Science Project

In: Business and Management

Submitted By iqrameraj
Words 1023
Pages 5
Writing Assignment – Dr. Henderson

1.When an organism is transfected with a virus, it triggers several mechanisms to protect itself from the viral genes affecting it. Such mechanisms involve the innate immune response of the D. Melanogaster against the virus. Another mechanism that has been discovered not too long ago is the ability of silencing viral genes using an RNA interference pathway. The Argonaute paper has focused on the RNAi pathway of D. Melanogaster. The pathway involves a RISC complex composed of Argonaute 2 , viral siRNA and other proteins that act as a “strike and search” antagonist against viral genes and silencing them. In counter-defense, Viruses try to protect themselves by encoding viral suppressors of RNAi VSR to suppress the RNAi pathway. This leads to an “arms race” of adaptation and counter-adaptation by the host and virus. An important aspect of viral genome is its ability to undergo mutations to protect its self. Viral RNA is capable of antigenic shift and antigenic drift to cause mutations in its own genome and remain adaptable in host environment. The RNA Polymerase of the virus is phage-induced, so it is going to replicate the mutated genome and is different than eukaryotic Polymerase in that manner. In turn, host will evolve according to the viral genome to silence the “new” mutated genes. The evolutionary significance of VSRs in the Argonaute paper has enabled to understand how a conserved protein VP1 from Nora Virus is able to suppress viral siRNA in D. Melanogaster. The same function is carried by another VSR, the CrPV1 from a different virus the Cricket Paralysis Virus to suppress the RNAi pathway in its effector phase. Although the proteins have the same function, their protein analysis shows differential amino acid sequence, giving proof for convergent evolution. The evolutionary significance of viral siRNAs in this paper…...

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