Theoretical Perspective of Cognition

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By bdrumheller
Words 1907
Pages 8
The Theoretical Perspective of the Cognitive Personality Approach
Brett

Abstract
What I as an author am trying to do in this essay is to grab my audiences attention and explain and appeal to them about the theoretical perspective of the Cognitive Personality approach. I provided historical statements, theories, and research to make each individual aspect of the perspective as clear as possible. This essay will consist of the Theoretical perspective of the approach, Theorists who have contributed to this approach, Compare and contrast two theorists perspectives within this approach, Identify and describe measurement and assessment instruments, and Clinical application of the approach.

If you believe the saying 'Perception is everything,' then you may well be a cognitivist. Cognitive theory is focused on the individual's thoughts as the determinate of his or her emotions and behaviors and therefore personality (Dasen). Many cognitive theorists believe that without these thought processes, we could have no emotions and no behavior and would therefore not function. In other words, thoughts always come before any feeling and before any action. The theoretical perspective of the Cognitive approach of personality can be simply described as what personality does, but is much more complex than that. Cognitive Psychology revolves around the notion that if we want to know what makes people tick then we need to understand the internal processes of their mind (Dasen). Cognition literally means “knowing”. In other words, psychologists from this approach study cognition which is “the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired.” Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would callstimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses (Dasen). In other…...

Similar Documents

Major Theoretical Sociological Perspectives: Similarities and Differences

...Major Theoretical Sociological Perspectives: Similarities and Differences Sociology: the scientific study of the development, structure and functioning of human society (Oxford). When the topic of discussion is sociology, Auguste Comte, the “father of positivism” would come to mind, as it was he who first coined the term “sociology” (Kreis, 2009). Comte also emphasized that the study of society must be scientific and he pushed sociologists to employ the use of qualitative methods such as observation, historical comparative analysis and experimentation. Sociological Perspective is the way in which we view sociological phenomena (Long, 2011). Among the many perspectives that exist there are three theoretical perspectives that are widely acknowledged by sociologists, these are the symbolic-interactionist perspective, conflict perspective and functionalist perspective. The analysis of social phenomenon occurs at varying levels by one of the three main theoretical perspectives or paradigms which provide sociologists with an orienting position or rather a philosophical position used to guide their questions about a society and its inhabitants. These phenomena range from evident interpretations to sweeping generalizations of society and its social behavior. Everything is studied from specific events straight up to the “big picture”, this would include the micro levels and macro levels of a society’s social patterns. The origin of the symbolic-interactionist theory traces back......

Words: 2448 - Pages: 10

Children's Theoretical Perspective on the Theory of Mind and False Belief on Social Cognition

...Children’s Theoretical Perspective on the Theory of Mind and False Beliefs on Social Cognition Questions seeking an answer to a missing piece, puzzled with things unknown, and bothering twisted thoughts. These are primordial stuff experienced by an individual leading to curiosity. Curiosity which makes every person motivated in finding an answers. The fact that curiosity about a matter will always be the starting point of a new development. One of the best examples is the children. As we can see, children are the most determine explorer because for them everything is a mystery. To discover simple unfamiliar objects, to meliorate their knowledge and to understand their environment are their major goals which we can identify as mediocre. The genuine truth about children is their capacity to understand someone even though they have minimal knowledge on how mental life processes goes through. They can easily figure it out when someone is motivated in acquiring their wants or goals. As a matter of fact, sometimes they can also distinguish what are the positive and negative emotions. On the other hand, they can also practice their false beliefs where they can hardly define between what is real and what is true. Furthermore, as we adults, we are more matured enough in thinking and behaving in all matter. We have the responsibility to modify what we perceive and to justify and stand on what we believe is right and wrong. Nevertheless, people talk too much; people......

Words: 4765 - Pages: 20

Sociological, Theoretical Perspectives 1

...Sociological Theoretical perspectives: Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionist perspective on Poverty. GEORGINA JACKSON ARIZONA UNIVERSITY Sociologists view society in different ways. Some see the world basically as a stable and on-going entity. They are impressed with the endurance of the family, organized religion and other social institutions. Sociologists look at the society in different theoretical perspectives such as functional, conflicts and interactional. The functionalist perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. Talcott parsons, a Harvard university sociologist refined functionalism with the work of Emile Durkheim who established functionalism perspective theory. Coming to the Conflict perspective, it deals with how society, institution may help to maintain the privileges of some people. The interactionist perspective looks at the society in micro level to get insight of the larger macro observation. In this paper, we are going to use functionalist, conflict and interactionist perspectives to evaluate poverty. Functionalist perspective views the society as a system we used to have poverty to be able to have rich people. If there is no poverty, there cannot be rich people. Poverty is a state where by someone lacks materials or......

