With Reference to Research, Critically Discuss How Knowledge of 'Fandom' and 'Fan' Activities Has Contributed to Our Understanding of Media Audiences.

In: Social Issues

Submitted By kero17
Words 633
Pages 3
With reference to research, critically discuss how knowledge of 'fandom' and 'fan' activities has contributed to our understanding of media audiences.

Audience is an essential and necessary part in the transmission of information. The decoding of information and signs delivered through media relies on individual audience’s perceptions and perspectives. Fan and fandom is a crucial proportion in the media audience. As stated in the Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World (2007, p1), “most people are fans of something”. The status of fandom and the culture of fan are becoming more and more pervasive in the contemporary society because of the development of transmission technology and the popularity of mass media.

Definition of Fan and Fandom
The word “fan” is coming from its etymological Latin root “fanaticus” which means enthusiastic and frantic and it is recognized as individuals who are fanatically obsessed with certain subjects. In general, the group of fans can be further defined as fandom. Fandom is more than merely an individual activity of being a fan, but rather, it is a collective behaviour and communal strategy forming an interpretive community of certain sub-cultural cohesion “evaded the preferred and intended meanings of the power bloc” (Gray, Harrington and Sandvoss, 2007). Fandom takes the form of group through which participants will socially share imagined concept and ideology of the community. It consists of observable network of identifiable individual as fans.

Anti Fans and Non fans
The characteristics of subculture decide that the fandom is only possible to be accepted and supported by a certain group of audience rather than the whole. There are also anti-fans group and non-fans group existing as parts of media audience. According to Gray (2003), the anti-fans group is not against fandom.…...

Similar Documents

How Has Media Influenced Fitness in Today’s Culture?

...[pic] MFC 5032: RESEARCHING THE MEDIA LANDSCAPE PRIMARY RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC ESSAY May, 2013 1101303 Shaunie Gwen Perry Level 5, Media shaunieperry@aol.com Research Project Proposal : How has media influenced fitness in today’s culture? Contents. Academic Essay p3 - 9 Bibliography p10-11 Appendices Secondary Sources Primary Sources: Experiment Experiment Information Sheets Participant Details Form Experiment Overview Experiment Results Experiment Results, Excel formatted. Experiment Results Correlated Graphs. Group A Fitness App Usage Academic Essay Fitness in today’s culture is affected in many different ways, one of the main in which it is influenced is through the form of media. The term fitness holds two meanings: first is the condition of the physicality of being fit and healthy and the other, the ability of being physically suited to fulfill given tasks or roles(Google Dictionary. 2013). For example fitness to a marathon runner would be determined on their stamina and the duration it takes to run a certain number of miles, whereas a body builder’s level of fitness would determine on their level of muscular strength and power. Once the term fitness has been defined, then the impact which media has on fitness must be analyzed. With an ever growing culture of viral connection dieting, where we can share our efforts with our friends and the public using the internet and other......

Words: 6737 - Pages: 27

Critically Asses the Usefulness of the Functionalist Perspective to Our Understanding of Society (33 Marks)

...Critically asses the usefulness of the functionalist perspective to our understanding of society (33 marks) The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. Functionalists take a structural approach towards society that concentrates on the way society controls the individual. Functionalists believe there are forces that influence our behaviour as well as the way we think. These are said to be as a consequence of the society we live in. There are many functionalists theorists who try to explain society which will be discussed below. A main Functionalist is Emile Durkheim who believes that sociology is a science. He is a structuralist and positivist and thus disagrees with empathy, meanings and the social action theory. Functionalists believe that society is based around a value consensus and social solidarity, which is achieved by socialisation and social control. Other theorists such as Marxists and feminists would argue against this. Durkheim sought to explain social stability through the concept of solidarity, and differentiated between the mechanical solidarity of primitive societies and the organic solidarity of complex modern societies. According to Durkheim, more primitive or traditional societies were held together by mechanical solidarity; these societies have people involved in similar roles so labour division is simple. Therefore, a similar lifestyle is lived with common shared norms and values...

