Structure of Kidney

In: Science

Submitted By noellekow
Words 1069
Pages 5
Kidney is a bean-shaped organ and measures 10-12cm. Each kidney is covered by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule. Excretory systems regulate solute movement between internal fluids and the external environment. The kidney, the excretory organs of vertebrates is the mammal’s principal organ of excretion and osmoregulation. Osmoregulation regulates solute concentrations and balances the gain and loss of water. Thus, regulation of the osmotic concentrations of blood plasma by the kidneys ensures the osmotic regulation of all other body fluids. Excretion gets rid of many toxic metabolic waste products, particularly the nitrogenous compound urea. The mammalian excretory system centers on paired kidneys, which are also the principal site of water balance and salt regulation.
Nephron is the functional unit of the vertebrate kidney approximately one million of nephrons can found in human kidney. Nephrons perform the function osmoregulation and excretion by filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion. Pressure-filtering of body fluids involve only filtration of most small molecules from blood plasma to form an ultrafiltrate of plasma. Selectively reabsorption by reclaiming valuable solutes like most of the water and other molecules from the ultrafiltrate and leaving behind waste material will be excreted. Secretion of hydrogen ion into the urine helps to maintain the acid-base balance. Excretion is to remove the metabolic waste products and unwanted chemicals or substances into the filtrate. Approximately 99% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed into the system in the nephron and the remaining 1% enters the bladder to be voided as urine. In addition, kidney cells produce two important hormones which are renin and erythropoietin. Renin helps regulate the blood pressure in order to maintain homeostasis. Erythropoietin released by the endothelial cells of…...

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