Routing Approaches of Delay Tolerant Networks

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Avish
Words 6818
Pages 28
©2010 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887) Volume 1 – No. 17

Routing Approaches in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Survey
R. J. D'Souza
National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India

Johny Jose
National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India

ABSTRACT
Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have evolved from Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). It is a network, where contemporaneous connectivity among all nodes doesn’t exist. This leads to the problem of how to route a packet from one node to another, in such a network. This problem becomes more complex, when the node mobility also is considered. The researchers have attempted to address this issue for over a decade. They have found that communication is possible in such a challenged network. The design of routing protocol for such networks is an important issue. This work surveys the literature and classifies the various routing approaches. discontinuity in the network. There are also methods that have employed additional mobile nodes, to provide better message delivery. Researchers are even exploring how the social interaction of humans can be utilized for routing in a DTN. This survey has made an extensive study of the various routing strategies taken by the researchers in the past few years. We have classified them based on the type of knowledge used for routing.

2. FLOODING BASED APPROACHES
Knowledge about the network helps in deciding the best next hop. It can happen that the network has absolutely no knowledge about the network. In such a scenario, all nodes are made relay nodes. Such schemes are called epidemic routing schemes. The basic concept of epidemic routing is to flood the packets, like the virus spreading in an epidemic. That is, a node copies its message to all the nodes that come in contact with it, provided the recipient node does not have a copy of…...

Similar Documents

Computer Networks

...World. His home page on the World Wide Web can be found at URL http://www.cs.vu.nl/~ast/ . Preface This book is now in its fourth edition. Each edition has corresponded to a different phase in the way computer networks were used. When the first edition appeared in 1980, networks were an academic curiosity. When the second edition appeared in 1988, networks were used by universities and large businesses. When the third edition appeared in 1996, computer networks, especially the Internet, had become a daily reality for millions of people. The new item in the fourth edition is the rapid growth of wireless networking in many forms. The networking picture has changed radically since the third edition. In the mid-1990s, numerous kinds of LANs and WANs existed, along with multiple protocol stacks. By 2003, the only wired LAN in widespread use was Ethernet, and virtually all WANs were on the Internet. Accordingly, a large amount of material about these older networks has been removed. However, new developments are also plentiful. The most important is the huge increase in wireless networks, including 802.11, wireless local loops, 2G and 3G cellular networks, Bluetooth, WAP, i-mode, and others. Accordingly, a large amount of material has been added on wireless networks. Another newly-important topic is security, so a whole chapter on it has been added. Although Chap. 1 has the same introductory function as it did in the third edition, the contents have been revised and brought up...

Words: 292171 - Pages: 1169

Advanced Routing

...Linux Advanced Routing & Traffic Control HOWTO Bert Hubert Netherlabs BV Gregory Maxwell Remco van Mook Martijn van Oosterhout Paul B Schroeder Jasper Spaans Revision History Revision 1.1 DocBook Edition 2002−07−22 A very hands−on approach to iproute2, traffic shaping and a bit of netfilter. Linux Advanced Routing & Traffic Control HOWTO Table of Contents Chapter 1. Dedication.........................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 2. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................2 2.1. Disclaimer & License.......................................................................................................................2 2.2. Prior knowledge................................................................................................................................2 2.3. What Linux can do for you...............................................................................................................3 2.4. Housekeeping notes..........................................................................................................................3 2.5. Access, CVS & submitting updates..................................................................................................3 2.6. Mailing list..............................................

Words: 28706 - Pages: 115

Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

...Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: application on Fire Detection Abstract: this paper is about fire detection in building using a modified APTEEN routing protocol. Here we design a system called iFireControl which is a smart detection system for buildings, which is more water efficient than many current systems, while keeping its robustness. introduction A Wireless Sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensors activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; nowadays such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, Agriculture, Area Monitoring, Smart Home Monitoring, Seismic Monitoring etc. Wireless Sensor Networks provide a bridge between the real physical and virtual worlds; allow the ability to observe the previously unobservable at a fine resolution over large spatio-temporal scales. The WSN is built of “nodes” from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a...

Words: 4845 - Pages: 20

Routing Protocol

...EIGRP and OSPF Comparison For Client Sponsor Prepared By Scott Hogg Project Number 02 Date March 14, 2002 |Distribution List | |Name |Title/Duties |Company | |John Vogt-Nilsen |Manager – Network Operations | | |Sammy Hutton |Principal Systems Analyst | | |Scott Hogg |Principal Consultant |Lucent | |Phil Colon |Managing Consultant |Lucent | |Revision History | |Version |Date |Author |Comments | |1.0 |03/14/2002 |Scott Hogg |Initial Draft | | | | | ......

