Powerbase

In: Historical Events

Submitted By iamelle
Words 715
Pages 3
PERSONALITES AND POWERBASE

Lenin’s death created a power vacuum at the top of soviet politics. Whilst leading figures replaced him in various official capacties, no leader could replace his supremacy over party and government. This was the central problem facing the soviet communist party.

There were five contenders for the rule of Russia.

Stalin
Members of the Soviet government called Stalin ‘the grey blur’, meaning that there was nothing outstanding or controversial about him. He had played a minor role in the October Revolution and in the Russian Civil War. However, his real gift was for administration, and due to his peasant upbringing he understood the way that many ordinary Russians thought and acted. He also had a reputation for loyalty to Lenin. Nonetheless, when Lenin became ill, Stalin started disobeying his orders. Lenin’s Testament criticised him for this, but, as the Testament was kept secret, Lenin’s final instruction that Stalin should be sacked from his position within the Party was not widely known.

Trotsky
Trotsky was the most heroic of the contenders. Together with Lenin, he had planned and led the October Revolution and had commanded the Red Army during the Civil War. He was extremely glamorous, and a gifted theorist and orator, who inspired the loyalty of his troops. Trotsky had a radical vision for the future of Russia, which appealed to young and idealistic members of the Party. Indeed, Lenin’s Testament praised Trotsky as ‘the most outstanding member’ of the Party. However, he was also viewed as arrogant and too western by many more cautious communists who were reluctant to trust him because he only joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917.

Bukharin
Bukharin was the youngest of the contenders. Like Trotsky, he was known as a thinker and an orator. However, he lacked Trotsky’s arrogance, and for this reason Lenin described him as…...

Similar Documents

6 Steps Cover Letter

...Covby Regina Pontow Goals How To Use This Booklet Self-Confidence and Your Job Search Before and After Resumes 6 Steps To Create A Great Resume For Computer Information Students Worksheets for Steps 1 & 2 Computer Science Degree - Skills and Knowledge Gained From College Program Skill Lists, Sample Sentences and Transferable Skills Worksheets for Steps 3 to 5 12 Questions To Help You Describe Your Functional Headings Strategies That Blow Away Your Competition Marketing The 10 Hottest Skills Selling the Benefits of Your Skills Solving Employers' Hidden Needs Using PowerBase Statements How To Edit Sentences, Use Action Verbs and Quantify Worksheet for Step 6 Why Use A Targeted Resume Templates To Type Your Resume Before and After Cover Letters Before and After Thank You Letters Scanned and Internet Resumes Page(s) 3 3 4-5 6 - 11 12 - 15 16 - 17 18 19 - 29 30 - 31 32 - 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 46 48 50 52 - 45 47 49 51 55 I would like to thank Renton Technical College and its students for working with me to create the examples in this booklet. All student names, employers, addresses, etc. have been changed to fictitious information to protect privacy. Notice to Instructors / Schools: Individual instructors and the institutions they work for will be held legally and financially responsible for copyright violation, resulting statutory damages and legal fees. Do not copy or cut apart to copy. The U.S. Copyright Act and HR 2223 provide teacher photocopying guidelines......

Words: 26601 - Pages: 107

How the European Alliance Helped Cause World War 1

...How the European Alliance Helped Cause World War 1 Historians have spent many years analyzing the origins of World War 1. Many factors are considered by historians when asked this question; nationalism, imperialism, militarism, etc. However all of these factors are influenced and tied together by the alliance system in place at the time tensions in the Balkans erupted. In this time period the Ottoman Empire had lost much of its control and power in the corridor to Europe. Many of the leading nations of Europe sought to emplace their influence in this region to serve as an economical attributor to its powerbase. With land being the primary means of travel between the East and West, having control of the corridor would be extremely favorable for any leading power to impose taxes, control the flow of goods, and serve as a barrier against future invaders. Before 1914 the five Great Powers; Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia controlled Europe. In order to avoid conflict early on, the major powers went through great lengths to maintain a balance of power constructed from a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent. Germany was the chief orchestrator of these alliances when is first made a secret alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879 (Duffy, "The Causes of World War One"). Three years later Italy joined this “Dual Alliance” to form the Triple Alliance because it was annoyed with France for stopping its plans to......