Words: 621 - Pages: 3

Theoretical Perspectives of Sociology

...In our society today, there are three theoretical perspectives that act as ways to view our lives. Symbolic Interactionism , Functional Analysis, and Conflict Theory. All of which are centered around the people they derived from who are : George Herbert Mead, Charles Horton Cooley, Robert Merton and Karl Marx. With these theories being a major part of sociology, the research that is collected to study the people in these societies should be looked at as a whole ,for, sociology comes in many forms. Symbolic Interactionism is the idea that one puts meaning to something. We attach our selves to names of certain people or things . Symbols are used to describe the relationships that we have with one another. Without symbolic Interactionism there would be no names to associate with people like a sister or brother . This also includes a teacher , an associate or a co-worker, These people may have names but they have a certain name that categorizes them into where they are related to you and how you should act towards them. Our actions towards people depend on the symbols we associate society with such as how you treat a boss compared to a sibling. Without this type of perspective there would be no way to socialize things such as the government which would mean that the most common things that are used in everyday life wouldn't be here. This theory is used describe things that are untouchable such as love, marriage or being a parent . It all goes back to how you rationalize these...

Words: 2012 - Pages: 9

Cognition

...How the development of cognition is facilitated in the Bronfenbrenner and the Super and Harkness models? Cognition is a defined as the way a person thinks, reason, remember, solve a problem and make a decision. Factors of culture and their beliefs are found in the collaboration among Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems and Super and Harkness model contribute in a variety of ways to cognitive development across the lifespan. Cognition development occurs as a result of children’s attempts to adapt to their environments and to make sense of the many experiences taking place around them. The ability to adapt to the environment depends on the process of assimilation and accommodation. In the Super and Harkness model, cognitive functioning is understood through the context cognition. Development of cognition includes not only evolutionary and biological limitations and affordances but also the cultures that nurtured the mind. The different influences of the cultures in the development of cognition may include the culturally shared ideas, anticipations, and habits of mind, communication patterns, and technologies. This model holds that variations in cognitive functioning especially in the aging mind may well be explained by studying the meanings, artifacts, practices and institutions as strongly influenced by culture. In Bronfenbrenner 's Ecological Systems Theory, he specified four types of nested systems crucial to the development of cognition in humans. These are......

Words: 331 - Pages: 2

Theoretical Perspectives

...Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology By Adilene Benavidez Sociology B1 CRN# 71786 Prof. John Carpenter September 24, 2014 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Sociologist view society in three major theories: Structural Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interactions. Each theory used allows us to understand the views of social life. Structural Functionalism: “ Functional Analysis, the central idea of functional analysis is that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together”(Henson 2015:17). Structural Functionalism is the idea that different parts of society work together like that of a body’s organs to create harmony. It’s seen on a macro level, looking at the big picture.   Conflict Theory: “provides a third perspective on social life. Unlike the functionalist, who views society as a harmonious whole with its part working together, conflict theorists stress that society are of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources. The surface might show cooperation, but scratch that surface and you will find a struggle for power”(Henson 2015:20). A Conflict theorist, see society as two classes, the proletariat (worker) and the bourgeoisie (owners).  It’s like a sports arena one team and fans being the workers and the other team being the owners competing for the win.  The higher class you are, the more power you have. Status is very important for power and so is being in a political party.  This theory is also......

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Theoretical Perspectives on Families

...Momodou L Ceesay SOC-210-OL Reaction Report 1 According, to the text there are two broad categories for “Theoretical Perspectives on Families” (Strong, DeVault, and Cohen 37). The first category is referred to as Macro-Level Theories. Macro-Level Theories comprises focusing on the family as a “social institution” (Strong, DeVault, and Cohen 37). “A social institution is the organized pattern of statuses and structures, roles, and rules by which a society attempts to meet certain of its most basic needs” (Strong, DeVault, Cohen 37). It refers to the family as a whole and can further be broken down into Family ecology theory, Structural functionalism, Conflict theory, and Feminist theory. The second category is Micro-Level Theories. Micro-Level Theories involve “emphasizing what happens in families, looking at everyday behavior, interaction between family members, patterns of communication and so on” (Strong, DeVault, and Cohen 37). It refers to individuals within the family. They can further be broken down into the following four categories, Symbolic interaction, Social exchange theory, Developmental theory and family systems theory. The two examples of “Theoretical Perspectives on Families” that will be explained are Feminist theory and Symbolic interactions. Feminist perspective or theory refers to gender and the “inequity of power in society and especially in family life” (Strong, DeVault, and Cohen 43). The women’s movement didn't begin until the 1960's...

