When and Why Did London Grow so Much Faster Than Other Early Modern Capitals?

In: Other Topics

Submitted By nuoai
Words 1951
Pages 8
Qihui Zheng
Essay 2

When and why did London grow so much faster than other early modern capitals?

By examine the key differences among Paris, Madrid, and London, I argue that from1650 to1750, the reason why London boosted in terms of demographic expansion and market integrations is that -- instead of creating market disorder by demanding cheap supply of goods from other places, emphasizing social privileges and over consumptions, London attracted spontaneous business exchange in market among different groups of people. In section I, by doing a brief literature review on E. A. Wrigley, D. R. Ringrose and other important authors, we may have a basic understanding of the demand and supply market mechanism and its relationship with population, internal market and functions of capitals. In section II, we will analyze how the functions of capital, such as exercising political power to satisfy a particular interest, can affect the demand and supply of market and demographic composition. In section III, we study further how the functions of capital such as price determination can change the economic development of the capital itself and its surrounding industrial and agricultural areas. At the end, we should see that London did a better job integrating the urban-rural market during 1650-1750.

Literature Review
From 1650 to 1750, London grew much faster than other continental capital cities. There is little debate on the time as shown in table 1 and 2 below. Although the figures may be controversial, they were different enough to compare with one another in different period. Firstly, as shown in table 1, there were only 10 cities with population over 100,000 on 1650. Out of the ten cities, there were six capital cities during that period. Three of them belong to Mediterranean trade and Paris, London and Madrid were the other three capital cities.…...

Similar Documents

Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed” Than Others?

...Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed” Than Others? A. Perception and Appraisal of Stress 1. The transactional theory of stress describes how stressors are appraised. When people first encounter stressors, primary appraisal, or the evaluation of the significance and meaning of those stressors, is triggered a. Job demands that are not considered stressful are called benign job demands B. Types of Stressors 1. Work Hindrance Stressors – work-related stressors that people perceive as hindering their progress toward goals a. Role conflict – conflicting expectations that other people have of us b. Role ambiguity – lack of information regarding what needs to be done in a role c. Role overload – when the number of roles a person holds is so high that some of the roles are performed less effectively, or not at all d. Daily hassles – relatively minor day-to-day demands that get in the way of accomplishing what we want to do 2. Work Challenge Stressors – work-related stressors that can lead toward development and growth a. Time pressure – the sense that you don’t have enough time to do what needs to be done b. Work complexity – the degree to which the requirements of the work tax or exceed the capabilities of the person doing the work c. Work responsibility – the nature of the obligations a person has to others 3. Non-Work Hindrance Stressors – non-work-related stressors that hinder progress toward goals a. Work-family conflict – when the......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Countries Grow at Different Rates Because They Accumulate Capital at Different Rates. Explain

...“Countries grow at different rates because they accumulate capital at different rates.” Is this true? Explain. Economic growth can be explained as the process by which a country’s wealth increases over time. It is mainly brought about by increases in productivity. It is possible that countries grow at different rates because they accumulate capital at different rates for a number of reasons. The accumulation of capital can be seen by an increase in wealth through concentration and comes about by investment in order to increase production. It is also adequate to include human capital as investing in education and training can improve productivity and thereby create capital accumulation in an economy. Both kinds of capital accumulation mentioned are generally essential for economic growth. Investment is crucial for physical capital to be maintained as without it, capital would change over time due to depreciation. The neoclassical growth model helps us to examine how capital accumulation leads to economic growth. It assumes that a country’s resources are used efficiently and that there are diminishing returns to capital and labour when the two increase. This brings about conditional convergence. If we take two economies to have the same level of technologies and have the same value of parameters for savings, depreciation and population growth, the country that starts with a lower level of output per capita will have a higher growth rate of output per capita. This......

Words: 1004 - Pages: 5

Why Did World War I Last so Long?

...Why did World War I last so long? The First World War began on July 1914 and lasted till the armistice call from Germany in November 1918. World War or the Great War involved global powers assembled in two opposing alliances: at the beginning of the war, The Allies consisted of United Kingdom, France and Russia and were later joined among others by the USA. Against Allies stood alliance called Central powers, which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (which fought for Allies then) later joined by Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. Both Allies and Central powers expected the war to be very short and quick as for being regional (between Austria-Hungary and Serbia). The common belief in United Kingdom in the year 1914 was the war would last “till Christmas” (under half year). The Germany foresaw the war to last similarly short as they put their stakes on short and no diversionary war according to Schlieffen Plan. The most significant factors in term of prolonging the war were the failure of Schlieffen Plan together with the determined attitude of both camps to win. This resulted in the tactical stalemate of trench warfare, which again contributed to the length of the war. All factors mentioned above were essential in prolonging the war. First of all, Germany gambled on a quick victory with the Schlieffen Plan that did not pay off and resulted in the trench warfare. Schlieffen Plan was a warfare strategy whose main aim was not to create diversionary......

