes too great as this can threaten social stability. Durkheim considered that deviance acts as a catalyst for social change in society. Change occurs because what was thought deviant previously is now considered acceptable. In this way society evolves and makes progress, which is healthy. The alternative would be stagnation and atrophy with no development. Indeed, Durkheim viewed societies where crime levels......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Sociological Perspective

...Sociological Perspective Paper: Conflict Perspective Team "B' SOC/101- Introduction to Sociology October 13, 2014 Angela Rudibaugh Sociological Perspective Paper: Conflict Perspective Recently I viewed a video named Three Cups of Tea. The video highlighted the works of Nobel Peace Prize nominee Greg Morrison’s work through bringing educational institution to girls across the world. The video has brought up points pertaining to conflict perspective theory of sociology covering two classes looking out for their own interest. The struggle between the two groups clearly shows a dominant and a submissive side. In the video men are portrayed as the dominant group, while women are the submissive group. This is made valid by Morrison’s comments throughout the video. The video Three cups of Tea is of a short interview of a man named Greg Morrison and his young daughter that discusses his humanitarian work. Morrison has built 78 schools for young girls in third world countries such as Afghanistan and Pakistan. Three cups of Tea is a book that is dedicated to helping spread his message; books not bombs. Morrison aims to educate young girls with the hope that they will grow up to make education a priority for their own children (NBC News Archives, 2010). The conflict perspective theory of sociology was developed by Karl Marx. In this theory “social injustice and uneven destitution of wealth give rise to criminological conditions.” (Conflict Perspective, 2011, para. 1). ......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Sociological Perspectives

...Unit: 7 Sociological perspectives in Health and Social Care P2 In this assignment I will be defining the different concepts of health& ill health and how theorists relate their theories to health. I will also assess the biomedical and socio-medical models of health. There are many definitions of health; many sociologists have a difficulty in finding a definition for the word health. Health can be defined in negative terms, as ‘the absence of disease’. According to http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html this is contrasted with a positive definition such as the provided by the World Health Organisation (WHO) IN 1974: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. A negative concept of health is therefore opposed to a positive concept of health as being worried with people’s physical, intellectual, social and emotional wellbeing. According tohttp://www.who.int/about/en/ The World Health Organisation is an organisation which directs and coordinates authorities for health in the United Kingdom. It is responsible for global health matters and shapes the health research agenda, setting norms, standards and providing support in countries. In the health and social care settings, health care professionals usually implement a holistic approach to care and support for people. They see their role as addressing the needs of the whole person rather than single matters or identified problems. A person......

Words: 1135 - Pages: 5

Sociological Perspectives

...The social exchange theory suggests that we essentially take the benefits and minus the costs in order to determine how much a relationship is worth positive relationships are those in which the benefits outweigh the costs, while negative relationships occur when the costs are greater than the benefits. Costs involve things that are seen as negatives to the individual such as having to put money, time and effort into a relationship. The benefits are things that the individual gets out of the relationship such as fun, friendship, companionship and social support. When you are at a young age, you don’t really care about relationships and friendships. You can have loads of friends and not really care about keeping them because you can find some more very quickly. However, as you get older you tend to have fewer friends and only have a few friends that you actually class as your friends. This shows that as you get older you value your friendships/ relationships more than when you were younger....

Words: 255 - Pages: 2

Sociological Perspective and Conflict Approach

...Sociological Perspective and conflict approach Sociological perspective can be defined as seeing the general in the particular. It can be also described as a frame that shapes how people behave in society or interacting with diversity people, and how we are categorized in various ways, such as children and adults, women and men, the rich and poor. Each of people is supposed to do different affairs in their lives as it matches them. And one of the sociological theories is called conflict approach, meaning that explains about inequality between such as women and men and black and white, so on. For instance, in the past of South Korea or other many of countries as well, there was intense inequality of between women and men in getting a job. Women used to be only in charge of doing house work, and they were not able to do anything else without permit from a head of family, which is why many of people still regard women to do more house work than men do. This representative example can be conflict approach in social perspective of how we look at women in our society. And although it seems to be non-changeable the society perspective, there are a lot of factors that changes the sociological perspective of how people behave in our society. Particularly, when it comes to recession, it seem to be more remarkable changes in the behavior of people life, For example, if it happened to come recession into country, it can also change of the social perspective that people become more......