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Comparing the Major Theoretical Perspective in Social Psychology

...The historical root of social psychology can be summarized into three basic concepts that originate from well-known psychologists, such as Freud, Kohler, Skinner, and others, in the early 1900s. These theories are as follows: Psychoanalytic Theory focuses on the powerful inner drives, impulses, and motivations of the individual mind and how those motivations are formed by sexuality and aggression. A second challenger called Behaviorism offered that motivations are subject to environmental factors and that learning shapes and determines future responses. To conclude, the perspective of Gestalt psychology regarded itself as a democratic and humanistic view of motivation. The theory says that individuals form coherent and meaningful perceptions and determine their responses based on the “whole”, not individual parts. While social psychology has its roots in psychology, the following major contemporary theories are used to understand and study the behaviors and problems of today. Motivational Theories (influenced by psychoanalytic theory) general approach concentrates on the individual’s own needs or motives that influence perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. In short, when an individual is presented with adversity, these conditions create or provoke needs that trigger behaviors in the individual to satisfy those needs. For example, the experience of moving away from home to Europe with my husband created feelings of loneliness. Cognitive Theories (influenced by......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Theoretical Perspective Essay

...Theoretical Perspective Theoretical Perspective Essay Katena J. Brooks Grand Canyon University: Principles of Sociology 102 August 20, 2011 Symbolic Interactionism has been used to describe various aspects of human life, according to George Herbert Meade’s theory, symbolic interactionism utilizes symbols in which to identify ones’ beliefs, culture, relationships, etc. Symbols have been used for many years, in one particular area that symbols are looked upon, and used in high regards is religion, and we will look at the Christianity religion from a symbolic interactionism perspectives. What are the symbols used within the Christianity religion? How does one embrace these symbols in order to communicate to one another, and gain a complete understanding of society? Some will argue that religion itself is a symbol, for some it is a symbol of hope, love, forgiveness, a safe haven; it is what defines them as human being, and with complete understanding religion allows those around them to “get them”, this is why I chose Symbolic Interactionism. Within the Christianity religion there are various symbols that are used as a guide too many; God, the cross, the bible, church, the Ten Commandments, and Moses just to name a few. One can ask, what is the relevance of the previous mentioned symbols, and everyday life? As to many within all religions, God is a symbol of the ultimate authority figure, it is God alone who created the world we live in, and it is God who has the......

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Theoretical Perspectives of John Lennon

...Theoretical Perspectives of John Lennon John Lennon is world renown for being the founding member of one of the most influential bands of the 20th century, The Beatles. John Winston Lennon was born on October 9th, 1940, in Liverpool, England while German Nazis were raining bombs on the city for the third month in a row during World War II. John would grow up knowing very little about his parents, Julia Stanley and Alfred “Alf” Lennon. John Lennon’s early childhood was anything but stable. His father, Alfred, was a sea merchant who was rarely home. While he was at sea, Julia took a halfhearted approach to raising her son as well as to her marriage vows. She became well known as a “good time girl” in the local pubs and with the sailors who were in and out of the Port of Liverpool. She would often bring men home and sleep with them with John in the house, sometimes even in the same bed (Riley, 2011). John was often shuffled around between aunts and uncles. After a long series of unfortunate events that caused an extended time away from his family with no contact, Alfred was able to make it back home to Liverpool only to find Judy pregnant with another man’s baby. She claimed to have been raped and soon after birth, put the baby girl up for adoption. The marriage of Judy and Alfred Lennon diminished shortly thereafter and eventually ended. John was five years old at the time and was cruelly forced to choose between the two parents. Initially he chose his father...

Words: 3233 - Pages: 13

Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology

...Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology Romerle Johnson ITT Technical Institution Abstract Psychological studies vary in design. In correlational studies a researcher looks for associations among naturally occurring variables, whereas in experimental studies the researcher introduces a change and then monitors its effects. It is important to be able to distinguish between correlational and experimental designs, because only well-controlled experimental designs allow conclusions about cause and effect. This paper will attempt to define the two research methods coinciding with examples and counterpoints toward each design. Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology Correlational Versus Experimental Research Correlational research is an important form of educational and psychological research. Some knowledge of correlational methods is important for both the consumption and conduct of research. A correlation is simply defined as a relationship between two variables. The whole purpose of using correlations in research is to figure out which variables are connected. Prime example of the research can be found in most of our childhood experiences, the harmonious sound of the ice cream truck bell. This particular was the universal sound in most American neighborhoods that it was time for a delicious cold treat. Second example of this research comes from academia. The efficient student who studies is more likely to achieve a higher grade on their test...

