Free Essay

Peron Pinochet

In: Historical Events

Submitted By mike1545
Words 2398
Pages 10
Mike Ledbetter
8 May 2009
History 162
Dr. Skuban

Nationalism exists among nearly every individual living within any given nations borders. However, within said borders nationalist sentiment does not remain static. Individuals will often have dissimilar views as to what is best for the success of their country. Another factor, and one which will be examined in greater detail in this essay, is the role powerful political leaders play in altering their constituents national identity, whether through beneficial or repressive means, for political gain. The governments of Juan Domingo Perón, in Argentina and Augusto Pinochet, in Chile will provide the framework for this study. Both leaders exhibited staggering amounts of power and influence in their countries, though achieved by different means. Much study has been devoted to Perón and Pinochet, however two main sources will be referenced for this essay; “ Manana es San Perón: A Cultural History of Perón’s Argentina”, written by Mariano Ben Plotkin and “ A Nation of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet “, written by Pamela Constable and Arturo Valenzeula. Both books examine each respective regime and the lengths they went to procure their nations national identity. The power wielded by Parón and Pinochet was truly astonishing and changed the political and cultural landscape not only of Argentina and Chile, but all of South America. Before examining the cases of Juan Perón and Augusto Pinochet one must first understand the historical timeframe in which each served as well as their vastly different ascents to power. Juan Perón emerged as one of the main leaders of the Grupo de Oficiales Unidos (GOU). The group was made up of midlevel military officers, and was responsible for the overthrow of Argentine President Ramón Castillo on June 4, 1943. Peron took the position of National Labor Officer, and later served simultaneously as secretary of labor and welfare, war minister, and vice president (Plotkin, 19). Peróns connections with the labor unions gained him vital support from the Argentine working class: A group which played a pivotal role in Peróns successful bid for the presidency in 1946. Peróns rise to power coincided with a trend taking place in South America, especially Argentina; the rapid growth of the middle class. Another phenomenon sweeping through Latin America was Populism. Argentina's large middle class provided the perfect environment for a populist regime, one which Juan Perón would lead. Just as with Perón, Augusto Pinochet served in the military and aided in the overthrow of his nations president, Salvador Allende in 1973. However, that is were the similarities end. Shortly after the coup Pinochet took control of the military junta that was in power and declared himself “Supreme Chief” of Chile. Pinochet quickly detained those loyal or believed to be loyal to Allende’s socialist government and sent them to makeshift detention centers were they were interrogated and often times murdered. Pinochet came to power at the height of the cold war, which, in part explains his abhorrence to the socialist movement in Chile. Pinochet reversed much of what the Allende government implemented immediately after taking power, thus ending the socialist experiment in Chile. The success of Chile post coup would be predicated on open markets, deregulation of business, and privatization of state-owned companies. The age of neoliberalism had dawned and would dominate Latin America for nearly three decades. As mentioned before Juan Perón aligned himself with the working class and quickly gained their trust. The Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT) was the largest labor union in Argentina at this time and allied with Perón. Perón vowed to improve working conditions, raise wages, and supported the workers right to unionize. However, Peróns populist rhetoric created a cleavage between himself and his military cohorts, which led to his resignation and subsequent arrest in October 1945. Many Argentines were outraged, according to Mariano Ben Plotkin, “On October 17, 1945, the unionized working class spontaneously mobilized with the aim of forcing the military government to free Perón and respect the social benefits granted by him” (Plotkin, 43). The significance of the protest cannot be underscored. Scores of working class Argentines declared their loyalty to Perón on the seventeenth of October, and Perón would not fail to capitalize on it. Juan Peróns followers became know as descamisados and they viewed Perón as their champion. Perón used the events of October 17, 1945, to further cement his relationship with the descamisados. In a speech given by Perón on the seventeenth, he affirmed, “ I leave this glorious and sacred uniform that the fatherland granted me in order to wear the civilian jacket and to blend myself with the suffering and sweating masses…. And I also give my first embrace to this great mass that represents the synthesis of a feeling that died in the republic: the true civility of the Argentine people. You are the people” (Plotkin, 55). The