Words: 1083 - Pages: 5

Sports, Media, and the Fans: the Business of Selling Sports

...Corey Kirkland HIS 350L Bruce Hunt 12/11/13 Sports, Media, and the Fans: The Business of Selling Sports The relationship between sports and the media has evolved drastically thanks in part to the proliferation of electricity and its resulting technology. This relationship has now become the “defining commercial and cultural connection for both industries at the beginning of the 21st century. The media has transformed sports from an amateur pursuit into a hyper-commercialized industry, while sports have delivered massive audiences and advertising revenues to the media.”1 This symbiotic relationship has taken many shapes throughout the years, and each evolution in sports broadcasting has the intent of constructing larger audiences and markets to create higher revenues no matter the medium. In the long run, the only real loser in the sports broadcasting realm is the obsolete medium. As technology has evolved, the way in which sports have been presented has followed suit. “Over the course of the twentieth-century sport was transformed from a typically ad hoc unregulated amateur activity to one driven by professional standards and accountability at all levels.”2 This change came slowly at first, and has advanced rapidly over the past few decades. Now, due in part to advanced broadcasting techniques, watching live events and highlights of the day’s games can be brought to our fingertips with relative ease. Sports Coverage Before the Radio Before the......

Words: 5363 - Pages: 22

Examine the Ways in Which Feminist Sociologists Have Contributed to Our Understanding of Family

...Examine the ways in which feminist sociologists have contributed to our understanding of family Many of the contributions to this debate have come from radical feminists who have tended to focus on the following aspects of relationships: How domestic roles are divided between men and women, the nuclear family as an ideological construct and domestic violence.  Femenism is a sociologicalpersctive and political movement that focuses on womens oppression and how to end it. There are several types of feminism,and they differ in term of what they see as the cause of womesn oppression and the ways to tackle it. Delphy and Leonard studied mainly working-class nuclear families between the 1950s and 1980s. They argue that the type of work women do in the family is the primary cause of their oppression. For example: 9 out of 10 of the households they studied had a male head of household as the main decision maker, with the women and children being defined as his dependents or helpers. The male head of household was the only one earning a wage. The wife, and maybe older children too, did unpaid work in the house whilst relying on him for financial security also even when the wife did paid work, she was still expected to do the vast majority of the domestic labour.  Willmott and Young’s research, conducted mainly in the 1950s to 70s, can be used to criticise the work of Delphy and Leonard. Their research found that:  In 1973, Willmott and Young were optimistic about the prospects......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

How to Critically Analyse Psychological Research

...How to Critically Analyse Psychological Research Table of Contents The Theory 2 The Research Rationale 2 The Participants 2 The Design and Procedure 2 1. Research method 2 2. Lab vs field research 2 3. Demand characteristics 3 4. Experimenter bias 3 6. Social desirability 3 7. Validity of the experimental manipulation 3 8. Stimulus sampling 4 9. Reliability and validity of measures of the independent and/or dependent variables 4 10. Confounding variables in 4 11. Order of items/events 4 The Statistical Analyses 5 1. Excluded participants 5 2. Missing data 5 3. Validity and reliability of dependent variables 5 4. Sufficient statistical power 5 5. Statistical assumptions 6 6. Correct use of inferential statistics 6 7. Correct interpretation of analyses 6 8. Alternative analyses 6 The Discussion 6 1. Alternative explanations 6 2. Cause-effect ambiguities 6 3. Third variable 7 4. Mediators and moderators 7 5. Replication 7 6. Interaction or main effect?: 7 Place the Research in the Context of Similar Research 8 Suggestions for Future Research 8 Inappropriate Criticisms 8 1. Criticizing the article rather than the research 8 2. Ethical criticisms 8 3. Incomplete criticisms 8 4. Criticisms of the reliability or effectiveness of methodology that produced the predicted results 9 5. Random allocation of participants to conditions 9 How Not to Use this Document! 10 Structuring a......

Words: 7390 - Pages: 30

How Has Our Knowledge of Dna Improved the Study of Criminal Forensics?