Words: 890 - Pages: 4

Why Did the Population Grow in Britain Between 1700 and 1950?

...Why Did The Population Grow In Britain Between 1700 And 1950? Between 1750 and 1900 the population of the United Kingdom went up drastically, giving it the name of population explosion. The government started to take a census of the population at this time. From this information we can see the population of Britain went from around 6million in 1750 to 40 million by 1900.  There were many effects that caused this; improvements in agriculture, hygiene, medical care, peoples health, the industrial revolution and young marriage. These changes in industry, medicine and social lives were the causes of the fall in death rate and the rise in the birth rate and these two factors along with immigration brings up the population of a country. However net immigration was at a very small rate and so this was not the cause for the population explosion, if anything more people were leaving the United Kingdom. Due to warmer weather and improvements in machinery, (seed drill, fertilisers and cross breeding of animals) farmers produced more food for people. This was the agricultural revolution. This then reduced the risk of famine, starvation or malnutrition. By improving people diets, the death rate was reduced, helping the population to grow. From 1750 younger people started to get married earlier than normal. This left more time in their life to start a family and therefore increasing the birth rate of the country. Huge improvements were made to the medical world. To start with in 1796......

Words: 326 - Pages: 2

Why Are Some Volcanoes More Hazardous Than Others

...Why are some volcanoes more hazardous than others? (40 marks)  A volcano is a surface landform resulting from the extrusion of magma from underground as lava, ash, rocks, and gasses are erupted in various proportions. Each year, around 60 major volcanoes erupt globally. How hazardous each one is, depends on a variety of human and physical factors that interrelate to determine the level of impact on human activity that each event exerts. I will be looking at how the physical properties of a volcano, interact with human variables to make certain volcanoes more hazardous than others. This essay will incorporate exemplification from countries at different stages of development to discuss human factors and how this links with their physical geography. The scale will be primarily global; both development spread and tectonic activity are best presented in this manner.  The strength of an earthquake, measured on the Richter scale, often determines the level of damage caused by an earthquake. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the power of a volcanic event is illustrative of how potentially hazardous an eruption is going to be. The explosiveness can be measured by the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI); the higher the VEI, the greater the potential hazard. The type of magma, and ultimately the classification of volcano that is created, is a huge physical factor in determining a volcano`s explosivity. Magma comes in many forms and each chamber is unique. Therefore, a wide......

Words: 1910 - Pages: 8

Why Did Prohibition Last so Long?

...Why did Prohibition last so long? 30 Marks Prohibition of Alcohol in America was introduced in 1920 with the 18th amendment of the constitution and was finally revoked in 1933. Prohibition was always considered a failure, due to the way it was policed, the fact the American people at the time liked to drink and the fact that alcohol was very easily accessible. Therefore the fact it lasted thirteen years, despite it being obvious within the first five that things were not working, seems incomprehensible. There are a number of factors which worked together to make prohibition last as long as it did. The most important being morale reasons behind introducing it at first, but the popularity of prohibition, the time it to repeal a law and the fact it didn’t really affect people’s lives too much also had an effect. Firstly, a reason why prohibition lasted so long was due to morale reasons. Reasons that were used to get the law passed in the first place still stood and people sympathised with them. For example many women’s groups saw alcohol as a means by which men oppressed them, and also though that the money spent on drink could be better used amongst the family with raising children and other general necessities. This attitude didn’t stop during the prohibition years as people were still drinking and hence propaganda regarding prohibition still bore the pictures of families with mothers and children longing for their husbands/fathers to support prohibition. Also drinking......

Words: 1017 - Pages: 5

What Is a Real Estate Professional and Why It Means so Much Today

...What Is a Real Estate Professional and Why It Means So Much Today By Kevin Leifer, CPA, JD, LL.M. (Tax), MBA Director – Tax and Real Estate Gettry Marcus CPA, P.C. Background The real estate industry was dealt a severe body blow in 1986 when Congress enacted the passive activity rules which provided that losses from a passive activity could only be deducted to the extent of the taxpayer’s net income from other passive activities. Excess passive losses are not deductible until such time as the taxpayer generates net passive income or disposes of the interest in the loss activity. While these rules were originally intended to limit losses related to activities in which the investor was merely a passive investor (such as abusive tax shelters), real estate was hit particularly hard for two reasons: (i) rental real estate activities (RREAs) traditionally generate tax losses even from rental properties that generate positive cash flow predominantly because depreciation (a non-cash deduction) is usually a material deduction in calculating the property’s taxable income or loss; and (ii) RREAs were deemed to be per se passive activities. As a result, the real estate industry was up in arms and rightfully so. After all, many real estate entrepreneurs and others were actively engaged in RREAs on a full-time basis. How could Congress treat them like passive investors? As a result, the real estate professional rules were enacted in 1993. What is a Real Estate Professional......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