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Sociological Perspectives

...Sociological Perspectives In this assignment I will explore the sociological perspectives. In sociology there are 7 perspectives. Sociology is “The study of human social behaviour, especially the study of the origins, organization, institutions, and development of human society.” (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 2011). The seven perspectives of sociology are functionalism, Marxism, feminism, interactionism, postmodernism, new right and collectivism. Definitions “Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society” (Crossman, 2015). “Marxism is a political, social, and economic philosophy derived from the work of the 19th-century historians Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It views human history as a struggle between social classes and asserts that capitalism is inherently exploitative.” (Chegg.com, 2015) “Feminism is a complex set of political ideologies used by the women’s movement to advance the cause of women’s equality and to end the sexist theory and practice of social oppression. (Crossman, 2015) “The interactionist perspective is one of the major theoretical perspectives within sociology. It focuses on the concrete details of what goes on among individuals in everyday life. Interactionists study how we use and interpret symbols not only to......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Sociological Perspective

...behaviour, changed. The resulting data gathered from the experimental group would then be compared to the result in control group. Bear in mind that when collecting data, always heed to their validity and reliability. Validity is whether or not the test employed truly represents what it’s supposed to measure, whereas reliability is whether the experiment can be replicated to get comparative results. These are the basic factors to consider when researching. The concept of research can be metaphorically described as being only one side of the coin. The other side of this coin is Theory. “Without theory, research is of little value; it is simply a collection of meaningless facts.” (Henslin 2013:22). By definition, Theory is a statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work. Basically, it is stating that Theory becomes an explanation of how individual aspects of an idea correlates to a certain phenomenon. Once hypothesis are proven repeatedly through the Scientific Method, or perhaps others replicated or emulated your study, a theory is generally accepted as a valid explanation of the observed facts. To sum up, the Scientific Method is one of the fundamental concept researchers must master. It has effectively guided humanity to uncover the secrets of this world and to a better future. Works Cited Henslin, James M. 2013. Essentials of Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Inc. ...

Words: 869 - Pages: 4

Sociological Theories on Perspectives on Religion

...major sociological theories differ in a majority of ways. All three have their own way of how they perceive religion functions in society. The purpose of this paper is to show the impact each theory has had on religion as well as the people inside the institution itself. Religion has been around for many hundreds of years and has had a great influence on many things in societies over time and across the world, such as politics, economics, and has even led to many wars. But how would one come about with a definition of the word religion? There are many different definitions out there of religion that are basic and even some definitions that get more complex. One basic and easy way to describe religion is a person or group of peoples set beliefs and practices on the concept of spirituality. J. Milton Yinger takes one of the more complex approaches to defining religion. He calls it “a system of beliefs and practices by which a group of people struggle with the ultimate problems of human life – problems relating to human morality, suffering, and injustice; and the need to infuse human life with meaning, and intellectual coherence, and the crucial importance of upholding moral percepts and patterns of social life” (Bouma p.4). Although both definitions seem to be drastically different, they actually do compliment each other and when used together can give us a much better understanding of religion and what it represents to the different cultures of people. Sociological......

Words: 2042 - Pages: 9

Explain the Principal Sociological Perspective

...P1 – Explain the principal sociological perspectives I will explain the meaning of different sociological perspectives. Sociology is the study of social behaviour, including its origins, developments, organization and institutions. There are seven sociology approaches to describe the human behaviour: * Functionalism * Marxism * Feminism * Interactionism * Postmodernism * The New Right * Collectivism 1 – Functionalism The Functionalism perspective is based largely on the work of Herbert Spencer, Emilie Durkheim, Talcott Parsons and Robert Mertoni. According to Functionalism, society is a system of interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and social equilibrium for the whole. (www.laulina.hawaii.edu) The Functionalism sees social structure or the organization of society as more important than the individual. Because society is based on agreed norms and values Talcott theory’s said that individuals are born into society and become the product of all the social influences around them as they are socialised by various institutions such as the family, education, media and religion. To live in a society or organization it is important to have values and live on agreed norms, because will give us necessary structure to build these values and fallow these norms. The social consensus, order and integration are key beliefs of functionalism as this allows society to continuo and progress because there are......