Words: 1709 - Pages: 7

M&a Analysis of Daimler

...Chrysler feared another hostile take-over approach by Kerkorian and not having the financial back-up to survive intensified competition. The key players in both companies were the CEOs, Schrempp and Eaton, backed by their boards as companies power bases. At opposite to 1995’s negotiations only a small number of confidential executives were involved. Hence both parties found an agreement within a couple of months. 3.2. Integration Structure of DaimlerChrysler Because Daimler was the more powerful side, DaimlerChrysler became a German “Aktiengesellschaft” with Stuttgart as headquarter. The first board, headed by Schrempp and Eaton, had 10 Daimler members and 8 Chrysler members, because of Daimlers’ 2 non-automotive businesses. The real powerbase was the Integration Council led by the 2 CEOs, supported by 4 Daimler and 2 Chrysler executives. Through an early retirement statement Eaton made himself a “Lame Duck”. The Integration Council was pyramid-principle-organised. On the second level were 2 Integration Teams, then 100 Work Teams and finally 782 Sub Teams. 7 Key factors for a successful integration were (“This way, please”, LINDEN, Frank A. in Manager Magazin 09/98, p. 68): new organisational structure, fast decisions and process control. Digital decisions on all operating levels were required to avoid a Strategic Drift. The post-merger integration process had to be fast, but controlled. By October 1999 the board got restructured. The result was a 8:4 majority for......

Words: 3210 - Pages: 13

Duke University Children's Hopsital Case Study

...service and throw the customer quadrant out of balance. Similarly, if DCH could assign more number of patients to each nurse to improve the productivity of internal business quadrant, but that would give more scope to errors –a tradeoff that is totally unacceptable. Development and implementation of a BSC is a labor intensive task, since it is a methodology that is consensus driven. To make the BSC work, DCH started a pilot project, initiated a top-down reorganization and procedural work redesign, and developed a customized information system. The most challenging task for DCH however was to convince its employees to work in new ways. Doctors and managers initially viewed the move to organize them into teams as one that would cause their powerbase to shift. Almost all employees complained that a systematic approach to cost control was just like “cookbook medicine” (Meliones, 2000). It needed a lot of persuasion, reassurance, and persistence to get all employees at DCH to buy into the new process. For employees to change their minds, and for DCH to sell BSC throughout the organization, people had to see that the BSC could be successful in a pilot project in one of the hospital’s areas. The pilot project started in the pediatric ICU by reorganizing the roles that were played by people working in the ICU. Pediatric ICU transitioned from a mission-bound department to multidisciplinary, goal-oriented teams that each focused on a specific illness or disease. Such teams at......

Words: 1513 - Pages: 7

How Far Do You Agree That Without Soviet Interference, Eastern Europe Would Not Have Become Communist in the Post War Years?

...executions to establish terror and present to the public what would happen if communist rule was resisted, effectively quieting any opposition and forcing communist rule upon the people of Bulgaria. The final move towards complete imposed communism upon Bulgaria came in 1947 when all other parties were outlawed, making Bulgaria a communist country not by the choice of the people voting for what they wanted, but by Soviet intervention. However, one must acknowledge that there is evidence that some states within Eastern Europe may have become communist without the intervention of the Soviet Union. Czechoslovakia, for example, was the only Eastern European country to have a well-established Communist party prior to the War, which gave Stalin a powerbase to work with. In 1956, without Soviet interference, the Communists won 39% of the vote and dominated the government with their socialist allies. Despite the West seeing the events taking place in Czechoslovakia as sinister intervention on Stalin’s part, realistically the Czech non-communists political failings, combined with widespread support for the communists were the real reasons for the communist takeover here. In conclusion, one can clearly see that despite communism being present within Eastern European countries prior to and during the War, these groups were largely on a small scale and either unpopular or unorganised. In the majority of cases only after Soviet intervention did the communists take over the......

Words: 1147 - Pages: 5

How Far Were Divisions over the Continuation of the New Economic Policy Responsible for the Outcome of the Responsible for the Outcome of the Power Struggle in the Ears 1924-1929?