speech, given from the balcony of the government palace reaffirmed Peróns status as a man of the people, yet also established him as the “ first descamisado “. Peron vowed to watch over the descamisados from the palace and ask the people if they were happy with his government every October seventeenth. In affect, what Perón had done was incorporate the descamisados into the government decision making process, thus further strengthening the bond between Perón and his descamisados. The “Peronization” of historical events can also be seen in the case of the annual May Day celebration. The celebration originated in 1890 as a socialist holiday; the Dia del Trabajo. Perón would turn what was originally a celebration organized by workers into one monopolized by the state. The Perón government portrayed past May Day celebrations as violent events and an “occasion for protest by a working class made up, overall, of foreigners who held intentional ideologies”, however; under Perón, “A working class purged of its alien elements was the standard-bearer of national sentiment” (Plotkin, 61). Perón transformed May Day from a socialist workers holiday into a celebration of unity which promoted Argentine nationalism, thus strengthening his influence over his constituents. A necessary step in constructing nationalism is indoctrinating the masses. As President, Juan Perón advocated social justice (justicialismo) that called not only for workers rights but also a unification of the various social classes struggling in Argentina. In order to accomplish the goals of justicialismo Perón needed to spread his message as efficiently as possible, to you young and old. The pro-Peronist media was used heavily to promote the accomplishments of Peróns government. Newspapers such as La Epoca and Democracia promoted the virtues of the Peronist government, and the man himself. The publication Democaracia went as far as to declare, “God is a Peronist“, during the 1951 October seventeenth celebration (Plotkin, 79). However, those publications which questioned Peróns policies suffered from repeated sabotage attempts by pro-Peronist groups and closure by the government. Traditional mainstream media was not the only target for Perón. In order for Peronism to survive the youth of Argentina would also have to be indoctrinated. In order to achieve such a goal Perón aimed to expand the public educational system, and more importantly use it for political purposes. The Peronist regime proclaimed, “School texts will be structured in accordance with the principles of the national doctrine [and] will include special reference to the goals that the present plan establishes for each activity of the nation” (Plotkin, 83). The new textbooks would present a more homogenized version of Argentine society; a departure from the liberal texts of the past. Pre-Peronist texts often represented ideas and lifestyles of Argentina’s elite class. However, Peronist texts present the worker as the protagonist, who belongs to a union and adheres to the Peronist Doctrine. Perón also manipulated history books in order to further promote his excellence. According to Plotkin, “To stress Perón’s glory, the entire period between 1816 and 1945 had been eliminated”, a period that started with Argentine independence and ended with the rise of Perón (Plotkin, 126). The actions of Eva Peron are central to the success of Peronismo, and cannot be overlooked. The Eva Perón Foundation (FEP) is perhaps the greatest contribution to her husbands policy. The foundation was responsible for hundreds of new schools, clinics, old age homes and vacation facilities. Athletic leagues were created through the Campeonatos Evita program for under privileged children, as well as pro-Peronist magazines targeted specifically for children, such as, Mundo Infintal. However, paramount among Eva’s accomplishments was her work with the women of Argentina. Juan Perón recognized the importance of women as a potential voting block and as, “ missionaries who could spread the Peronist creed within families and thus further the creation of spiritual unity” (Plotkin, 164). Juan and Eva created the Partido Peronista Femenino (PPF), which would be used to incorporate women into the political system. Argentine women gained the right to vote in 1947, making the formation of the PPF even more critical. The women of the PPF would prove to be a powerful ally Perón, adding even more strength to his base. Nearly 30 years after Peróns rise to power, another military leader on the other side of the continent took center stage. On October 11, 1973, Augusto Pinochet led a successful military coup d’ etat, ousting socialist President Salvador Allende. Pinochet quickly seized control of the governing military junta, and asserted his dominants over the Chilean people. Pinochets disdain for the previous socialist regime was apparent immediately. According to Pamela Constable and Arturo Valenzuela, “Within weeks of the coup, a secret war was launched against Marxist ‘subversion’ and enemies of the regime” (Constable & Valenzuela, 91). Almost immediately after the military’s seizure of power, the junta banned all leftist parties that had constituted Allende’s