Relationships Between China and Kazakhstan

In: Business and Management

Submitted By bondboy68
Words 573
Pages 3
i) Historical development

The People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan formed diplomatic relations on January 3, 1992. The two nations signed their first boundary agreement in April 1994, a supplementary agreement in September, 1997, and their second supplementary boundary agreement in July 1998 to mark their 1,700 kilometers (1,100 mi) shared border. In 1993, the President of Kazakhstan Nursulta Nazarbayev made an official visit to Beijing at the invitation of the then-Chinese President Jiang Zemin. Since then, the leaders of China and Kazakhstan have frequently exchanged high-level official visits. In 1996, both nations became co-founders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

Aimed at bolstering regional partnership on regional security, economic development and fighting terrorism and drug trafficking amongst Central Asian nations, Kazakhstan and China become co-founders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).In developing ties with China, Kazakhstan aims to balance the geopolitical and economic influence of its northern neighbour Russia. However, potential conflicts exist around China's the cultural ties between the Kazakh people and the Uighurs of China's Xinjiang province, which could influence a Uighur separatist movement. China also aims to prevent the growth of U.S. influence in the region and the possible establishment of American air bases in Kazakhstan. In 1997, both nations signed an agreement to reduce the presence of military forces along the common border along with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.

ii) Potentials for Cooperation

China and Kazakhstan have promoted a rapid expansion of commerce and partnership over economic development, especially in harnessing Kazakhstan's oil, natural gas, minerals and other major energy resources. Owing to rapidly expanding domestic energy needs, China has sought to obtain a leading role in…...

Similar Documents

Discuss the Benefits and Drawbacks to Both Parts of China of the Close Relationship Between Hong Kong and Mainland China of China of the close relationship between Hong Kong and mainland china Hong Kong has enjoyed the benefits of being a capitalist economy and independent from mainland China for over 150 years under British colony without much relationship with China. Even though Hong Kong is now part of China with a strong tie, the Chinese central government valued having a successful capitalist economy in the greater China, consequently they have agreed to preserve the capitalist economy in the Sino-British agreement 1984. In this agreement, China has agreed on preserving the capitalist economy for 50 years after the return of Hong Kong on the 1st July 1997. Hong Kong is now one of the two Special Administrative Regions (SAR) in China having an independent economy with ties to mainland China. This decision had a positive influence on both the Chinese and Hong Kong economy and contributed towards the rapid growth of the Chinese economy and the expansion of Hong Kong as a financial centre in the recent years because now Chinese firms are able to easily reach the international market from Hong Kong. On the other hand, it still has drawbacks and potential threats from China having strong relationship, a free-trade agreement with a capitalist economy such as; large firms with large sums of liquidity and stability moving out of mainland China to preserve its wealth. This paper will discuss the benefit and drawbacks to both parts from an economics perspective for Hong Kong and China having......

Words: 1656 - Pages: 7

China and Us Complex Relationship

...Introduction The US and China have always been involved with one another; they have a very complicated history, the two function very differently in areas of politics, economics, and social issues. These disparities have hindered the way both countries conduct business with each other, particularly in the area of international trade. Like any international trading relationship government policies affect the way business is conducted. For example, piracy is very common in China; piracy is the unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted or patented material. In some cases a government can affect international trade flows by its lacks of restrictions on piracy. In the case with the relationship between the US and China some may argue that piracy is a major contributor to the uneven nature of financial flows and trade between the United States and China. The US has a large trade deficit with China, but there is little legislation between the US and China forcing China’s government to officially address the issue of piracy in their country. The Trade Relationship between China and the United States The trading relationship between China and the US dates as far back as 1784 when the empress of China decided to open trade between the US and China. At that time the US had very few possessions to offer; however several hundred years later after several wars, changes in leadership, economic needs, and industrial revolutions a more in-depth trading relationship evolved. While......

