Russian Literature Bunin

In: English and Literature

Submitted By johncollins6955
Words 1719
Pages 7
В плане повествования эта связь предстает как реализация заглавной метафоры “легкое дыхание”, контаминированной сходными идиомами — “легкое поведение” и “легкая смерть”, чье метонимическое триединство и складывается в трагический удел героини.
Пустота, бессмысленность, ничтожество этой жизни подчеркнуты автором, как это легко показать, с осязательной силой. Вот как автор говорит о своей героине: «…незаметно упрочилась ее гимназическая слава, и уже пошли толки, что она ветрена, что она не может жить без поклонников, что в нее безумно влюблен гимназист Шеншин, что будто бы и она его любит, но так изменчива в обращении с ним, что он покушался на самоубийство…» Или вот в каких грубых и жестких выражениях, обнажающих неприкрытую правду жизни, говорит автор о ее связи с офицером: «…Мещерская завлекла его, была с ним в связи, поклялась быть его женой, а на вокзале, в день убийства, провожая его в Новочеркасск, вдруг сказала, что она и не думала никогда любить его, что все эти разговоры о браке – одно ее издевательство над ним…» Или вот как безжалостно опять показана та же самая правда в записи в дневнике, рисующей сцену сближения с Малютиным: «Ему пятьдесят шесть лет, но он еще очень красив и очень всегда хорошо одет, – мне не понравилось только, что он приехал в крылатке, – весь пахнет английским одеколоном, и глаза совсем молодые, черные, а борода изящно разделена на две длинные части и совершенно серебряная».
Во всей этой сцене, как она записана в дневнике, нет ни одной черты, которая могла бы намекнуть нам о движении живого чувства и могла бы сколько нибудь осветить ту тяжелую и беспросветную картину, которая складывается у читателя при ее чтении. Слово любовь даже не упоминается, и, кажется, нет более чуждого и неподходящего к этим страницам слова. И так, без малейшего просвета, в одном мутном тоне дан весь решительно материал о жизненной, бытовой обстановке,…...

Similar Documents

Russian Culture

...CBC Paper Group Two Russian culture ------ Food Russian culture is associated with the country of Russia and, sometimes, specifically with ethnic Russians. It has a rich history and can boast a long tradition of excellence in every aspect of the arts, especially when it comes to literature and philosophy, classical music and ballet, architecture and painting, cinema and animation, which all had considerable influence on the world culture. The country also has a rich material culture and a strong tradition in technology. Among its various cultures, the most surprising one to me is Russian food. Russian cuisine is diverse, as Russia is the largest country in the world (by area). Russian cuisine derives its varied character from the vast and multi-cultural expanse of Russia. Russia is mainly a northern country with long-lasting cold winter. The food should give them much energy and warmth to survive during the winter time. So, the essential components of Russian cuisine are the ones, which provide more carbohydrates and fat rather than proteins. Fresh fruits and vegetables are rarely used in food. So, the top five components of a Russian meal are potatoes, bread, eggs, meat (especially beef) and butter. Other popular foods include cabbage, milk, sour cream, curds, mushrooms, lard, cucumbers, tomatoes, honey, sugar, salt, garlic, and onions. Soups and stews full of flavor are centered on seasonal or storable produce, fish, and meats. This wholly native food remained the......

Words: 525 - Pages: 3

The Russian Gdp

...Russian GDP Following the section about Russian output, we now turn to the BRICS country GDP, Inflation, and Monetary Policy. All three of these areas of the Russian economy depend immensely on the product that is 70% of Russian export: Oil. We see that each year there is a dip in the price of oil Russian (for example 1998 and 2008) we see a dip in GDP and a rise in inflation. Hence, the monetary policy set by the Central Bank of Russia is contingent upon the gas price. The Russian GDP has been growing staidly since 2008. We see that before the 2008 global financial crisis, Nominal GDP was on an annual rise of 7%. However, in 2008 the Oil price plummeted from 147.00USD/barrel to 50.00USD/barrel. This caused a government shortfall in the 08-09 fiscal years, and resulted in a sharp dip in nominal GDP from which Russia has yet to recover. However, despite the 2008 crisis, the Russian GDP has been growing 4.3% annually since 2008, as the price of oil continues to rise. In 2011, as Russian citizens are getting back to work, the current GDP per capita is $13,236 USD. The primary problem with the Russian economy is its historically high inflation. Only recently has the Russian economy seen an inflation number in the single digits (3.7% as of Feb. 2012). Nevertheless, in 2011, the inflation rate was a little bit under 10% and is has been in the general 10-15% range since 2004, with the 15% spike in 2008. The reason for the low inflation rate this year is based in three......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Russian Psychotherapy