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Theoretical Perspective Sociology Gcu

...Micah Chrisman SOC-102 April 24, 2016 Ieisha Jones Theoretical Perspective Essay Structural functionalism is based on the idea that societies are made up of structures and functions. Structures include things like education, politics, family and economics. Functions are the what are produced by the structures; education provides learning and advancement within a society, politics provide social order, etc. These structures act like parts of a machine, each accomplishing a function to achieve harmony. However, because there are functions, there must also be dysfunctions. Dysfunctions are anything that go against the harmony of a society. The theory can be thought of like a car. Many different parts are needed for a car to function, but a number of things can go wrong before the car stops working. A car must have tires to move. If it gets a flat, it can still run, but it hurts the car and is less efficient. Dysfunctions hurt society, but unless there is a major problem, the society will continue to function. Conflict theory, as the name suggests, is a struggle for power. Karl Marx is the father of this theory. He believed that those in power will constantly oppress everyone else in order to keep their power. This theory explains discrimination within a society. At one point, white males gained power. In order to maintain this power, they oppressed the other races and women. This would allow them to keep power. Marx took this theory to all aspects of life. He saw......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

The Case of Value Based Communication—Epistemological and Methodological Reflections from a System Theoretical Perspective

...FORUM: QUALITATIVE SOCIAL RESEARCH SOZIALFORSCHUNG Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 17 September 2010 The Case of Value Based Communication—Epistemological and Methodological Reflections from a System Theoretical Perspective Victoria von Groddeck Key words: Abstract: The aim of this paper is to reflect the epistemological and methodological aspects of an communication empirical research study which analyzes the phenomenon of increased value communication within theory; form business organizations from a system theoretical perspective in the tradition of Niklas LUHMANN. analysis; Drawing on the theoretical term of observation it shows how a research perspective can be functional developed which opens up the scope for an empirical analysis of communication practices. This analysis; Niklas analysis focuses on the reconstruction of these practices by first understanding how these practices Luhmann; stabilize themselves and second by contrasting different practices to educe an understanding of organization different forms of observation of the relevant phenomenon and of the functions of these forms. studies; George Thus, this approach combines system theoretical epistemology, analytical research strategies, such Spencer-Brown; as form and functional analysis, and qualitative research methods, such as narrative interviews, system theory; participant observation and document analysis. value communication Table......

Words: 9617 - Pages: 39

Applying Theoretical Perspective to Curriculum

...Applying Theoretical Perspective to Curriculum Content ECE315 Language Development in Young Children Victoria Phillips February 20, 2012 Amy Brown There are theorist all who have different views on how children learn and develop. It is important that teachers learn about the different the theories when it comes to educating students. Students learn differently and in different learning environments. Nativist main focus is the acquisition of syntactic knowledge. Noam Chomsky believed that children are born prepared to learn language. “Chomsky proposes that this universal grammar is an innate property of the human mind”(Otto, B. (2010) p.28). “Steven Pinker(1994) contended that language is an instinct, not simply a cultural invention: “Language is a biological adaption to communicate information language is the product of a well-engineered biological instinct”(Otto, B. (2010). The nativist perspective encourages teachers to use a curriculum in a way that will provide opportunities for children to explore language. Syntactic knowledge teaches children about word order and its importance in creating meanings. An activity for syntactic knowledge would be a game of “Bingo”. The teacher must first make sure that the each child understands the rule and the categories of the game. I feel that this should be done in a small group of students. Bingo will help students learn new words, how to pronounce the words and most importantly it teaches them to put words in order....

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Theoretical Perspectives Essay

...Theoretical Perspectives Soc 102 April 15, 2012 Professor Davidson I have chosen to analyze a church in the perspectives of a functional analysis. In order for a church organization to run smoothly, several people must work together. These people include the pastor, deacon, ushers and members of the congregation. Each of these people has to contribute to their part of the church in order for the organization to function properly. Because each contribution works with the others’ for the church to function properly, I believe the church can be analyzed in the perspective of a functional analysis; where society is viewed as an organism, in which all parts must work together in order for the organism to run smoothly (Henslin 2009). Everyone who is a part of a church organization has a part to uphold. This coincides with the perspective of a functionalist, which suggests everyone has a purpose or place in society. Social unity is expected to form either a mechanical solidarity or an organic solidarity. Mechanical solidarity is described as a form of society cohesion that arises when people in a society share similar beliefs and values and also engages in similar types of work. Organic solidarity is a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society are interdependent, but uphold varying values and beliefs as well as engage in varying types of work (Henslin 2009). In a church, everyone has a part for which they are......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Break Angels | Kanza Feris | البوسنية