Words: 473 - Pages: 2

Relationship Between Language and Perception

...Other materials that need to hand in: BlogSpot: Beyond Blogspot statement: My abstract is definitely beyond the Blogspot. In the Blogspot, the author discussed the controversial question “does language effect/reflect thought” by mentioning a few research results that are in favour of the Whorf hypothesis, but also pointing out that the language pattern/structure does not affect how people perceive an event. In my opinion, thoughts are always being expressed by language, therefore it is much harder to figure out the relationship between language and thoughts because they are too closely link to each other. Therefore, I decide to investigate the relationship between language and perception. Perception, in my point of view, is more intuitional and can be separated from language more easily than thoughts. In my abstract, I will display 4 evidences that show the effect of language on perceptions. Research Plan: My research question is “does language affect perception”. The sources I am planning to use are evidences/examples of how language influences on people’s perceptions (such as perception of colour, phonetic, appreciations and etc.) My tentative answer to this question is “yes, language does have effect on perceptions”. I will use the research results from the studies that I cited to show that language does affect people’s perception of the world. A short statement about my......

Words: 1727 - Pages: 7

Relationship Between the Savings Rate and Economic Growth of China

...Relationship between the Savings Rate and Economic Growth of China By: Muhammad Saddam Hossain Institute of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University Submitted to: Dr. Shuddhasattwa Rafiq Associate Professor, Institute of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University Submitted by: Muhammad Saddam Hossain Batch: 21st Class ID: 1565 Date of Submission: June 11, 2013 Institute of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University 1 Table of Contents: Contents 1. Introduction 2. Savings Rate 3. China’s High Savings Rates 4. How to calculate Savings Rate a. Private saving b. Public saving c. National Saving d. Savings Rate 5. China’s Comparative Savings Rate 6. Relationship between the saving rate and economic growth 7. Savings Rate Vs Economic Growth of China 8. Conclusion Page 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 9 Illustrations: Contents  Figure 1: National Saving Rate by Region  Figure 2: Relation Between savings rate and Growth  Figure 3: Saving and Investment Rate of China  Table 1: National Reserves by Countries Page 5 6 7 8 2 Introduction: A savings rate is refers to the percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) savings by households in a country. It indicates the financial state and growth of the country, as household saving is the main source of government borrowing to fund public services. It varies among countries and is influenced by various factors such as retirement age, borrowing constraints, income distribution over......

Words: 1982 - Pages: 8

Us China Relationship

...GNlu | US-CHINA RELATIONS | SUBMITTED TO:Dr.Aruna Kumar Malik | | SUBMITTED BY :ABHISHEK CHATTERJEE | REG NO :11A006 INDEX Introduction Pg 2 US China Comparison Pg 3 Brief History Of US-China Relations Pg 5 Conclusion Pg 21 INTRODUCTION Since the dawn of civilization there have been great nations, 5000 years back the Mesopotamian,Egyptian and Indus Valley Civilization were the super-powers,if not the only advanced civilization of their time,2000 years back we had the roman empire and the chineese,500 years back the mughal empire,the ottoman empire etc. The world order keeps on changing, the end of the first world war saw the rise of America along the ranks of other European superpowers like the British Empire,France and Germany and saw the fall of 2 superpowers,the ottoman and the Austria-hungry empire. The second world war ushered the modern world into a new world order. The United Nations was born and its membership suddenly grew. The United States brought about reconstruction of the war torn economies of Europe and Japan and ensured stable democracies for her new......