...An introduction to Russian: History, culture, and psychotherapy. Elms College Maxim M. Arbuzov Spring 2012 Abstract: On March 15, 2012, I landed in Vladivostok, Russia. I was amazed by the diversity and fast growth of the city since my last visit in 2006. Everything has changed the population has quickly grown, and people from around the world are visiting this place that is economically expanding. I seen family, friends, and professionals, which all knew my academic intentions. I talked a lot about social work and counseling, and more specifically: what would they do in times of crisis? Would they seek help? Where? I interviewed a few people of different age brackets, and they all had the same thing to say, for some odd reason; grab a bottle, head over to your best friends house, that is our therapy session. From this I became very interested in one underdeveloped and not heavily researched topic: psychotherapy and counseling in Russia. Introduction It is rather difficult to understand the status of psychotherapy in Russia nowadays, without background information on its history and culture. Russia among other nations has a long history of war and revolutions, which impacted every sphere of life for their populations. Different nations fell under the umbrella of the former “Soviet Union”, which is why Russia is such an interesting country to study because of the vast diversity. Along with diversity the most interesting part researching Russian Psychotherapy is......

Words: 1687 - Pages: 7

Russian Crisis

...A Case Study of a Currency Crisis: The Russian Default of 1998 Abbigail J. Chiodo and Michael T. Owyang currency crisis can be defined as a speculative attack on a country’s currency that can result in a forced devaluation and possible debt default. One example of a currency crisis occurred in Russia in 1998 and led to the devaluation of the ruble and the default on public and private debt.1 Currency crises such as Russia’s are often thought to emerge from a variety of economic conditions, such as large deficits and low foreign reserves. They sometimes appear to be triggered by similar crises nearby, although the spillover from these contagious crises does not infect all neighboring economies—only those vulnerable to a crisis themselves. In this paper, we examine the conditions under which an economy can become vulnerable to a currency crisis. We review three models of currency crises, paying particular attention to the events leading up to a speculative attack, including expectations of possible fiscal and monetary responses to impending crises. Specifically, we discuss the symptoms exhibited by Russia prior to the devaluation of the ruble. In addition, we review the measures that were undertaken to avoid the crisis and explain why those steps may have, in fact, hastened the devaluation. The following section reviews the three generations of currency crisis models and summarizes the conditions under which a country becomes vulnerable to speculative attack. The third......

Words: 6882 - Pages: 28


... Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What is Theory? 1 What is Literature and Does it Matter? 18 Literature and Cultural Studies 42 55 Language, Meaning, and Interpretation Rhetoric, Poetics, and Poetry Narrative 82 94 69 Performative Language Identity, Identification, and the Subject 108 Appendix: Theoretical Schools and Movements 121 References 133 139 Further Reading Index 145 Chapter 1 What is theory? In literary and cultural studies these days there is a lot of talk about theory – not theory of literature, mind you; just plain ‘theory’. To anyone outside the field, this usage must seem very odd. ‘Theory of what?’ you want to ask. It’s surprisingly hard to say. It is not the theory of anything in particular, nor a comprehensive theory of things in general. Sometimes theory seems less an account of anything than an activity – something you do or don’t do. You can be involved with theory; you can teach or study theory; you can hate theory or be afraid of it. None of this, though, helps much to understand what theory is. ‘Theory’, we are told, has radically changed the nature of literary studies, but people who say this do not mean literary theory, the systematic account of the nature of literature and of the methods for analysing it. When people complain that there is too much theory in literary studies these days, they don’t mean too much systematic reflection on the nature of literature or debate about the distinctive qualities of literary language,......