...political ambitions. Lenin legacy to the party definitely helped Stalin and if hadn’t been there Stalin may not have been able to achieve his ambition. Lenin had established the bureaucratic system of the party. Lenin created an administration which Stalin exploited with the role of General Secretary. Lenin also created the ban on factionalism which gave Stalin to remove opponents at high levels such as the Politburo numerous times. Stalin used this to show how opponents were betraying the memory of Lenin, and betraying the Communist Party itself. Thirdly Lenin’s desire to vastly expand the party membership worked in Stalin favour too, as it was Stalin again who enrolled the new loyal members into the party to give himself a stronger powerbase. It may seem that Lenin gave Stalin a good place to start off however his testament could have ruined Stalin’s career. “Has unlimited authority concentrated in his hands…with sufficient caution?” Lenin had called for Stalin to be removed from office. However there was early failure by his rivals to get rid of Stalin. Underestimating him, they ignored Lenin’s wish to get rid of him. By not publishing Lenin’s Testament to the public, his rivals allowed the myth of Stalin as s natural successor to Stalin grow. Finally Stalin himself was a factor in the outcome of the power struggle because his skills of cunningness and skills allowed him to rise to power. Stalin saw the potential in the position of General Secretary unlike all the......

Words: 1918 - Pages: 8

Norman Conquest Change and Continuity

...owned by the King had decreased from 17% to 2%, and with it much power had been lost. Perhaps the underlying continuity from Anglo-Saxon times, regarding the way in which the system worked, that is land for service and the idea of patrons and clients meant that the potential change was never fully able to manifest itself. It eventually resulted in the late Anglo-Saxon phenomenon of a larger lesser elite, returning to defy these potentially revolutionary changes. Another very important issue to consider is the church. It retained its basic power and influence, keeping 20% of land and continuing to have a key role as land holders, royal advisers and in the running of local towns and communities. The fact that the church had such a large powerbase made it very important that the Normans established their control over this. They did this in many ways. One such way was to replace the English bishops and abbots with the Norman aristocracy. In 1070 archbishop Stigand was finally removed and replaced by Lanfranc and in 1069 Ealdred of York died and replaced by Thomas of Bayeux. Normans taking over these two positions were particularly important as York was the religious centre of the North and Canterbury the religious centre of the whole country. By 1080 there was only one English bishop left in the whole county. This new Norman ecclesiastical society could now look after Norman interests in the courts and in the governance of the country. After the conquest old Anglo-Saxon style......

Words: 2489 - Pages: 10

Why Were Stalin’s Opponents Unable to Prevent Him from Becoming Leader of the Ussr by 1929?

...Why were Stalin’s opponents unable to prevent him from becoming leader of the USSR by 1929? Within this essay question I’m going to be discussing four different factors that aided Joseph Stalin in becoming leader of the USSR by 1929. These four factors are Trotsky’s errors, errors of others, powerbases and Stalin’s own skills. Personally I believe, based on my current knowledge of all four factors, that the powerbases is going to be a highly significant factor in terms of why Stalin’s opponents were unable to prevent him becoming leader. However, the other three factors are still very important and also played a role in helping Stalin. Therefore, I will be discussing all four of the factors and what effects they had. Errors made by Leon Trotsky were some of the main reasons why Stalin was able to become leader of the USSR by 1929. After Lenin’s death in 1924 there was wide speculation that Trotsky, head of the red army would succeed Lenin. Lenin wrote a testament outlining his opinions on the head Bolsheviks, and Stalin was described as being very dangerous and should be dismissed from the party immediately. However despite this, Stalin eventually became the leader of the USSR. The reason why Trotsky was the most likely candidate to succeed Lenin was because he was very popular among young communists, this was due to his revolutionary heroism in 1905, 1917 and during the civil war, coupled with his stirring speeches. However, despite the fact that Trotsky was clearly more......