Words: 8531 - Pages: 35

Implementation and Evaluation of Wireless Mesh Networks on Manet Routing Protocols

...Implementation and Evaluation of Wireless Mesh Networks on MANET Routing Protocols Shashi Bhushan1,Anil Saroliya2 ,Vijander Singh3 Research Scholar, Computer Science, Amity University, Jaipur, India 1 Assistant Professor, Computer Science, Amity University, Jaipur, India 2 Senior Lecturer, Computer Science, Amity University, Jaipur, India 3 Abstract—Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a kind of network which is made up of Mesh router and Mesh clients where Mesh router having lesser mobility and form the heart of WMNs. In this paper, Wireless Mesh Network over MANET implemented using routing protocols such as AODV, DSR. In this work NS-2.34 simulator is used for simulations. Various measurements and calculations were figure out in this work like throughput, Average end-end delay, PDR, NRL and Routing packets in Random way point mobility model. WMN have features such as self configuration, self healing and low cost of equipment. This work specifically aims to study the performance of routing protocols in a wireless mesh network, where static mesh routers and mobile clients participate together to implement networks functionality such as routing and packet forwarding in different mobility scenarios Keywords- Ad hoc Network, Routing Protocols, Wireless Mesh Network, Performance, Throughput, PDR, NRL and Routing packets in Random way point mobility model, Simulation on Network simulator NS-2, AODV,DSR , Routing Overhead. I. INTRODUCTION A Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is an......

Words: 4335 - Pages: 18

Routing

...IT, Web Routing Name: Institution: Routing A router is a network device capable of passing data between two networks. The most basic reason for using a router is to connect a LAN to the internet (Lowe, 2013). A bridge on the other hand sits between two types of networks, for example between an Ethernet and wireless (Pomerleau, 2009) Routers can be helpful under the following circumstances. To begin with, routers are capable of connecting different network architectures such as Ethernet and Token Ring networks and so if it is expected that the LAN network in our case will need to use different network architectures in the future, then routers will be best choice. Second, a router is more efficient than a bridge because a router will process information that is specifically addressed to it where as a bridge processes all messages it receives. Therefore, a router would increase network data processing speed thus will end up with an efficiently working network when using a router than when using a bridge. Next, routers are advantageous in circumstances when an organization needs to communicate to the external environment and therefore routers are capable of connecting to a Wide Area Network (WAN) such as the internet (Ogletree 2004). The capacity to connect to the external environment enables the organization to be in contact to the government for information on taxation as well as connection to customers, suppliers and even competitors. Furthermore, routers are......

Words: 1275 - Pages: 6

Voice, Video, Network

... VOICE, VIDEO, AND DATA NETWORK CONVERGENCE VOICE, VIDEO, AND DATA NETWORK CONVERGENCE ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN, FROM VOIP TO WIRELESS JUANITA ELLIS CHARLES PURSELL JOY RAHMAN Amsterdam Boston London New York Oxford San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo Paris San Diego This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.com.uk. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier Science homepage (http://elsevier.com), by selecting “Customer Support” and then “Obtaining Permissions.” Explicit permission from Academic Press is not required to reproduce a maximum of two figures or tables from an Academic Press chapter in another scientific or research publication provided that the material has not been credited to another source and that full credit to the Academic Press chapter is given. Academic Press An imprint of Elsevier Science 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA http://www.academicpress.com Academic Press 84 Theobald’s Road, London WC1X......

Words: 125371 - Pages: 502

Impact of Mac Layer on the Performance of Odmrp, Fisheye, Aodv and Dsr, Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

...and DSR, Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks A. Sravani, G. Srinu, and A.Venkataramana Abstract— Mobile Ad hoc Network is an emerging area. Its standards are defined by IETF. MANET is a self generated, self organized and self handled network consisting of collection of independent nodes. MANETs Presents several desirable properties like dynamic topology, Easy of deployment and robustness, which are qualify them as an attractive topic for the research community. Providing QoS routing is a major issue in MANETs. Media Access Control layer plays crucial role in Ad hoc networks. Several routing protocols have already been proposed for MANETs. This paper describes the impact of MAC layer protocols like 802.11 and CSMA on the various routing protocols like AODV, DSR, ODMRP and Fisheye. Numbers of simulation scenarios were carried out by using Glomosim-2.03. The QoS parameters used are Throughput, Delay and PDR. Simulation results found that AODV performs better in 802.11 and CSMA, DSR and ODMRP performs better in only under 802.11. Keywords— MANET, AODV, DSR, FSR, GloMoSim, ODMRP I. INTRODUCTION Wireless communication networks are basically two types as shown in Fig.1. One is infrastructure based and other one is infrastructure less. Infrastructure based is cellular communications whereas infrastructure less is ad hoc networks. Fig.1 Classification of wireless communication networks A. Cellular Networks A Cellular Network is a wireless network......