Words: 44695 - Pages: 179


...Managerial decision analysis Property right security in Russian deprivation Edwin Cruz Saint Leo University 1 Introduction Over 70,000 Russian-state owned enterprises were privatized in 1992. A substantial number of the private buyers were from the United States and Western Europe. The reason that drove this “government” decision was to move from a centrally planned economy to a market system. A weakening economy in the late 1990s made the government move back towards state owned enterprise. Prospects of deprivatization have on investment by managers of privatized firms The prospect of deprivatization of private enterprise will likely impact the privatized managers. The fear of losing their position will likely alter their behavior, and affect the manner in which they make decisions or choices. It is possible that “unhappy” managers may be; less productive. Effects of deprivatization on foreign investments in Russia Foreign investors may be hesitant to invest in Russia because deprivatization will revert back all property rights to the state, and in central planning government decides how to use its resources. Property rights therefore are not assigned to a specific person, nor can those rights be transferred; they are not alienable. ...

Words: 660 - Pages: 3


...Russian Literature Russia was the last of the great European nations to produce literature of more than merely a national interest. The reasons for this condition are various. Russia was the last of those nations to feel the impress o the cultural influences that periodically have swept through Western Europe since the Middle Ages. It was not until the time of Peter the Great (1972 - 1735) that she began to take her place in the affairs of Europe; it was the same monarch who made the first efforts to westernize his vast country. Moreover, the Russian language, the very alphabet of which seems fantastic to the Western eye, is quite remote from the languages of Western Europe and from classic Latin and Greek. Early Russian literature is of small interest, being largely of ecclesiastical import. In the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Russian literature, sespite its late awakening, became one of the most imposing bodies of literature of its time, eagerly read and profoundly admired the world over. The Russian have produced a body of literature that tend toward the morbid, the pessimistic, and tragic, but which in its very powered derived from searching the depths of human experiences is one of the greatest literature of Europe. Another marked characteristic of Russian writing is its realism; in contrast to the strong romantic quality of much western literature, Russian books turn their searchlights on the daily lives of men and women. They throw no glamour...

Words: 7058 - Pages: 29

Russian Revolution

...Russia has never been a happy place. Since the 12th Century it has been bogged down in poverty, horrific living conditions, and an extremely separated class system. It took many years for the workers and slaves of Russian life to finally organize themselves and revolt against the causes of such hardship; many years of pain, suffering, and oppression that were brought on by the czars. It was this stagnant suffering that would finally begin to lift, and eventually bring power to the Bolsheviks and communism to Russia. Many revolutionaries encouraged killing, robbery, and used terror to advance their effort. However, there were other kinds of revolutionaries, some violent, some not. Gorky, Dostoevsky, and Turgenev all contributed to the progress of the revolution by communicating through literature. All four books were intended to identify critical issues of life, to instigate social and political changes throughout Russia, and to wholly improve Russian life. Gorky’s My Childhood explains the terrible conditions Russia peasants faced. Turgenev’s Fathers and Sons represents the struggle between two ideologies, romanticism and liberalism. Gorky’s next book Mother is the idea of insurgency cells and how a group with no distinct leader can be effective. Finally, Fyodor Dostoevsky’s The Possessed shows how violence can be a major tool in fuelling a rebellion, although it also shows how extreme nihilism is self-destructive. Simply listing the problems with Russia up to the 19th and......