Words: 2494 - Pages: 10

Sociological Perspectives

...Sociology Assignment 1 Maninder Kular October 20, 2015 Sociological Theorists Emile Durkheim was a pioneer in sociology; his major focus was on social structure. He insisted, “Behavior must be understood within a larger social context, not just in individualistic terms” (Schaefer, 10). According to him the most important thing in life is a sense of belonging. The opposite of which is anomie- a feeling of isolation and loneliness. He would argue these are the worst things in life. Social attachments to others are important to avoid anomie. For example, religion reinforces a group’s solidarity because it is a form of group behavior (Schaefer, 10). Durkheim believed the industrial revolution caused anomie due to a change of pace in life. People became busy, and as a result there were less meaningful interactions. He believed modern capitalism caused anomie, and people who are unable to cope may resort to taking their own lives (Schaefer, 10). Therefore, he advocated the creation of social groups between the family and the state to provide a sense of belonging for members of a society (Schaefer, 10). Durkheim is linked to the structural functionalist perspective. Its main focus is on how people and institutions serve as a function. As long as every person and institution does this, there will be order and stability within society. This leads back to his idea that behavior cannot be understood in individualistic terms, but within a larger social context. He believed......

Words: 1499 - Pages: 6

Sociological Perspectives - Activity 1

...For this assignment I am going to write about my understanding and acknowledgement of the sociological perspectives and the approaches of sociology in the health and social sector. I will also include the concepts of sociology within health and social care while exploring the elements of health and illness. Sociology is the study of how society is organised and how people experience life, it is based on global issues that can affect the living beings. Sociology helps us to understand the structure and the dynamics of society and the connections between how people behave and individual life changes. It helps examine ways in which the forms of social structure, groups, communities, organisations and other social interactions with how they affect attitude, opportunities and actions. In sociology there are six principal perspectives they are Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, Interactionism, Postmodernism, Collectivism and New Right. Functionalism In 1951, Talcott Parsons introduced the Functionalist view which studies the social structure fully of how it functions and how each social structure is crucial in the interests of society. Functionalism believes that humans and society have basic needs, institutions. Governments may be responsible to meet the required needs also Functionalist may consider that the different kinds of sources may limit the individual’s behaviour within the chosen society, which may mean that society will behave appropriately based on their behaviour...

Words: 2407 - Pages: 10

Applying the Sociological Perspectives

...Applying the Sociological Perspectives Angelica Andrade SOC/100 May 30, 2016 University of Phoenix Applying the Sociological Perspectives I am going to write my paper on social networking sites. The reason I have chosen social media sites is because around 78 percent of Americans is a member of social network site. (Percentage Of U.s. Population With A Social Network Profile From 2008 To 2016, 2016). In our modern era Social networking sites have had a very profound impact on our lives, it has influenced and changed the way in which we communicate, interact, and start new relationships. There are many advantages of social networking sites, but there are also dangers of social networking. (Functionalism) The functionalist perspective is based largely on Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons, both of them contributed in different ways. The Functional Theory explains the every aspect of our society is interdependent and is necessary for our society to function as one or a whole. This perspective has a positive look on society. It views society as stable and emphasizes the way that all parts of society work together. In social networking sites, each person follows and connects with others in order to further their development as individuals and contribute to society. We can connect and share with others users from all over the world; spanning generations and cultures. It allow users to share information rapidly, keeping them up-to-date with the world around them in......

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Read more | Kishuku Gakkou no Juliet Episode 8 Subtitle Indonesia | Pro Evolution Soccer 2019 (Konami Digital Entertainment) (ENG+RUS) [Repack] Подробнее... Залито: 29-11-2018 19:03 (456 просмотров) Pro Evolution Soccer 2019 (Konami Digital Entertainment) (ENG+RUS) [Repack] Игры для ПК Pro Evolution Soccer 2019 продолжает серию симуляторов футбола от Konami. В игре вас ждет обновленный режим myClub, который позволит игрокам получать высококвалифицированных футболистов в свою команду, среди них такие легендарные персоны, как Дэвид Бекхэм, Диего Марадона, Паоло Мальдини и другие, а также... Раздают: 0 Качают: 0 Размер: 12.16GB