How Much Did Castles Change in the Middle Ages and Why

...Introduction Castles first came to England in 1066 when William, Duke of Normandy, won the battle of Hastings. The Normans needed castles because they had taken control of England by force and were hated by many English people. The Normans had to protect themselves from English rebellions and they needed to keep power over and show strength to the English people. William made sure that castles were built all over England in major towns. The first castles were built very quickly and were very simple, but during the reign of William and throughout the rest of the Middle Ages (1066-1500) the design of castles changed. In this essay I will talk about how much castles changed during the Middle Ages and the reasons for this. Motte & Bailey Castles (1066 – 1078) The first castles to be built in England by the Normans were called Motte & Bailey castles. They had: • The Keep – a wooden tower used when under attack and for soldiers to keep lookout. • A Motte - a large mound of earth that the Keep was built on. • A Bailey – a large yard that sat next to the Motte, attached to the Motte by a wooden bridge. • A Palisade – a wooden fence all around the Bailey with a ditch around the outside. • Wooden gateway - the entrance to the castle with a wooden bridge over the ditch. Norman soldiers lived in wooden buildings in the Bailey. Motte & Bailey castles were made of earth and wood, which was easy to find, and they could be built really quickly, in 7-21 days. The......

Words: 1596 - Pages: 7

Did Women Have an Early Modern Europe

...History 103g Did Women Have An Early Modern Europe During the emergence of the Early Modern Europe, nations were known to have developed both intellectually and culturally. Movements such as the Renaissance, Reformation, religious wars, scientific revolution, industrialization, Enlightenment, and French Revolution had brought about the nations’ development in terms of thoughts, expressions, and societal and political issues that characterized the Early Modern Europe. New knowledge was increasingly acquired. New thoughts on religion, natural, and political philosophy were increasingly developed. New instruments and machines were increasingly invented. Yet, only the males contributed to most of these tremendous developments, questioning whether or not women have an Early Modern Europe. Thus, to conclude whether women did experience an Early Modern Europe, women’s role on the movements that characterized the Early Modern Europe would have to be assessed. The period of the Renaissance was characterized by the emergence of a cultural movement, ‘humanism’, and classical art and architecture that are naturalistic, realistic, and humanistic. During this period, classical ideas were reintroduced in the increasing works of humanists and artists. Such include Petrarch’s ‘Rules for the Successful Ruler’, Machiavelli’s ‘From the Discourses on Livy’, Leonardo da Vinci’s ‘Vitruvian Man’, and Dürer’s ‘Adam and Eve’. These primary sources are all the works of male humanists and......

Words: 1887 - Pages: 8

Early and Late Industrialisation

...Can the concept of ‘early’ and ‘late’ industrialization explain the key institutional and organizational characteristics of national business systems, and do they have any bearing on long-term national competitiveness? Introduction The concept of industrialization has been used among different nations and regions, while many countries have carried out their own industrialization progress during the past several decades, which stimulates the development of organizations and better corporate performance. There are different kinds of national business systems with their distinctive characteristics varying among countries. Then ‘early’ and ‘late’ industrialization is applied to describe two main types of national businesses that existing in developed and developing countries, which explains the key institutional and organizational differences among countries in particular to some extend. Each country has fallowed different pathway and carried out their industrialization in different period. It is known that the UK is the first country that achieved early industrialization revolution, which was followed by the US. And then in the late twentieth century, Germany, Japan and China implemented their industrialization process with dramatic change on their economic performance. The purpose of this essay is to use the conception of ‘early’ and ‘late’ industrialization to explain the key institutional and organizational characteristics of national business systems by comparative......

Words: 5330 - Pages: 22

Why Does Biodiversity Vary so Much Between Different Scales

...Why does Biodiversity vary so much between different scales? Biodiversity can be defined in three different ways, such as genetic diversity, the number of different species and the range of different ecosystems within an area. Biodiversity is not spread evenly throughout the earth due to global factors, regional factors and local factors that affect biodiversity and cause it to be varied on such different scales. Human influences are also not to be forgotten. The overall consensus is that humans have a negative impact on biodiversity, and later in this report I will show why that is not always the case. The global factors that affect how biodiverse areas are are the size of the area, the age of the area, the isolation, the altitude and the position of the area on the earth and its climate. The last factor is the most important. For example the tropics are very biodiverse because they are situated at the lower latitudes. This means that the suns rays are more concentrated, making it more humid and warmer and so it has ideal conditions and so has a range of species, making it biodiverse. For example, in the polar regions it is too cold and so only certain animals are adapted to survive, thereby lowering the biodiversity. Generally, the larger an area the more biodiverse because a large continuos biomes supports a wider range of species and it encourages migration. Furthermore, the older the ecosystem the more biodiverse and if the area is isolated it will be less biodiverse......