UP coalition. The Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA) was created to gather intelligence to aid in locating and putting down subversives. The “Caravan of Death” is one example of DINAs murderous exploits, in which a military helicopter flew missions throughout Chile in which DINA operatives sought out and murdered imprisoned leftist leaders. Another more common tactic was a simple abduction off of the street of anyone suspected of having leftist ties. Pinochet’s “Shadow Army” would embark on a reign of terror, which according to the 1991 Rettig report resulted in the death of 2,279 Chileans. The exploits of DINA left many Chileans paralyzed with fear, afraid to oppose or even question the government. Pinochet’s harsh measures against the left were met with great satisfaction by many Chileans. However, it must be stated that the human rights violations Pinochet committed were not immediately recognized by the public. It was the reversal of Allende’s policies which many Chileans celebrated. Much of the population had suffered food shortages under Allande, and the wealthy protested tax increases mad by the socialist regime. According to Constable and Valenzuela, the lives “of the moneyed elite and striving middle class…. returned to normal within weeks, and military rule was virtually invisible” (Constable & Valenzuela, 142). These groups praised Pinochets actions and pledged their support to the regime. Beyond the vocalized support provided by Pinochistas, was the use of various forms of media to deliver pro-regime propaganda. Pinochet utilized the Chilean press to both bestow onto the people righteousness of the military government and to refute any negative claims made against it. One such example was the conservative morning paper, El Mercurio, which became the mouthpiece for the Pinochet regime. However, Pinochet discovered a far more efficient medium for spreading propaganda; the television. Pinochet’s economic policies, which will be examined in greater detail shortly, virtually eliminated tariffs on foreign television, allowing nearly 78 percent of Chileans to own a set by 1982. According to Constable and Valenzuela, “This was the ideal medium for a modern authoritarian government: it kept people home, created a direct link between the individual and the state, filtered reality through an appealing prism, and encouraged consumption instead of thought” (Constable & Valenzuela, 155). The state controlled television stations dictated the programing, which assured no opposition voices would be heard. Just as Juan Perón had utilized the educational system, so to did Pinochet. However, Pinochet set his sights on secondary education mores so than Perón. Pinochet appointed high ranking military officials to run all Chilean universities, in an attempt halt the spreading of any further Marxist thought. The military government had a clear idea for the future of Chile’s universities. The regime goal was to provide a training ground for young Chileans to meet the needs of Chiles science and technology sectors. University admissions were cut, and professional degrees were limited to twelve disciplines, nine of them in science fields. Social science and humanities courses were nearly eradicated in favor of the new curriculum, which aimed to produce a large skilled working for for Chile. Perhaps the most important legacy left by Pinoche was his economic plan for Chile. Utilizing advice given by a handful of economist known as the “Chicago Boys”. Based on information given by his economists Pinochet transformed Chile into a free market economy. Pinochet launched an era of deregulation of business and privatization of state owned companies. Tariffs were lowered if not all together ended and foreign investment was promoted. A vast majority of social services were cut in order to reduce the Chilean deficit. The economy slowly started to improve,and by the 1980s Chiles economic boom was viewed as a miracle. However, the miracle was not experienced by most Chileans. Lower and middle class citizens were not experiencing the trickling down of wealth. Due to economic factors as well as growing disillusionment with a military dictatorship, Chileans voted Pinochet out of office in a 1988 plebiscite, called for by the dictator himself. As proven by Juan Perón and Augusto Pinochet national identities can be formed and altered through social justice in the case of Perón, and likewise through fear and repression in the case of Pinochet. This assertion is echoed by William Skuban in his book, “Lines in the Sand: Nationalism and Identity on the Peruvian-Chilean Frontier”, in which he states, “Dominant groups will emerge, attended by their highly particularistic projects for organizing society, and they will invariably attempt to impose these on all people within their state’s territorial grasp” (Skuban, xx). Peron and Pinochet no doubt imposed their ideas on the citizens of their respective countries. Both leaders used different tactics to achieve the same goal; that of indoctrinating a population gain political supremacy.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Containing Communism Through Cia Covert Operations