Words: 8393 - Pages: 34

Relationships Between China and Kazakhstan

...Chairmanship of Kazakhstan in OSCE The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Originally in 1975 there was a  Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland. It includes issues such as arms control and the promotion of human rights, freedom of the press and fair elections. It has 550 headquarters staff and about 2300 field staff. The OSCE deals with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its 57 participating states are located in Europe, Asia and North America and cover most of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. It was created during the Cold War era. The six official languages of the OSCE are English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, and Russian. Political direction of organization is given by heads of state or government during summits. Summits are not regular or scheduled but held as needed. The last summit took place in Astana (Kazakhstan), on 1 and 2 December 2010.  It was the  first time when the Organisation has been led by a post-Soviet, Asian and Muslim country. At the same time the OSCE, whose mission is promoting democracy, is being chaired by an authoritarian state.
Kazakhstan has been entrusted with the OSCE’s chairmanship because our country within less than twenty years of independence, has modernised and reached an economic development, it has ambitious foreign policy...

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

The Difference Between China and France

...Cultural Comparison Between China and France Introduction From my first step in france 3 months ago, the first thing I could say is that France is facinating and fancy me. I also wonder that france and china are really different countries. In fact, France and China have a different economy, and don’t have the same culture. The purpose of this report is to compared with the diference between France and China ,since the difference exists in too many aspects. Culture Here is a table of basic information of China and France: |French |China | |Area |674,843 Km2 |9,596.960 Km2 | |Population |65 million |1.2 billion | |Capital city |Paris |Beijing | |People |95% French people and 5% people from foreign country |93% Han Chinese and 7% immigrants | |Main language |French |Mandarin | |Major industries |consumption goods,auto industry,machinery and so on. |iron,steel,coal,machinery, textiles and so on. | |Currency |Euro |RenMinbi | | China geographically vast a land of great diversity,it`s the third largest country.France is a one of bigest country in europ,and about six countries(Belgium,Luxembourg and Germany to the north-east,Switzerland and Italy ascross the Alps to the south-east and Spain Across the pyrenees to the South-west). On the other hand,I find some very interesting differences,French people brush their teeth after eating breakfast but in China people always brush their teeth when they week up and before they eat breakfast.In China the 1st floor is the...

Words: 1135 - Pages: 5

Economic Relationship Between the U.S. and China

...Richard Nixon, the United States resumed its economic relationship with the nation of China; in 1979, a bilateral trade agreement was signed by the two countries. Today, China has become one of the largest trading partners with the United States, trailing only behind Canada and Mexico. The United States benefits with this trade agreement due to the large and growing consumer market for U.S. firms and the Chinese imports cost less due to the low labor cost in China. The nation of China benefits due to the increased integration with world economy through overseas education and trade, creating awareness on issues such as environment and human rights. The numerous benefits of this union between two powerhouses of the world economy bring many negative issues. The first issue that affects many Americans today is the loss of jobs due to outsourcing and importing rather than producing goods here in the United States. From the years 2001 to 2010, the trade deficit with China caused the loss of 2.8 million jobs in the U.S. This affects the Untied States’ economy by increasing the number of Americans receiving unemployment insurance and food stamps. One example of this outsourcing is Nike, Incorporated which produces an estimated forty percent of its shoe output in Chinese factories. However, Nike Inc. justifies this outsourcing because profit margins are dependent on labor cost. Another issue with the union between U.S. and China is the lack of flexibility of China’s exchange......

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Iran & China Historical Relationships

...Iran & China Historical Relations Compiled and written in parts by: Arash Akrami Introduction History of relationships between Iran & China can be viewed and written from two perspectives, a Chinese perspective or an Iranian one. Goal of this short paper is to catch a few points based on both perspectives. First of all it’ll brief on the first signs of relationships between two nations in the bed of history. And then a little treat on current similarities and what is happening in the current days. Back in the history Name of China in Persian language written as چین read exactly as Qin in pinyin writing of Chinese mandarin language implies the starting point of mutual acquaintance going back till the time of Qin dynasty in China which coincides with the rule Arsacid dynasty (Parthian Empire) in Iran. However the oldest document currently available about these relationships points out to the time of Chinese Han Dynasty and Iranian Parthian Empire(247 BC - 224 AD). These relations continued further up to next Iranian dynasty of Sassanids and after invasion of Arabs to Iran and continued in different forms of commercial, religious, cultural & scientific transactions. Mutual relations before Islam An outstanding document from Chinese part is Zhang Qian words in Shiji 史记 one of the most reliable records on Chinese history written by grand Chinese historian Sima Qian 司马迁. The Chinese explorer Zhang Qian, who visited the neighbouring countries......