Words: 2917 - Pages: 12

Flight Delay

...http://dx.doi.org/10.3926/jairm.22 Flight delay performance at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport Grigoriy Yablonsky1, Richard Steckel1, Denis Constales2, John Farnan1, Damon Lercel1, Manoj Patankar1 1 Saint Louis University, Parks College of Engineering, Aviation and Technology (USA), Ghent University, Department of Mathematical Analysis (Belgium) 2 gyablons@slu.edu, rsteckel@slu.edu, denis.constales@gmail.com, jfarnan@slu.edu, dlercel@slu.edu, patankar@slu.edu Received October, 2013 Accepted February, 2014 Abstract Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to determine the annual cyclical flight delays at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then using other data such as annual precipitation, passenger and aircraft traffic volumes and other factors, we attempted to correlate these factors with overall delays. These data could assist airport management in predicting periods of flight delay. Design/methodology/approach: Data were taken and analyzed from the data base “Research and Innovation Technology Administration” (RITA) for the years 2005-2011 for Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The data included 2.8 million flights originating and departing from this airport. Data were also gathered from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) showing precipitation. Additional data were gathered from the FAA regarding delay causes, number and types of delays and changes to the infrastructure of......

Words: 5211 - Pages: 21

A Delay-Based Optimum Routing Protocol Scheme for Collision Avoidance Applications in Vanets

...A Delay-based Optimum Routing Protocol Scheme for Collision Avoidance Applications in VANETs Gayathri Narayanan1,a, Neethu Sathianadhan2,b and Sruthi Sanjiv Gangadharan3,c 1,2,3 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Amrita School of Engineering, Amritapuri Campus Kollam – Kerala, India agayathrin@am.amrita.edu, bneethu91ammu@gmail.com, csruti.sanjiv_g@ymail.com Keywords: Broadcast, Multi-hop, VANETs, Delay, Routing Protocols, AODV, Cluster-based routing, OSPF. Abstract — Broadcast transmissions are currently finding extensive applications in vehicular ad-hoc networks, albeit primarily in the research phase. Given the importance of knowing the updated network details of each node in the network, and also considering the fact that the delay in transmission of messages is a crucial factor in collision avoidance, it is imperative to implement a broadcast network which will ensure minimum delay in transmission of messages between the nodes. In this paper, we primarily implement a multi-hop broadcast vehicular network for collision avoidance. We consider the mobility and traffic density of vehicles and simulate the end-to-end delay in message transmission for a sparse and dense network scenario. In order to ensure high reliability and get the optimum delay, we extend the scenario to include three different routing protocols – AODV, Cluster-based routing and OSPF – and perform a comparison based on the end-to-end transmission delay to determine the...

Words: 4169 - Pages: 17

A Distributed Joint Channel-Assignment, Scheduling and Routing Algorithm for Multi-Channel Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

...Scheduling and Routing Algorithm for Multi-Channel Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Xiaojun Lin and Shahzada Rasool School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. {linx,srasool}@ecn.purdue.edu Abstract— The capacity of ad hoc wireless networks can be substantially increased by equipping each network node with multiple radio interfaces that can operate on multiple non-overlapping channels. However, new scheduling, channelassignment, and routing algorithms are required to fully utilize the increased bandwidth in multi-channel multi-radio ad hoc networks. In this paper, we develop a fully distributed algorithm that jointly solves the channel-assignment, scheduling and routing problem. Our algorithm is an online algorithm, i.e., it does not require prior information on the offered load to the network, and can adapt automatically to the changes in the network topology and offered load. We show that our algorithm is provably efficient. That is, even compared with the optimal centralized and offline algorithm, our proposed distributed algorithm can achieve a provable fraction of the maximum system capacity. Further, the achievable fraction that we can guarantee is larger than that of some other comparable algorithms in the literature. I. I NTRODUCTION Multi-channel multi-radio ad hoc wireless networks have recently received a substantial amount of interest, especially under the context of wireless mesh networks......