...military coup that led General Augusto Pinochet to power during the Cold War. On September 11th, 1973 President Salvador Allende was warned of a possible rebellion but continued on to the Presidential Palace of La Moneda in Santiago, Chile. That day President Allende sent out a broadcast that he will not step down. Allende was the first Marxist to be democratically elected. He put into place reforms that raised wages, lowered prices, and advocated for free education and healthcare. He nationalized banks and industries such as American-owned copper mines which really infuriated President Nixon (White 2003). On September 11th, the military, led by the Commander of the Army General Augusto Pinochet, surrounded the palace demanding that President Allende transfer power to the military and police because of inflation, shortages, and inability to keep the peace. Weeks before this there was a failed coup because many members of the military did not support it. With the military surrounding the palace, General Pinochet orders the air force to destroy radio transmitters that broadcasted on behalf of Allende (White 2003). Pinochet offers Allende a safe way out of the Palace and Allende responds, “Up your ass!” With this response General Pinochet surrounds the Palace with tanks and machine gun fire begins to erupt. The few pro-government sympathizers and even Allende himself returned fire. After holding Pinochet's army back for some time Pinochet declares that if the Palace......

Words: 2362 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Chilean Economy

...seeing him defeated. The coup left a Presidential vacancy that was only to be filled on a temporary basis by the Army General Augusto Pinochet. Once hostilities had subsided, General Pinochet was to return the authority to the civilian government. However, this plan quickly unraveled as General Pinochet refused to relinquish power thus forcing Chile to be ruled by a Military Junta. The Junta, a government led by a committee of military leaders of which General Pinochet was the Commander-in-Chief, did not just make all of the military decisions for the country, it was in charge of making all the economic decisions as well. This power structure lasted from 1970 to 1990 ending nearly forty-eight years of Chilean democratic rule. President Pinochet (1974- 1990) acted much like many of his predecessors because he too had no real substantive plan on how to stabilize the Chilean economy. President Pinochet was solely focused on controlling and army not saving his country. Inflation was still at an alarming rate and there were no plans on making Chile a self-sustaining country. One of the Junta’s Economic Planners, Roberto Kelly who saw the impending handwriting on the wall, approached President Pinochet and advised him that if he wanted to be known as the Chilean savior that he would need to devise an economic plan an implement it quickly. Pinochet allowed group of economic thinkers called “The Chicago Boys” to be commissioned to make recommendations on how to repair the......

Words: 2413 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Poli 379

...with somewhat democratic governments. This essay will consider how in a fresh out of the oven democratic era they were still some countries that were dealing with dictatorship; that oddly enough operated in very different ways but the result was the same: One man had full power and control over his state. More specifically this essay will study Venezuela and Chile, Hugo Chavez and Augusto Pinochet, populism and authoritarianism which in a remarkable yet fairly different way narrows it down to the same result: Presidents who made their way to the top and managed to become dictators of their states. Throughout time they way governments have chosen to govern their states has been based on different political ideologies that were shaped over history. This essay will focus particularly on Authoritarianism and Populism. Venezuela had an example of a dictator, which some Venezuelan considered a hero, who based is political career promoting populism as the best way to rule a country. On the other hand you have Chile a country that today remembers the darkest years of their history inflicted by Pinochet an authoritarian that took over power through no democratic mean at all, and forced his way to the top. Firstly becoming familiar with the political ideologies is crucial in being able to compare these two regimes. Populism by definition is: “ a core belief that the institutions of classical liberal democracy, especially legislatures and courts, are anachronistic, inefficient, and......