Words: 4854 - Pages: 20

Russian Point of View

...of modernist literature of the twentieth century. “The Russian Point of View” is Virginia Woolf’s most outstanding essay devoted to Russian literature. Within the essay, Woolf shares her point of view on three Russian writers: Chekhov, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. Woolf opens her essay by foregrounding the problem of understanding Russian literature. Language is the largest and most obvious obstacle. While reading translation, we read a text that is fundamentally different from the original. The translators have to face lots of difficulties. They must be skilled enough to translate cultural aspects, humour and other delicate elements. They must know something about the country, its traditions. Woolf points out that the reader cannot blindly depend upon the work of translators. According to the Woolf's point of view, difficulties in understanding Russian literature appear not only due to the barrier of language, but because of cultural difference. Then the author speaks about Chekhov's works. Chekhov is recognized for his originality. On the one hand, he wrote about ordinary events and the relationship of people in small towns and villages. On the other hand, Chekhov’s unusual plots attract many readers. Chekhov’s plots generally lack resolution. He wanted his works to ask the reader questions, not to provide answers. The reader have to think a lot in order to understand the main idea of these stories. The foreigner is usually not accustomed to such sort of literature.......

Words: 440 - Pages: 2

Russian Music History

...A term paper discussing Russian music Presented to: Michel El Zoghbi Prepared by: Maher Moubarak Mirna El Khoury Outline: 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Literature Review 4. Centuries 5. Instruments 6. Effects on Russian Music: * Effects of War * Problems caused by Russian Climate 7. Conclusion 8. References Abstract: This term paper will be discussing the history of the Russian music and its evolvement. Moreover, it will include some native instruments and the effect of weather, war, and religion on the Russian music. Introduction: Beginning from the sacred music of the Russian Orthodox Church and passing through diverse centuries, the Russian music was and will always be legacy in the history of international music. Two major genres formed the early history of the Russian music. These genres are: the secular music used for entertainment and the sacred music of the Orthodox Church . The sacred music draws its tradition from the Byzantine Empire. Neumes were developed for musical notation, and as a result several examples of medieval sacred music have survived, among them two stichera composed by Tsar Ivan IV in the 16th century. Literature Review Folk music is certainly the oldest type of Russian music. The roots of Russian folk music dates back to the middle of the first millennium AC. Russian music started with the Slavic tribes that settled in the European part of the current territory of Russia.......

Words: 1785 - Pages: 8

Palatalization in Russian

...Introduction Palatalization is one of the biggest concerns in the Russian phonology. Palatalization is an articulation of a consonant in which the blade of the tongue moves toward the hard palate. For example, when the non-palatalized lateral approximant [l] sound of ‘лак’(‘lacquer’) is pronounced, the tip of the tongue presses up near the teeth and the central part of the tongue is low in the mouth. On the contrary, when the palatalized [l] in ‘лямка’ (‘sling’)is pronounced, the tip of thetongue presses up behind the upper teeth, and the blade and the central part of the tongue are raised towards the hard palate. There are several types of articulation observed in Russian, including velar palatalization, affricate palatalization, iotation and surface palatalization. The current paper focuses on the status of regressive palatalization in modern Russian Palatalization in Russian The articulation of almost every consonant in Russian comes in two forms, it can be either palatalized or non-palatalized. In Russian phonological works non-palatalized consonants are informally referred to as hard and palatalized are referred to as soft. Palatalization is similar but not identical for sounds of different places of articulation. Though there are these minor differences, all palatalized consonants influence vowels in the same way. When a given articulation occurs in both palatalized and non-palatalized forms, that articulation can be said to be paired , or mutable , for......

Words: 3044 - Pages: 13


...contribute to the brand equity of Russian Standard. At first, Tariko’s personal experiences in his early entrepreneurial time helped him accumulate many professional knowledges on wine industry in Russian, which contributes to the brand equity. For example, Tariko was a representative from Martini & Rossi before, and he actually seize the opportunity created by the supply/demand gap at that time, which made him became an exclusive imported in Russia at that time. Two years later, his company had established itself as Russia’s leading importer of upmarket alcoholic drinks, which it helped raise his brand awareness. Moreover, Tariko also developed strong and commanding merchandising skills and relationships with the trade to enhance its marketing strategy on brand equity. For instance, Tariko worked with international advertising experts and brand identity agencies to conduct a survey on the essence of the brand, so that the brand equity could be conveyed to the consumers at last. In result, several methods that meetings with notable Russian and literary personalities, extensive travel throughout Russia, customer focus groups and numerous brand essence and positioning briefs were born to enhance the brand equity in short. After that, Tariko’s brand was able to enjoy rapid success in Russia because the consistency of Tariko’s mission and his company’s marketing strategy. To produce world-class quality vodka while retaining the unmistakably Russian identity was Tariko’s......