...How has our knowledge of DNA improved the study of criminal forensics? Introduction Through genetics, the study of DNA, we are able to figure out what and how genes are responsible for many things like our hair color or why do some people look a lot like their parents and others don’t. It also allows us to understand better how species evolve and how are they related to each other. It is important to understand how DNA mutates, changes and replicates in order to get information about what mechanisms cause DNA to change. In the 1970s scientists developed a DNA sequencing technique and other methods to manipulate and analyze DNA. This gave them the basic tools to start exploring the DNA blueprint which provided the techniques for a vast international project called The Human Genome Project (MRC). The Human Genome Project which was a major international project with the goal of decoding all our genetic information by 2003. A rough draft was done in June 2003 and it was a huge milestone that helped us understand how our genes can determine who we are (Genome Project). Many of today’s advances in DNA and biotechnology allow scientists and medical doctors to potentially cure genetic disorders through gene therapy by inserting, deleting or manipulating genes (Tillery, page 686). Another use of DNA technology is the creation of mutation by transferring DNA from one organism to another through techniques like cloning and introducing new DNA sequence into an organism to......

Words: 1437 - Pages: 6

How Technology Has Affected Our Lives

...How Technology has Affected Our Lives Technology has certainly changed the lives of many people in today’s world. According to several reviews, as well as several books written by Nicholas Carr tend to point us in the direction of the technology not being such a good thing. While there are many forms of technology that are used for many different things such as: digital TV, social networking, cellular phones, notebooks, laptops, personal computers and the list goes on are they taking us away from the realities of life? Many sources or authors have their versions of how the different technology has made improvements in our lives; as well as how they are making us think and do a lot less than we used to. The internet makes getting information on any subject so easy for us that sometimes we tend not to do the work, or research that is needed to fully understand what we are doing; instead we follow the instructions and if we need it again we go through the same process without ever learning how to complete the task. This is just the beginning of how technology changes our lives and perhaps we get things done, but are we really learning? This is the question that we hope to answer along the way. There are many ways in which technology has in fact changed lives; the first concern that will be addressed is the way in which technology mainly electronic media has caused changes to occur. When we think of electronic media for this purpose we will focus on television,......

Words: 1337 - Pages: 6

How Do Media Influence Our Understanding of Masculinity?

...The documentary movie Tough Guise 2 gives us the most insightful understanding of how the contemporary masculinity is shaped and constructed by the media. In the movie, Dr. Jackson Katz bridges the connections between violence on the screen and violence in the real life by using lots of stunning examples from television, films, video games, and sports. Then, what is the media? The media is the means of communication, as television, film and video games, newspapers, radio and magazines, which plays the silent but influential roles in the lives of individual. In particular, Television, film, and video convey information as well as impact comprehension of gender identities as a result of portray by the media (Kivel & Johnson, 2009; Johnson, Richmond, & Kivel, 2008). For example, in our society, TV set is so important in many families and households. It functions as one of the most popular ways of entertainment for most of people and also as the important source of information. Van Evra (1990:112) comments on the impact of television on the lives of many people by saying that it plays a significant role in a child’s growing beliefs and attitudes about what it means to be male or female in the world. The National Television Violence Study examined nearly 10,000 hours of television programming from 1995-1997 and found that 60% contained violence, with children’s programming being the most violent (Federman, 1996). This study is summarized in the diagram below......

Words: 371 - Pages: 2

How Has Social Media Affected Music Business in Recent Times

...How has social media affected the Music Business in recent times? Introduction This report will discuss in relative brief; how social media, has affected music industry and the power of record labels. It will attempt to review the effects that social media has had on the music business; discuss the changing roles of record labels; and the methods in which the industry is trying to adapt in order to reap the highest potential benefit from this modern global digital landscape. Audio Engineers are a group of people in an industry that has been subject to rigorous changes in recent years courtesy of the the digital age, the internet and social media. It is therefore important to understand the effects of social media, the changes in the music industry, and the possible solutions in order to attempt to forecast the future of the industry. Technology since the turn of the millennium has advanced with great strides and in the future will most likely be perceived as the true beginning of the digital age. The digital age has undoubtedly advanced humanity in many aspects, including in music, but is not without its problems. Piracy is a major cause for concern in the music industry caused by a lack of control within the music distribution channels, particularly in the earlier stages of p2p file sharing. This was a time when the industry did not really know how to react to digital music downloads; to embrace or fight it. Regardless of legal issues and lawsuits still......