Words: 2901 - Pages: 12

Free Essay


...began in the 1960s, such as increasing political awareness and political and economic liberty of women, continued to grow. In the United Kingdom the 1979 elections resulted in the victory of its Conservative Party under Margaret Thatcher, the first and to date only female British Prime Minister. Industrialized countries, except Japan, experienced an economic recession due to an oil crisis caused by oil embargoes by the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries. The crisis saw the first instance of stagflation which began a political and economic trend of the replacement of Keynesian economic theory with neoliberal economic theory, with the first neoliberal governments being created in Chile, where a military coup led by Augusto Pinochet took place in 1973. Novelist Tom Wolfe coined the term "'Me' decade" in his essay "The 'Me' Decade and the Third Great Awakening", published by New York magazine in August 1976 referring to the 1970s. The term describes a general new attitude of Americans towards atomized individualism and away from communitarianism in clear contrast with the 1960s. In Asia, affairs regarding the People's Republic of China changed significantly following the recognition of the PRC by the United Nations, the death of Mao Zedong and the beginning of market liberalization by Mao's successors. Despite facing an oil crisis due to the OPEC embargo, the economy of Japan witnessed a large boom in this period, overtaking the economy of West Germany to become......

Words: 11872 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

Did You Know This About Argentina?

...Did You Know This About Argentina? “Don’t cry for me Argentina” is a phrase I am sure everybody has heard of at least once in their lifetime. The phrase is from a 1978 musical named Evita and was originally written and produced by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice. The most recent remake starred Madonna as the lead character Eva Peron belting out this popular song in the musical. Eva Peron was in fact a real person she was the second wife to the Argentine President Juan Peron and she served as the first lady in Argentina from 1946 until she died in 1952. But this paper is not about Eva Peron but it is about Argentina, she was just an influential member of this country and a good way to start my essay off! (Musical Heaven) Argentina is a country located in South America at the southernmost part of the continent. The country borders Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile and Bolivia. The country was first founded in a 1502 voyage by Amerigo Vespucci with Spain establishing a permanent colony on the site in 1580 where Buenos Aires is now. Spain held Argentina until a revolution declared its independence from Spain on July 9, 1816. (Argentina, Country Reports) Argentina’s national hero for this accomplishment is General Jose de San Martin. After the country declared its independence different groups within Argentina waged war on each other trying to do what was best for the country, each with its own agenda of course, but unity was finally established and the constitution was written and......

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...democracy to multi­class “populist” alliances to outright conflict, revolution and the establishment of authoritarian regimes in the 1960s and 1970s. Areas of study include: conditions for the rise to power of new leaders; economic and social policies; treatment of minorities. ● ● ● ● ● United States: domestic policies of Truman, Eisenhower and Kennedy Johnson and “the Great Society”; Nixon’s domestic reforms Canada: domestic policies from Diefenbaker to Clark and Trudeau (both were prime ministers in 1979) Causes and effects of the Silent (or Quiet) Revolution Populist leaders in Latin America: rise to power; characteristics of populist regimes; social, economic and political policies; the treatment of opposition; successes and failures (suitable examples could be Perón, Vargas or any relevant Latin American leader) ○ ● ● Note: Vargas and Cárdenas came to power before 1945 but their rule and influence in their respective states continued after 1945. The Cuban Revolution: political, social, economic causes; impact on the region Rule of Fidel Castro: political, economic, social and cultural policies; treatment of LHS History IA Guide­7 minorities; successes and failures ● Military regimes in Latin America: rationale for intervention; challenges; policies; successes and failures 10. The Cold War and the Americas 1945‑1981 This section focuses on the development and impact of the Cold War on the region. Most of the......

Words: 14314 - Pages: 58

Premium Essay

Peron Domestic Essay

...When Perón became president on June 4, 1946, his two stated goals were social justice and economic independence. These two goals avoided Cold War entanglements which would have occurred by choosing capitalism over socialism or vice versa, but there were no concrete means to achieve those goals. Perón instructed his economic advisors to develop a five-year plan aimed at increasing workers' pay, achieving full employment, stimulating industrial growth of over 40% while diversifying the sector (then dominated by agriculture), and greatly improving transportation, communication, energy and social infrastructure (in the private, as well as public, sectors). During the first half of the 20th century, a widening gap had existed between the classes which Perón hoped to close through the increase of wages and employment, making the nation more pluralistic and less reliant on foreign trade. Even before he took office in 1946, President Perón took dramatic steps that he felt would result in a more economically independent Argentina, better insulated from events such as World War II; Perón believed there would be a third. The reduced availability of imports and the war's beneficial effects on both the quantity and price of Argentine exports had combined to create a near two billion cumulative surplus during those years. In his first two years in office alone, he nationalized the Central Bank, paid off its billion-dollar debt to the Bank of......