Words: 606 - Pages: 3

Why There Still so Many Jobs

...Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 29, Number 3—Summer 2015—Pages 3–30 Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation† David H. Autor T here have been periodic warnings in the last two centuries that automation and new technology were going to wipe out large numbers of middle class jobs. The best-known early example is the Luddite movement of the early 19th century, in which a group of English textile artisans protested the automation of textile production by seeking to destroy some of the machines. A lesser-known but more recent example is the concern over “The Automation Jobless,” as they were called in the title of a TIME magazine story of February 24, 1961: The number of jobs lost to more efficient machines is only part of the problem. What worries many job experts more is that automation may prevent the economy from creating enough new jobs. . . . Throughout industry, the trend has been to bigger production with a smaller work force. . . . Many of the losses in factory jobs have been countered by an increase in the service industries or in office jobs. But automation is beginning to move in and eliminate office jobs too. . . . In the past, new industries hired far more people than those they put out of business. But this is not true of many of today’s new industries. . . . Today’s new industries have comparatively few jobs for the unskilled or semiskilled, just the class of workers whose jobs are......

Words: 13546 - Pages: 55

Why Medan Orange Is Much More Expensive Than Mandarin Orange

...Name Student ID Number Nikko 1100000191 Course Code : GY007 Course Name : Operation Fundamental Class : MA1 Name of Lecturer(s) : Ade Soekadis, MIE Major : Young Professional in Business Management Title of Assignment : Why Jeruk Medan is more expensive than Jeruk Mandarin Type of Assignment : Analysis of Indonesia Commodity Supply Chain Problem Submission Pattern : Soft Copy Due Date : 25-10-2011 Submission Date : 25-10-2011 The assignment should meet the below requirements. 1. Assignment (hard copy) is required to be submitted on clean paper, and (soft copy) as per lecturer’s instructions. 2. Soft copy assignment also requires the signed (hardcopy) submission of this form, which automatically validates the softcopy submission. 3. The above information is complete and legible. 4. Compiled pages are firmly stapled. 5. Assignment has been copied (soft copy and hard copy) for each student ahead of the submission. Plagiarism/Cheating BiNus International seriously regards all forms of plagiarism, cheating and collusion as academic offenses which may result in severe penalties, including loss/drop of marks, course/class discontinuity and other possible penalties executed by the university. Please refer to the related course syllabus for further information. Declaration of Originality By signing this assignment, we understand, accept and consent to BiNus International terms and policy on......

Words: 2640 - Pages: 11

Using Economic Theory Explain Why Some Countries Are Richer Than Others

...theory explain why some countries are richer than others The wealth of a country can be measured by many different ways. People may judge it by the countries natural resources or by the countries welfare in an economical plan. To be simple the basic economy of a given country decides its slot in the positioning of poor or rich. There are three major categories of countries – first world, developing and third world countries. First world countries are with stable prospering economies and generally in a good state. Good examples for that China, Japan, The USA, The UK, Germany etc. In the category of developing states are included most of the countries in the world. Generally they are trying to take the example of first world countries and better themselves in their image. Examples for third world countries are most of the states in Central Africa. There is a huge gap in between first and third world countries in aspects of economics, life standard and even resources. Even though the already developed countries and the still developing countries are quite similar the difference in the economic pans is still enormous. There is a generally accepted theory that the most developed economy in the world acts as a main force pulling other smaller countries or states economies alongside or behind it. For the two centuries the main economic leaders were The UK and The USA respectively. The USA still continues to hold this position. When their economies bloomed many other countries......

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6

The Early History of the London Stock Exchange

...Association The Early History of the London Stock Exchange Author(s): C. F. Smith Reviewed work(s): Source: The American Economic Review, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Jun., 1929), pp. 206-216 Published by: American Economic Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1807309 . Accessed: 06/06/2012 04:11 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. American Economic Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The American Economic Review. http://www.jstor.org THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE Though the Stock Exchange, as a definitely organized body, was not founded until 1773, it had been in existence in the sense of a continuous and organized market for dealing in securities for about a century before that date. Like so many British economic institutions it owed nothing to deliberate creative action by the government, but it developed autonomously to meet the needs which the progress of industry and finance were creating. The increase in the amount of capital and the......

Words: 5301 - Pages: 22

افلام عربى 56 وثائقى HD مشاهدة وتحميل فيلم الوثائقى ناصر و زمن المجد الجزء الثانى اون لاين | Coppelion (0) | sungeorge