Words: 2077 - Pages: 9

Relationship Between China and Africa

...and Trade Relationship Between China and Africa Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, China and Africa have developed a long-standing friendship. This is evidenced by the cooperation in political, economic, and cultural areas. They have created a new type of strategic partnership based on political equality and mutual trust, economic cooperation and cultural exchanges. China has demonstrated respect for African countries by actively encouraging cooperation and providing aid between Chinese and African businesses. With china being the largest developing country and Africa being the continent with the most number of developing countries, their trade and economic relations have not only played a significant role in promoting their respective progress, but has also helped to win the attention and support of the international community to Africa's development. Currently, China is one of Africa’s most important trade partners. In this essay, I will endorse the understanding of China and Africa’s relationship. When the founding of the People’s Republic of China occurred in 1949, it also marked the initiation of China-Africa trade and economic relations. While African countries fought for national liberation and China worked to safeguard its own sovereignty and territorial integrity, they both supported one another by friendship and mutual trust. They laid a good political foundation for their future growth of trade and economic relationship. In......

Words: 3120 - Pages: 13

China-Us Canada Relationship

...(Statistics, Canada, 2012). Post 1960, the new staple in the resource landscape for Canada was Energy. Until this time, though some local sources were available on the Prairies and in Nova Scotia, Canada had relied on coal imports. In 1957, there was a major oil discovery in Alberta at Leduc, which lead to a major and dramatic expansion of crude oil and natural gas industry, the effects of which are still evident till date. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) removed most of the trade barriers for Canadian producers in US markets. Between 1990 and 2000, the export volumes of forest products increased at a compound annual rate of 4.4%, more than doubling the growth in forest products exports. The forest product export prices also rose at a compound annual rate of 3.2% per year, which outpaced the 2.3% compound annual growth in export goods prices (Statistics, Canada, 2012). As mentioned in the above paragraphs, the trade relationship between the United States and Canada is the closest and most extensive in the world (Anonymous, 2013). Trade with the United States has long been the foundation of the Canadian economy. Though Canada is making considerable efforts to expand to new markets and diversify its commercial activities in order to take advantage of opportunities arising across the globe, Canada has always acknowledged the paramount role of its closest neighbour to the south. This role was reconfirmed in 2012, as the United States simultaneously increased its......

Words: 7332 - Pages: 30

What Is the Impact of Tension Relationship Between Japan and China in the Past Ten Years?

...Background of Japan and China relationship 2. The causes of the tense relationship between Japan and China in the past ten years 2.1 The visitation of Yasukuni shrine 2.1.1 Background of Yasukuni shrine 2.1.2 Leaders of Japan and Yasukuni shrine 2.1.3Yasukuni’s international relation 2.2 The DiaoYu island incident 2.2.1 Background of DiaoYu island 2.2.2 Recent situation of DiaoYu island and its impact on economic activities 3.Effects of tense relationship between Japan and China 3.1 Negative economic effect for both countries 3.1.1 Japanese companies in China 3.1.2 Chinese workers in Japan 3.2 Economic importance 3.2.1 China as a economic partner to Japan 3.2.2 Japan as a economic partner of China 3.2.3 Japan is looking for alternative Conclusion Introduction: Background of Japan and China relationship China and Japan has been stayed in a very peaceful manner from the past 30 years. The signing of the "Sino-Japanese Joint Statement", "Sino-Japanese Treaty of Peace and Friendship", "Sino-Japanese Joint Declaration" built a peaceful foundation for Japan and China after World War Two.(Burns, 2000) Moreover, after Deng Xiaoping visited Japan and started his “opening-up” policy, China has opened up her economy door to Japan and the interactions of economic and culture between two......