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

La Noche Boca Arriba - Analisis

...por cinco años. Después, Cortázar se mudó a Buenos Aires y poco después, en 1951, viajo a París becado. Después de este viaje se convirtió en traductor para la UNESCO Y se mudó definitivamente a París. En los años 60s se convirtió en una figura principal de “boom” de la literatura hispanoamericana. En 1970 Cortázar se mudó a Chile para asistir a la ceremonia en la que se nombraría a Salvador Allende como presidente y después a Nicaragua para apoyar al movimiento sandinista. A partir de estos hechos escribió obras relacionadas con la dictadura de Pinochet y de la lucha sandinista. En 1981 adoptó la nacionalidad francesa y tres años después, el 12 de febrero de 1984, falleció en la capital francesa. En 1956, año que fue publicado “La noche boca arriba”, Argentina se encontraba en una situación política adversa. Se presentaron levantamientos que fueron reprimidos y llevaron al fusilamiento de personas por órdenes del mismo presidente. Perón, entonces exiliado, desaprobaba de estos actos y se comenzaba a hablar de una resistencia peronista. No se puede mencionar que existe una relación directa entre el cuento y lo que ocurría en Argentina ya que el cuento es muy ajeno a la situación política y es simplemente un cuento y no una metáfora de la situación política en Argentina....

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

English Empathic Response

...Muerte de Perón 1)-Repercuciones sociales 2)-quien asume después de su muerte 3)-Profanacion 1)- Se calcula que mientras el cuerpo de Perón estuvo expuesto en el Congreso, unas 46 horas y media, desfilaron ante el féretro casi 135 mil personas; afuera, más de un millón de argentinos quedaron sin dar el último adiós a su líder. Sin embargo, y a pesar del fuerte aguacero –hasta las 9 del jueves 4 llovieron sobre Buenos Aires 14 milímetros-, una multitud incalculable se concitó a lo largo de las avenidas Callao y del Libertador para rendir homenaje –al paso del cortejo- al presidente desaparecido. Dos mil periodistas extranjeros informaron de todos los detalles de las exequias. Tres primeros mandatarios llegaron a Buenos Aires para sumarse al duelo de los argentinos: Juan María Bordaberry, de Uruguay; Hugo Banzer, de Bolivia, y Alfredo Stroessner, del Paraguay. Antes de que se iniciara la marcha hacia Olivos, en el Congreso, doce oradores despidieron al muerto: Benito Llambí, en representación de los ministros; José Antonio Allende, por los senadores; Raúl Lastiri, en nombre de los diputados; Miguel Ángel Bercaitz, por la Corte Suprema de la Nación; el teniente general Leandro E. Anaya, en representación de las Fuerzas Armadas; el gobernador riojano Carlos Menem, en nombre de sus colegas de todas las provincias; Ricardo Balbín, por los partidos políticos; Duillo Brunillo y Silvana Rota, por el Partido Justicialista; Lorenzo Miguel, de las 62 Organizaciones; Adelino Romero...