Words: 977 - Pages: 4

Russian Standtard

...Russian Standard Vodka’s Case Questions: 1. Understanding the sources of brand equity: What are the sources of brand equity of the Russian Standard brand? Why was the brand able to enjoy such rapid success in Russia? One of the main reasons for Russian Standard’s rapid success in its home country in the early 1990’s was Roustam Tariko’s deep knowledge of Russia; its history, culture, and through these, its then current state and consumers. He had the general know-how of the market in the country: Tariko, the founder of the company himself started off by importing foreign liquor brands to the post-soviet era country, where such novelties were still hard-pressed to find. By filling this market gap he got to not only reach incredible levels of profitability, but also hone his merchandising skills and network vastly, before moving from importing to founding his own company, Roust Holdings. Unlike the foreign liquors and spirits Tariko had imported, he wanted to create something “more local” that would resonate with the patriotism of the country. Truly, Russian Standard vodka came to represent upper-class Russian vodka, “strongly associated with the country”, as the case mentions. Additionally, to quote the case study text: “People bought Russian Standard because it was unmistakably Russian and looked reliable.” In other words, a good marketing mix was created for the product. The packaging, pricing, and promotion in addition to the product itself were cleverly planned and...

Words: 440 - Pages: 2

Russian Culture

...phases of governance which spans from a history of migrating peoples and ancient kingdoms to the Kievan Rus, Peter the Great, the Slavs, Tsardom, Imperialism, Revolution and the Russian Republic, Soviet Russia, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. These aspects of Russian history are important to Russian culture because they have made Russia (its people, architecture, food, festivals, language, literature and art) what they are today. Though those who live in Russia are called “Russians,” over 180 various ethnic groups can be found in Russia. Russian is the official language, though over 100 languages are spoken by its peoples. Besides the Slavs (Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians), who account for about 80 percent of Russia's population, three main ethnic groups and a handful of isolated smaller groups reside within the federation. The majority of Russians identify with the Eastern Orthodox (Christian) religion, but Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism are also practiced in Russia. Islam, professed by about 19 percent of believers in the mid1990s, is numerically the second most important religion in Russia. Various non-Orthodox Christian denominations and a dwindling but still important Jewish population complete the list of major religious groups in the Russian Federation. In general, Russians of all religions have enjoyed freedom of worship since the collapse of the communist regime in 1991, and large numbers of abandoned or converted religious buildings......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4

19th Century Russian Literature

...Every culture has their own values and beliefs. They have different views on religion, political systems, and even style. In 19th Century Russia two things that were important were serfdom and social status. The significance of these things can be demonstrated through pieces of literature from 19th Century Russia. Serfdom was extremely popular in 19th century Russia. Serfs and peasants were 82% of Russia’s society, since farming was major during this time. Peasants were not educated, nor did they have the opportunity. They could not make any decisions for themselves. Since the peasants were not allowed to have their own property, they lived with their master and mistress. In 1861, serfdom was finally banned by Alexander II, but they had to go back to their master and mistress and work for money. (Snider) Foolishness in 19th Century Russian literature is well demonstrated through “Sleepy”. In “Sleepy”, Varka is a 13 year old serf that lacks sleep due to her master and mistress working her too hard. Her master and mistress forced her to stay up all night with the baby while it bawled. The baby just kept crying through all of Varka’s efforts to get it to sleep. Eventually, Varka fell asleep, but was awaken by her master smacking her in the back of the head, calling her a scabby slut. She started rocking the baby back to sleep, but fell back asleep. As soon as her mistress saw her she yelled at her, and asked for the baby so she could feed it. Varka realized that the baby......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Stitchers | Hong Kong | Previous