Words: 3847 - Pages: 16

Evaluate the Usefulness of the Hypodermic Syringe Model to Our Understanding of the Role of the Mass Media

...Evaluate the usefulness of the hypodermic syringe model to our understanding of the role of the mass media. By: Amy Rashid The amount of influence the media has on the society has been extensively debated and researcher. The hypodermic syringe model is an analogy between media messages and a drug injected by a hypodermic syringe; which represents the content of media being spread by the medium (television, newspaper, etc.). In this essay, I shall discuss the usefulness of the hypodermic syringe model alongside some other models to our understanding of the role of the mass media. First and foremost, the hypodermic syringe model explains the role of the media in the manipulation of the gullible public and creating moral public. This can be seen from the classic example of the application of the Magic Bullet Theory was illustrated on October 30, 1938 when Orson Welles and the newly formed Mercury Theatre group broadcasted their radio edition of H.G. Wells' "War of the Worlds." On the eve of Halloween, radio programming was interrupted with a "news bulletin" for the first time. What the audience heard was that Martians had begun an invasion of Earth in a place called Grover's Mill, New Jersey. It became known as the "Panic Broadcast" and changed broadcast history, social psychology, civil defence and set a standard for provocative entertainment. Approximately 12 million people in the United States heard the broadcast and about one million of those actually believed that a......

Words: 1542 - Pages: 7

Sports Fans as Consumers

...respective sports industry will continue to be stable and sustainable. Therefore, it is crucial for these organisations to explore the characteristics of their target market and acquire a deeper knowledge of their interests and preferences. As such, this report will explore and highlight the unique characteristics of sports fans as consumers, discuss the implications of sports marketing that may be faced by organisations and lastly be finished off with a personal reflection. 2. Sports fans as consumers People are known to be fans when they are seen to develop a diehard interest in a particular subject. It could involve sports, authors, musicians, celebrities and so on. According to Reysen and Branscombe (2010), a person can be considered a fan when they become passionate and enthusiastic about their particular interest and show loyalty to it. Both sports fans and normal spectators may share similar characteristics however, there are various factors which would clearly differentiate fans from spectators. For example, their degree of loyalty, commitment, emotional significance and value to the supporting clubs as well as their devotion in the total number of times they show up for games throughout the season (Dionisio & Leal, 2008). In regards to the implications of sports fans as consumers, it is essential to learn about the basic needs and consumption basis of humans first. Overall consumer behaviours are mentioned to be closely associated to the Maslow’s hierarchy......

Words: 2437 - Pages: 10

It Has Been Said That the Management Task Is Akin to the Process of ‘Releasing the Energy of the Atom for Constructive Human Ends’… Critically Discuss This Statement with Reference to Relevant Theory and Research.

...Motivation: It has been said that the management task is akin to the process of ‘releasing the energy of the atom for constructive human ends’… Critically discuss this statement with reference to relevant theory and research. 1. Introduction Motivation in administration portrays routes in which administrators advance benefit in their representatives. Regularly, individuals confound the thought of "upbeat" representatives with "roused" workers. These may be connected, yet inspiration really portrays the level of longing workers feel to perform, paying little mind to the level of bliss. Representatives who are satisfactorily persuaded to perform will be more gainful, more connected with and feel more put resources into their work. At the point when representatives feel these things, it helps them, and consequently their chiefs, be more fruitful. The definition for the statement ‘releasing the energy of the atom for constructive human ends’ means motivation is viewed as the most imperative and the most troublesome capacity in the administration process. No other administration capacity including arranging, choice making, authoritative conduct or controlling pulled in that much attention It is a head's business to goad specialists to complete their occupations well. So how do executives do this? The answer is inspiration in organization, the technique through which administrators urge delegates to be beneficial and convincing. Motivation is a complex sensation. A......