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Muerte de Peron

...Muerte de Perón 1)-Repercuciones sociales 2)-quien asume después de su muerte 3)-Profanacion 1)- Se calcula que mientras el cuerpo de Perón estuvo expuesto en el Congreso, unas 46 horas y media, desfilaron ante el féretro casi 135 mil personas; afuera, más de un millón de argentinos quedaron sin dar el último adiós a su líder. Sin embargo, y a pesar del fuerte aguacero –hasta las 9 del jueves 4 llovieron sobre Buenos Aires 14 milímetros-, una multitud incalculable se concitó a lo largo de las avenidas Callao y del Libertador para rendir homenaje –al paso del cortejo- al presidente desaparecido. Dos mil periodistas extranjeros informaron de todos los detalles de las exequias. Tres primeros mandatarios llegaron a Buenos Aires para sumarse al duelo de los argentinos: Juan María Bordaberry, de Uruguay; Hugo Banzer, de Bolivia, y Alfredo Stroessner, del Paraguay. Antes de que se iniciara la marcha hacia Olivos, en el Congreso, doce oradores despidieron al muerto: Benito Llambí, en representación de los ministros; José Antonio Allende, por los senadores; Raúl Lastiri, en nombre de los diputados; Miguel Ángel Bercaitz, por la Corte Suprema de la Nación; el teniente general Leandro E. Anaya, en representación de las Fuerzas Armadas; el gobernador riojano Carlos Menem, en nombre de sus colegas de todas las provincias; Ricardo Balbín, por los partidos políticos; Duillo Brunillo y Silvana Rota, por el Partido Justicialista; Lorenzo Miguel, de las 62 Organizaciones; Adelino Romero...

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Section 4 Brazil • Vargas took power in 1930 • Borrowed heavily from foreign banks to build a new capital interior • Goulart became president of Brazil in 1061 • The army overthrew him • Military government forced wages down and pressured labor unions to cooperate to cut production costs • Civilian government took office in 1990 • Corruption and crime flourished • Frenando Henrique Casado made economic reforms • Brazil changed ability to maintain this economic progress Argentina • Eva Peron is a powerful man • Juan Peron rose to power in Argentina in 1940 • Juan held the title to president , but it was Eva who everybody loved • Helped working class • When Eva died, Juan lost his greatest political weapon • 18 yrs. later Argentina endured series of military and governments struggling against both political and economic difficulties • Set out wage war against guerrillas and improve economy • Desapaparecidos are disappeared people • Free elections were held in 1983 • Fernando de la Rua became the new president in 1999 Peru • Had economic problem • Two major guerrillas were MTRA, Shining Path • Drug trafficking complicated Peru’s situation • Groups accepted money for cocaine business • Albert Fujimori took over country in Chaos • Mid-1996 population declined • In 2000 Fujimori fled the country amid a growing corruption scandal Columbia • A nation of turmoil following World War 2 • 1957 was so bad that the 2 major political parties agreed to......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Il Consolidamento Democratico in America Latina: Storia E Prospettive.

...anni 30’ si registrò l’affermazione dei militari come stella polare della politica sudamericana secondo i modelli precedentemente esplicati, a cui seguì un’effimera ventata di democratizzazione dopo la fine della seconda guerra mondiale, vista la vittoria delle democrazie sui regimi fascisti e la neonata questione sociale nata dall’industrializzazione e dall’inurbamento che inserì le masse nel dibattito politico, presto le società si dimostrarono ancora immature per poter intraprendere il cammino verso la democratizzazione, e a brevi esperienze democratiche seguì all’inizio degli anni ’50 il ritorno al potere, spesso per via elettorale, dei regimi populisti che proprio in questi anni raggiunsero la massima diffusione e sviluppo ideologico: Peron fu eletto nel ’46, Vargas in Brasile e Ibanez in Cile all’inizio degli anni ’50, Ibarra in Ecuador, Pinilla in Colombia, Estenssoro in Bolivia e Odria in Perù. La situazione economica iniziò a peggiorare dalla metà degli anni ’50, vista la ripresa dei paesi europei e il conseguente crollo dei prezzi dei prodotti agricoli; questo causò un’intensa migrazione interna dalle campagne alle città, con migliaia di persone che andarono a riempire le fila del sotto-proletariato urbano ai margini delle grandi metropoli. Contemporaneamente si affermò il cosiddetto desarrollismo, teoria economica di diretta derivazione dell’ISI, che però metteva in primo piano il concetto di sviluppo a scapito della redistribuzione della ricchezza; questi fattori......