Words: 1884 - Pages: 8

Decolonization

...Br emp became more liberal * The 48th parallel = movie depiciting a variety of cultures in the emoire * As post war imperial power shifted – br and fr believed they could retain influence through harnessing material *& political influence – Ie. Br welfare act * This countries wished for a thierd force in international politics * What was clear = EU countries had to change the nature of their empires ; however de-colonisaltion would take a lot longer to happen – 60 yrs in Africa * The Br voter could both have their imperial cake and eat at home too * Wh y did empires unravl so quickly if they had been revitilised after WW2? * Looking at reich ; 100yrs – only lasted 12 yrs, Mussolini Italy, permament powerbase = collapsed, Japan and imperialist aims = collapsed too ; Br emperial hold = collapsed * WW2 events that led to fall of emp ; Political ideology of allies ; they fought for self determination & againsts facism This gave nationalists ability to declare independence = communications would be anti – imperial by nature * Another key factor = demise of European prestige – George Orwell remained critical of empire – for most maintaining prestige at all time, remembering ‘ we withiet men must stick together’ - , ‘give them no room to breath’ – orwell’s 5maxims for empire * In other words in order for emepire s to function humility was not possible * Idea of racial superiority as a belief to imeprialise was nto......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Leadership

...Green as a senior marketing specialist wants to be consulted in marketing matters as if he is the director and that’s why he says ““It can’t be done with our current offerings. I was with clients in New York, Boston, and Orlando last week. Airline kiosks represent a mature, saturated market. The airlines are hurting, and they’re flocking to competing web-based check-in and asking why they should keep buying an outmoded product that’s expensive to install and maintain. Web services do the same thing but cheaper.”” Personal power base that has been used One of the powerbase that has been used is coercive power; this is evident where Davis forces Tom to agree that his growth target for the eastern region for next year’s is 15%. “Silence. At last, Frank spoke. “As I said, Tom’s growth target for the Eastern region for next year is 15%. Now, does anyone object to moving on to South Central? Good.” Another powerbase that has been used is expert power; this is illustrated by conversation between Green and McDonald “Tom, you’re ambitious and creative,” she’d begun, solemnly. “This group needs a fresh perspective, and I’m willing to take a chance with you. But you’ll have to learn quickly” Legitimate power is also used. This is the power that comes with position or authority. Davis uses this power to force employees below him including Thomas into his own proposals without allowing them to air their views so that they can harmonies. He also uses his authority to punish Tom by......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Eastman Industry Analysis

...satisfying 13.1% of domestic demand. The largest import countries include Japan (accounting for 15.1% of industry imports), China (15.7%), Canada (10.5%) and France (7.8%), of key import products such as photographic films, papers, plates and related chemicals. Of the nearly $1.5 billion of photography products imports, nearly 57.0% come from Japan, which is home to Fujifilm, the world's largest photographic film and paper manufacturer. Over the five years to 2015, imports are expected to increase at an average annual rate of 3.4 %. The catchall product segment of miscellaneous chemical products and preparations essentially accounts for all other industry imports. These products are sourced from neighboring countries, the traditional chemical powerbases (i.e. Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom) and newly emerging chemical producing nations like China. This product segment accounts also accounts for about 77.0% of all industry exports, with Canada, Mexico, Singapore and China being key destinations. Although imports are expected to grow in consecutive years over the current period, exports have fluctuated somewhat. Appendix C 5 Forces Model of Competition Appendix D Works Cited Eastman Chemical Company. (2015, March 27). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:16, August 11, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eastman_Chemical_Company&oldid=653755234 Eastman Chemical Company. (2015, August 11) Company Website.......

Words: 2742 - Pages: 11

How Far Do You Agree That Stalin’s Ability to Manipulate the Party Machine Was the Key to His Success in the Leadership Struggle?

...eliminated all credible opponents from the leadership battle. Stalin suddenly went on to blast the NEP and favour rapid industrialisation and a force for the kulaks. To Trotsky, Bukharin’s backing of the NEP suggested he was too capitalist and was neglecting the working class and undermining Communism. However, Trotsky’s theory of permanent revolution also seemed too extreme. By Stalin differing his positions on the NEP through to the mid 1920s before deciding to rapidly industrialise at the end of the 1920s, he was supported by most of the party because he responded to the mood of the times and had loyal supporters. Stalin forced Bukharin to admit his political errors by accusing him of factionalism. This heavily damaged Bukharin and his powerbase as party theorist and communications, which stopped not only Bukharin but also his allies Rykov and Tomsky. This resulted in a political structure which was entirely dominated by Stalinist delegates who ensured votes in Stalin’s favour. Another reason for the succession of Stalin to become Communist party leader is because he came out top when personal rivalries between the contenders occurred. Stalin tricked Trotsky into not turning up for Lenin’s funeral. This undermined Trotsky’s credibility and led to accusations of disloyalty to Lenin. This also ensured that Stalin could take on the responsibility of Leninism to transfer Lenin’s prestige to himself. Zinoviev and Kamenev were also hugely willing to attack......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Change