Words: 4139 - Pages: 17


...Manchester United’ Supporters "Fandom" as a topic, is arguably one of the most indistinctive concepts of "fan culture". However, we will analyze online fan activity dedicated solely to the Manchester United football club and relate it to the different dimensions suggested by De Kloet & Van Zoonen. We selected this particular topic because we believe all the different dimensions of fan-culture can be applied to this specific fandom group. Studying the nature of Manchester United's fan culture should be crucial to a club. This is obviously due to the fact that fans define and greatly determine the perceptions of the football club. If this truly were the case, it is important to investigate how fans think and act. Some acts and accusations made by fans may give football a negative connotation if they [fans] are being labeled as hooligans. However, in the following paper we take a positive attitude on football fans and try to illustrate what makes them valuable for research. The outlet of fandom explored is an image found on Facebook where Manchester United fans flaunt a flag in favor of the so called "Red Army". The comments on the picture give enough content to analyze the football club's fandom in every dimension suggested by De Kloet & van Zoonen. To grasp a stronger sense of fandom within Manchester United, we will also include a typical supporters’ anthem, which is sung almost religiously every match the club encounters. Additionally, we will define......

Words: 1872 - Pages: 8

How Has Technology Contributed to the Globalization of Markets and Production

...MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY Faculty of Commerce Bachelor of Commerce Honours Degree in Business Management Course: BM105: BUSINES LAW ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS a) Discuss the method of delivery in a contract of sale b) Explain the seller’s warranty against latent defects a) Discuss the method of delivery in a contract of sale Ownership in a contract of sale is transferred by the delivery of the property from the seller to the buyer, agrees Hutchison et al, (1991). In a contract of sale, both the seller and the buyer have roles/obligations to play/perform to qualify the sale. Apart from making a payment by the buyer and receiving of the same payment by the seller, there need for the object sold or the merx to be delivered to the buyer. Delivery is effected by the physical hand over of the property to the buyer and there are several varieties or options to do so. Either the thing itself is actually handed over, which is actual or real delivery or the thing is not moved at all, but the circumstances are such that, while the thing is not moved at all, the physical control nevertheless vests in the transferee or buyer Different methods of delivery are used, depending on the object or merx in the transaction. The seller has an obligation to deliver the thing under sale to the buyer in time; however the seller has no obligation to transfer ownership to the buyer, as the law compels him to only transfer the merx. In Kleynhams Vs Wessels Trustee, the court observed......

Words: 1567 - Pages: 7

Evaluate the Contribution Psychological Research Has Made Towards Our Understanding of How Children from Birth to Five Learn and Develop Competencies in the Processes of Observation, Problem Solving, Exploration,

...contribution psychological research has made towards our understanding of how children from birth to five learn and develop competencies in the processes of observation, problem solving, exploration, experimentation and prediction, thinking and decision making. Introduction The aim of this essay is to evaluate the developmental theories of ‘Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy’ (PSRN) and an ‘Exploration and Investigation’ aspect of ‘Knowledge and Understanding of the World’ (KUW) in Foundation stage children. This essay will explore Piaget and Vygotsky and their points of view on PSRN and issues which arise from development and it will consider current research and documents relevant to practice and the implications and recommendations for early years practice. Furthermore key concepts of emergent numeracy, mark making, counting and number development will be explored. The skills of observation, problem solving, exploration, experimentation and prediction, thinking and decision making fall into all six aspects of children’s learning and development and these skills led themselves to science and teaching as well as PSRN on which this essay is going to focus on. Theoretical approaches Piaget’s constructivist theory saw children as actively constructing their knowledge of the world, for themselves, and as being active seekers of solutions to problems (Martin 2007). It could be agreed as practitioners acknowledge the importance of child-led activity as being essential......

Words: 3185 - Pages: 13

Cases & Sleeves (551194) | Afstand: dichtstbijzijnde eerst | Dragon Ball Super