Words: 8961 - Pages: 36

Wireless Sensor Networks

...SECURE ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS By [Name] The Name of the Class (Course) Professor (Tutor): The Name of the School (University): The City and State The Date: Abstract. Wireless sensor networks (WSANs) are a group of sensors and actors that are linked by a wireless medium for the purpose of performing distributed sensing and action on a given task. This involves the sensors collecting information about the surrounding physical environment and sending the information to the actors which take the decisions and perform some needed action basing on the information received from the sensors about the surrounding environment. These sensor networks are sometimes referred to as wireless sensor and actuator networks. They monitor physical or environmental conditions such as sound, pressure, temperature among others and send the collected data to the required location. Effective sensing and acting requires a distributed local coordination methods and mechanism among the sensors and the actors in addition to this, sensor data should be valid in order for right and timely actions to be performed. This paper describes secure routing in wireless sensor networks and outlines its threats on security. Keywords: Wireless sensor and actor networks; Actuators; Ad hoc networks; Sybil attack; Real-time communication; Sinkhole; Routing; MAC; adversary. Introduction With the recent rapid improvement on technology, many networking technologies have been created to make...

Words: 5106 - Pages: 21

Wireless Network for Rural

...Architecture for Rural Network Connectivity 1 Introduction Many rural regions around the world, especially in developing regions, do not have good connectivity solutions which are economically viable. As a result, many of these regions remain disconnected from both the rest of the world and from progress in general. In this proposal, I will describe the design of WiFi-based Rural Extensions (WiRE), a new wireless network architecture that can provide connectivity to rural regions at extremely low costs. The WiRE architecture is tailored for the typical rural landscape in several developing regions, in which the population is spread across small but scattered rural regions (less than 1-2 sq kms) within 100-200 kms of the city. WiRE is designed to be a wireless distribution network that extends connectivity from the city to each village. The WiRE architecture has largely been inspired by my prior work on WiFi-based Long Distance (WiLD) Networks [42, 62, 35, 54, 64, 34], a low cost point-to-point network connectivity solution that provides very high bandwidth (typically 6− 10 Mbps) over very long-distances. While prior work on WiLD networks [48, 5, 42, 62, 35] has made significant progress in the design of highperformance MAC layer solutions, we still lack a vision of how to design a comprehensive, low-cost, rural connectivity architecture that can efficiently support a wide-range of applications. It is this goal that I wish to achieve in the WiRE network......

Words: 10544 - Pages: 43

Optimal Packet Routing

...PACKET ROUTING Abstract- The optimal routing is the determination of the optimal routing policy that is the set of routes on which packets need to be transmitted in order to reduce the delay, cost and throughput. The routing optimization problem is an important tool in the optimization of both the operational capabilities and the design of large scale commuter communications networks. Resource requirements are not taken into account for conventional routing algorithms. The problem of finding optimal routes in a packet switched computer can be done using non linear multi commodity flow problem. The mathematical programming technique which is applied for the solution of routing problem for large networks is inefficient output. By using Heuristic methods satisfactory results can be obtained. But using Heuristic technique the results are not always optimal and may have some limitations. To overcome all this we can use decomposition method which is very efficient for computation and results are nearly exact. Introduction- Routers are basically classified into two types- Oblivious and Adaptive. In oblivious routing the path is completely determined by the sources and destination. Whereas Deterministic routing is the same path is chosen between a source and destination. The nature of deterministic routing is distributed that is each node makes its routing decisions independent of others which make routing simple and fast and this is widely used in most of the networks. On......

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5

Routing

...CALL ROUTING IN TELEPHONE NETWORKS INTRODUCTION ROUTING is a process of finding a path from a source to every destination in the network. A routing protocol sets up a routing table in routers and switch controllers. A node makes a local choice depending on global topology Telephone calls must be routed across a network of multiple exchanges, potentially owned by different telephone carriers. The exchanges are all connected using trunks. Each exchange has many "neighbours", some of which are also owned by the same telephone operator, and some of which are owned by different operators. When neighbouring exchanges are owned by different operators, they are known as interconnect points. This means that there is really only one virtual network in the world that enables any phone to call any other phone. This virtual network comprises many interconnected operators, each with their own exchange network. Every operator can then route calls directly to their own customers, or pass them on to another operator if the call is not for one of their customers. Call Routing When a call is received by an exchange, there are two treatments that may be applied: • Either the destination terminal is directly connected to that exchange, in which case the call is placed down that connection and the destination terminal rings. • Or the call must be placed to one of the neighboring exchanges through a connecting trunk for onward routing. Each exchange in the chain uses pre-computed......

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Animation | Pilou Asbæk | Women Snow Fur Warm Home Slippers Loafers Casual Shoes