Words: 2039 - Pages: 9

On the Relationship Between Stock Return

...On the Relationship between stock return and exchange rate: evidence on China Yaqiong Li a b , Lihong Huang b a b The Business School, Loughborough University ,UK College of Mathematics and Econometrics, Hunan University, Changsha ,Hunan ,China Abstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between RMB exchange rate and A-share stock returns in China, in particular in Shanghai stock market. We find that both stock returns and RMB nominal exchange rate are integrated of order 1. The Engle–Granger cointegration test is then performed, suggesting that there is not a long-run equilibrium relationship between stock returns and RMB exchange rates at 5% significance level. However, there is strong evidence suggesting that there is a short-run uni-directional causality relationship from the nominal exchange rate to the stock returns. Keywords: cointegration; Granger causality; RMB exchange rate; stock return; unit root test. 1. Introduction The China’s exchange rate policy has recently emerged as one of major issues in the trade between the PR of China and the United States of America. The controversy is fuelled by China’s pegging of RMB to USD. Since a major devaluation of the RMB in 1994, the Chinese currency’s exchange rate vis-a-vis USD remained more or less unchanged until 21 July 2005, and has fluctuated from RMB 8.22 to 8.11 per dollar since then. The Chinese Authority has recently announced that “RMB will be no longer pegged to the US......

Words: 4070 - Pages: 17

Relationshiop Between China and Africa

...Relationship Between China And Africa Assignment Submitted For the International Management Module at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Business School Prepared By Ayankoya Kayode A Foli, Edem Mpongoshe, Lukhanyiso Hurrisunker, Sanisha Maqina, Chumani Introduction This assignment examines the strategic relationship between China and Africa. The first section provides statistics that reveal the extent of trade between China and Africa since 2000. The specific statistics center around the amount of natural resources exported to China and compares that to the amount of imports from China. After gaining insight into the extent of business between the two, one can begin to understand why Africa is so important to China. This importance is discussed in more detail against the backdrop of the historical background of these two regions. The following section explains the strategy that China has adapted to trade with Africa and introduces the concept of the “Chinese Model”. This model highlights the driving forces behind China’s strategic decisions and introduces some controversial arguments around some of the methods that China has adopted. An important part of this discussion is the comparison of China’s strategy with that of the West (i.e. regions like the United States of America (USA/US) and the European Union (EU). Some interesting statistics reveal that Africa is attracting significant amounts of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)......

Words: 5597 - Pages: 23

Relationship Between the Individual and Society

...Relationship Between the Individual and Society From the late Qing Dynasty to the early Republic of China, China was in the social transformation era. More accurately, people was in the alternating period of the feudal traditional conservative ideology and emerging modern thoughts. Hence, the authors always wrote the stories about how individuals reacted to such social changes. Like three stories, Lu Xun’s “A Madman’s Diary,” Yu Dafu’s “Sinking,” Mao Dun’s “Spring Silkworm” which depict how the individuals’ respond when they face two totally different ideologies or moral codes. These three stories show three different conditions, three different choices, and lead to three different results. One common thing is that all protagonists are suffering in that old society. First, Lu Xun’s “A Madman’s Diary” describes a madman who is the first rebel in modern literary history. The madman was born in the feudal scholar-bureaucrat family, everyone lived around him was bound by the feudalism. However, he was not one of them, he had modern thoughts and yearn for a just society. Unfortunately, he could not find a person with a like-minded goal, and everyone else saw him as a madman. He thought that society was an “eat people” world. For example, he read history intently half the night until he saw the whole book was filled with the two words “eat people”. He thought the history were all wrote about how the powerful people oppress the poor. And he felt sorrow that such merciless......

Words: 1355 - Pages: 6

40 Amazing 3D - Abstract HD Wallpapers Up to 5K [Set 5] zip | | Apocalypse