Words: 6110 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Delta Airlines

...indication of where Argentina’s telecommunications industry stood relative to other countries’ telecom sectors in the early 2000s. 21 See Figure 2 on comparative costs for a long-distance telephone call in the year 2000. 6 A03-04-0011 Argentine economy. As a result, Argentina was experiencing large trade deficits, which forced the government to borrow heavily in order to finance them. This situation only grew worse after Brazil, Argentina’s principal trading partner, experienced a massive devaluation of its currency in January 1999. • Labor (and other) Costs. Because of the overvalued exchange rate, Argentina’s costs were very high, and labor costs were no exception.22 PY • Labor Laws. A legacy of the highly populist Peron era, the Argentine Labor Code was notoriously rigid. In May 2000, the Argentine Congress passed labor reform attempting to ease some aspects of this labor code. For example, the trial period for employees was extended to 180 days. During that time, employers could lay off workers without advance notice and no severance pay would be required. After that period, severance payments of one-eighteenth of the monthly salary for each month of service were mandatory, unless the company fired the employee for cause (fraud, violent insubordination, or another serious misdemeanor).23 However, Argentina’s strong labor unions continued actively to oppose such attempts to reform these policies, and full implementation seemed unlikely in the......

Words: 5864 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Lifespan Development and Personality of Eva Peron

...Life Span Development and Personality of Eva Peron Rhonda Hager PSY/300 June 18, 2012 Teresa Neal Life Span Development and Personality of Eva Peron Introduction Many factors influence the way a person will develop and the personality they will have. Scientists have long debated on the subject of heredity versus environment and how each effects the way a person develops. Different theories have also been discovered to explain a person’s personality. In this paper we will look at how heredity and environment played a role in the development of Eva Peron. We will also discuss how the different theories of personality explain the woman she became. Influences of Heredity and Environment Eva Peron was born on May 7, 1919 in Los Toldos, Argentina. Her mother, Juana Ibarguren, was the mistress of Juan Duarte, a local land owner. Juana had a large personality. She was the type of person who got what she wanted. She worked in the kitchen of the Duarte house and set her eyes on Juan Duarte. Not long after she became pregnant with her first child. It was not uncommon for men of means in Argentina to have mistresses; instead it was assumed that they would. Juan Duarte provided for Juana and her children to the extent that he could, while keeping them away from his wife and family. Eva was born into poverty and the entire family, mother and five children, shared a one room home (Barnes, 1935). Since she was not from the poorest class of people, her neighbors......

Words: 1216 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

El Paramo Del Ciudadano

...gélida de una sociedad que buscaba acallar las experiencias pasadas como medio de limpieza de lo que fue una de las más sórdidas experiencias sociales de los últimos tiempos: la dictadura militar. La figura de Pinochet con su traspiración pegajosa, del aliento de los miles de chilenos vejados, desaparecidos, torturados. Del sucio de las calles, de la pobreza de la crisis económica provocada por el modelo económico bestial implementado por sus secuaces. Dentro de este Iceberg se escondería, la imagen del dictador. Un primer empeño, postula Moulian, sería la necesidad de borrar la memoria colectiva, como cuando se experimenta un evento traumático. Una acción deliberada y pensada desde el estado, que comenzaría con ello un lavado de imagen de Pinochet desde dos premisas: Chile Modelo y Pinochet necesario. Chile modelo de transición y Pinochet como la consecuencia inevitable de una tragedia nacional. “era necesario” Esto dejaría tácita la idea de que las consecuencias de su traición serían aceptables e inevitables. Sin embargo, esta situación de silencio dirigido no cura las heridas provocadas por el pasado. Más bien seguirán latentes. La idea del consenso corona al olvido. Evoca una falsa armonía. La visión de la economía neoliberal pinochetista como la economía de Pinochet. Una jugada que nos diluye en ellos. Relega a la política como “la historia de pequeñas variaciones”. Sin embargo el miedo, como consecuencia del tormento vivido auspicia falsos acuerdos, que no son más que......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Unter Verdacht | Drunk History | Ant-Man 3D HOU BluRay 3D 1080p