Vancouver Style

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References/Bibliography Vancouver Style “How-to” guide


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A list of references contains details only of those works cited in the text. A bibliography lists sources not cited in the text but which are relevant to the subject and were used for background reading. Before you compile your bibliography/reference list check with your lecturer/tutor for the bibliographic style preferred by the Academic Department. A citation is an acknowledgement in your text of references that support your work. It is in the form of a number that correlates with a source in your reference list.

• • • • • •

There are many ways of setting out bibliographies and reference lists. The following are examples of one style – the Vancouver System. It is commonly used in medical and scientific journals. Your reference list should identify references cited (eg. book, journal article, pamphlet, internet site, cassette tape or film) in sufficient detail so that others may locate and consult your references. Your reference list should appear at the end of your essay/report with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they have been cited in the text. If you have cited sources from the Internet, these should be in your reference list. The bibliography is a separate list from the reference list and should be arranged alphabetically by author or title (where no author is given) in the Vancouver Style. Punctuation marks and spaces in the reference list and citations are very important. Follow the punctuation and spacing exactly in the examples given.

** It is important to BE CONSISTENT when you are referencing. **

In the Vancouver Style, citations within the text of your essay/paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets. This applies to references in text, tables and figures. e.g. (2) – this…...

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