...networks must be trusted by the leader, and familiar with the leader's thought processes. * Select The Type of Change - Two forms of change are revolutionary change and evolutionary change. * Select The Right Metaphor - Selection of metaphors requires connections or mutual influences among words, mind-sets, and behaviors. * Create the Vision - Successful change is hinged on a picture of a desirable future. A Vision can provide a corporate sense of being and purpose. * Expand the Target Audience - Through communication channels a leader can strategically begin to expand discussions to broader cross organizational teams, paying careful attention to their reactions, suggestions, and alternatives. * Gather and Broaden the Powerbase - As the strategic leader clarifies the details around the need for change, he/she will need to pay attention to the power figures within the organization. * Alert the Organization - A formal announcement of change will be needed after studying the issues and building support for change. * Communicate The Vision - Change is not possible unless people are willing to help. The most powerful communication is the behavior of the strategic leaders in the organization in their support of the vision. * Create A Sense of Urgency - If people think that the organization is doing fine, there will be little motivation for change. A strategic leader can create that sense of urgency by presenting the facts and the undesirable......

Words: 1806 - Pages: 8

In What Ways Could It Be Argued That Fascist Foreign Policy Led Directly to the Fall of the Regime? Do You Agree with This Assessment?

...1937 Italy followed Germany’s lead of withdrawing from the League of Nations and thus directed Italy to further pursue their aim of autarky more intensively. Mussolini tried to make the country more independent by reducing trade with Allies (Macgregor Knox, page 286), also serving to distance themselves further from Britain and France. Although the League of Nations’ inadequacies seemed like an initial victory for Italy given that Britain and France were viewed as weak, it lured Mussolini into a false sense of security of underestimating them. By distancing themselves from the League of Nations, Italy had indirectly consigned themselves to closer relationship with Germany. In regards to short-term success, Mussolini boosted his domestic powerbase and ego by rallying patriotism upon winning. Furthermore, Mussolini was shrewd in using Abyssinia to distract Italians from domestic problems such as the failing economy. However, these were merely short-term successes that were undermined by the devastating long-term effects such as distancing themselves from Europe and growing closer to Germany. With everything considered, it highlighted the inefficiency of the Italian military whilst also indirectly pushing Italy closer towards Germany. By the end of the Abyssinian invasion, it was clear that Europe was being carved into two defining sides, eventually known as the Allies and the Axis Powers. Italy’s decision to assist Franco in the Spanish Civil War on July 27, 1936 was a......

Words: 2077 - Pages: 9

Leadership Evaluation and Leadership Philosophy

...Choosing an Ethical Villain for Iron Man 3 Grand Canyon University: MGT-605 05/22/2016 Choosing an Ethical Villain for Iron Man 3 The purpose of this paper is to discuss the controversial decisions taken by the production company Marvel Studios in the movie Iron Man 3 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the leadership techniques used, in terms of powerbases, influence tactics, and leadership style by CEO, Isaac “Ike” Perlmutter. This paper will also evaluate the potential outcome of the situation from a servant leadership perspective. Ethical Situation Shane Black, the director and co-writer of Iron Man 3, in an interview with Uproxx, has revealed that he was forced to change the entire original Iron Man 3 script in order to swap the gender of the film’s villain from female to male after pressure from the production company Marvel, which feared female toy merchandise would not sell as well as the male version (Ryan, 2016). From the interview, it sounds like Rebecca Hall could have been the real villain behind Aldrich Killian instead of what we saw on the big screen. Changes like this happen during rewrites all the time, but hearing that this decision was made simply because it would impact toy sales is shocking. This is the ugly side of having a franchise that pulls in millions of dollars in revenue from merchandise. Black points out the decision must have been made by Ike who has already been called out several times for his lack of diversity, in terms of gender...

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6

Unicorn Pug - Color By Number Pixel No Draw | 1x06 El combatiente (Kriger) | 6ml BORN PRETTY Vernis à Ongles Gel Polish Nail Art UV Semi Permanent Manucure